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WTi^L nt:jt>^nt^n Liorti^niti 

3 3433 07589945 4 



X .IFu/Urton i C .'■:o!mburoh Xct /J m? 

















For this attempt to illustrate a neglected portion of Sootish histoiy, it is 
presumed that no apology will be necessaiy ; and for the manner in 'which it 
is execated, should it be found remaricably defeotiye, it is probable none 
would be accepted. Waving, therefore, every thing like prefatory remark, 
the author begs leave merely to state, that his great object throughout has 
been to unite perspicuity with impartiality^ which he regards as the principal 
excelleDcy of historical composition. He does not, however, pretend to that 
kind of impartiality which consists in having no opinion even upon the most 
important suljects of investigation. He who is unable to form, or who fears 
to express an opinion upon the characters and the events that pass in review 
before him» ought, in the one case from ignorance, and in the other from 
tizqidity, to be considered totally disqualified for a historian. The impartiality 
amed at in the following pages, it is hoped, will be found in fiill and fair 
statements, with regard both to men and measures; and with regard to bodies 
of men, whether in a dvfl or ecclesiastic edacity, these statements have 
been made aa much as possible in their own words, thus affording to the 
reader every fiidlity for judging at once of the men and of their measures, as 
well as of the accuracy of those views which have been adopted by the 
aithor respecting them. If in any instance his statements shall be found 
defective or erroneous, he shall be ready to acknowledge and correct them 
when pointed out ; and if, in detailing the coniSicts of party, he shall be found 
to have caught somewhat of a party spirit, and to have uttered any senti- 
ment inconsistent with Christian charity, he begs it may be set down as an 
enor of the judgment, not as a settled feeling of the heart 

No. 16, MoKTKiTH Row, 7 
ObtMpow, May Itt, 1827. J 




NoTHiNO has been a more unfinfing eabject of deckuDMlion anMmg 
aonlistsy tlwii tlie inTeioate selBahneia of tibe faaman character. Mao, 
MKFage and cmUzed, learned and illiterate, whether as an associated or 
an insulated being, b ever^here found gnuBping at what he fancies 
pleasorable or pn^table, with very slender regard for either the plea- 
me or the proSit of others ; yet, under every modification of character, 
nothing is really more difficult than to persnade him of his true in- 
terest. Under the inflnence of self-We, like a ship in full sail, he drires 
TtpdlY along, but, from the want or die weakness of reason, like the 
same ship deprired of her rudder, he is carried away by the currents of 
opinion, dashed upon the rocks of conceit, ingulfed among the quick- 
sands of prejudice, or swallowed i:q[> in the whirlpools of passion. 

Every da/s experience furnishes abundaut examples of this melanchdy 
result in the case of indiyiduals, and he has little acquaintance with history, 
who cannot p<mit out manifold instances of the same Vitality in the con- 
duct of nations. The history of some nations, indeed, seems to demon- 
strate nothing else, and the lustory of aU shows, that the best blessings 
of life^ the stabUity and good' mder of society, are the special gifts of 
divine providence, rather than the results of human prudence or numan 
fprangfat. Of this important fiict, perhaps nothing in the wide range of 
European history can be a more pertinent illustration than the Union 
effected between the kingdoms of Scotland and England in the yei^ 
1707, of which, as introductory to the more easy and full understanding 
of Ae following history, we shall here present the reader with a very 
bdef account. 

The subjugation of Scotiand was an enterprise that from a very early 
period occupied a prominent place in the policy of England, and it had 
very nearly been effected, in consequence of the disputed succession 
that ooonred on the death of Alexander III., by that subtile and war- 


like prince, Edward I. who, notwithstanding the partial saccessea of Sir 
William Wallace, carried his rictorioiis arms over the length and breadth 
of the country, and, for aught that now appears, had his life been pro- 
longed for a few more years, would hare rendered his conquest per- 
manent and perpetual, which, saving the reverence due to national vanity, 
would certainly have been highly beneficial to both ends of the island. 
Pursuing the tangled web of continental politics which involved her in 
perpetuaJ warfare, this, the most prudent of all her projects, was for 
some ages suspended, but it was never lost sight of, till, by the failure 
of the house of Tudor, and the accession of the house of Stuart to her 
vacant throne, she became more completely mistress of the country than 
she could have been by the most splendid feats of arms. 

James VI. not only the most childish of monarchs, but the vainest of 
men, on being called to fill the throne of England^ was exceedingly 
elated with his good fortune, nor were his Scotish subjects much behind 
him in the extravagance of their expectations. A very short time, how- 
» ever, served to convince both, and especially the latter, that they had 
\ been very much mistaken in their calculations. That Scotishmen should 

haw hoped to share In the good fortune of tbeir monarch was but na- 
tural, and that their monarch should have been desirous of obliging them 
was no moce than dutiful. Yet these very oiroumstonces awakened the 
jealousy, and strengthened the long cherished animosity of the English, 
who were indignant at the smallest pretension on the part of their new 
^ lellov^-^ubjects, and regarded the most trifling mark of the royal favour 

bestowed on them as an invidious distinction. Vain of hia kingcraft, 
and exulting in the onmipotency of prerogative, James appears to have 
expected to be able to unite and to amalgamate his subjects, however 
different dieir manners and customs, by his own sole authority. Scarc^y 
hud he set foot in his new kingdom, when he gave a practical display 
of what he held to be his Jus Divinum, by ordering a person 4o 
be hanged at Newark on a charge of theft, without so much aa the 
, form of a^trial ; and considering the laws and the autb<mty of the king- 
doms as centred in himself, he regarded it as his peculiar felidty to 
have terminated the long continued and bloody animosities of two hostile 
1 nations, who henceforth, under one government, were to enjoy the 
\ most perfect tranquillity, secure for ever from all foreign influence. He 

^ v accordingly assumed the title of king of Great Britain, quartered the 
cross of St. Andrew with that of St Greofge, issued a proclamation or- 
' i' dering Sco^fa coins to pass current in England, and, to indicate the 
;? peac^ul triumphs of his reign, the iron doors of the border towns were by 
his orders taken off and turned into ploughshares. Finding, howevier, 
> his Idngcraft not bo highly relished by his English as it had been by bib 
\ Scotish subjects, he appUed for aanstance to the English parliament, 
4 *^ hoping ^t his subjects of both kingdoms, reflecting upon past disastMs, 
II while they respected h^s person as infinitely predous, would secure theoi- 
y selves against the return of former calamities, by a thoiougti union of 
• ^ laws, parliaments, and privileges.*' James was certainly not a great 
'^ ^\ politician, but, in this instance, he showed much' more wisdom tlian his 
<;|Mrluiment, who, though they took, out of oondesGendence to Km, bis 


tdieme into conitideratioDy proceeded no faither on the subject, than to 
appoint in 1604, forty-four English, to meet with thirty Scotish com- 
ittffifliooerB, to talk oyer the terms of an union, hot without any power 
of estabiiahiiig it.* 

Loath to be baulked in a project npon which he had set his heart, 
and which he regarded as that which was to shed a peculiar glory over 
Ida history, James continued to press the subject with all the art, and 
with all the eloquence of which he was master, aided by that of Sir 
Fnncis, afterwanls lord Bacon, but in yain. All he could obtain, after 
hectoring, in his usual style of arrogancy, both houses of parliament, 
was, in the end of the year 1606, an act for the utter abolition of all 
memory of hostilities between the two nations, and for repressing all 
occasions of discord for the time to come.f 

Here the plan for uniting the two kingdoms rested till the year 1643, 
when the tyrauinical and bloody proceedings of Charles I. induced the par- 
liament of England with the convention of estates, and General Assembly 
of the church of Scotland, to enter into the famous Solemn League and 
Corenant, wherein by solemn oath, the two nations became bound to 
" remain conjoined in a finn peace and union to all posterity." This 
aolemn agreement, howeyer, was very soon broken by the duke of 
Hamilton and his faction, who inyaded England in 1648. He was 
totally nmted at Restoo, by the parliamentary army under Cromwell; 
uid, with an that remained ii his forces, shortly after made prisoner at 
Utoxeter. Cromwell in return iuTaded Scotland, subdued, and, in 1654, 
incorporated it with the English commonwealth, in consequence of which, 
thirty members from that country were elected to sit in his parliament^ 
which was summoned for the third of September that same year. 

The unfortunate restoration of Charies IL and the measures conse* 
^ent thereon, while they were intended to annul and to blot out all 
remembrance of these transactions, reduced Scotland to a state of 
<^>elldance and slavery utterly unknown in her previous annals ; yet, 
eves in this state of debasement, upon a bill being passed for embod3ring 
her miliiia in 1669, a treaty of union was supposed necessary to guard 
against the a|^rehended dai^;er of the measure. Commissioners were 
accordingly appointed for both nations, and during the following year, 
their negotiations were carried on with vigour, and the treaty was 
coDsiderRbly advanced. The Scotish gentlemen of that day, however, 
were men of complacent tempera, the symptoms of danger soon evanished, 
Charles and Lauderdale sat still at their cups, and the union was 
^ain laid aside. After this, the inroads of the dans, and the triumphs 
of Claverhottse, were sufficient to quiet all fears on the head of 
Scotlib independency, till the arrival of the prince of Orange, and the 
revolution iu 1688, gave her a breathing space, when, manifesting some- 
what of her ancient spirit, her former actions came into remembrance, 
aud a anion was agun proposed by king William, as that alone which 
('ould allay the heats and promote the happiness and {nrosperity of both 

* Imperial HMtory of EngUod, vol. ii, pp. 1, 9. f IhM^ 



Never were tlie debasing eifectn of a \on^ continiied system of misrule 
pxhthited in a more aAectin^ mannor than in Scotland at tViis time. Her 
nobility were almost to a man dipped in the iniquitous measures of the 
late reigns; they were needy, and of course dependant, and a great 
proportion of them looked to the restoration of James, and a return to 
his maxims of government, as the only means whereby they could attain 
to influence and emolument. These feelings, however, they, for the 
most part, attempted to conceal ; and under the pretence of love to their 
countiy, and zeal for its liberties, thwarted, as far as was in their power, 
every measure that was in any degree calculated to extend or to secure 
these liberties. The presbyterians, who had tlie real welfare of the 
country most at heart, though they succeeded in having presbytery 
generally established — this being necessary to satisfy the body of the 
people — ^were regarded by William and his ministers, who were generally 
episcopalians, with no friendly feelings, and, unable fully to perfect the 
work which they had begun, were deserted by many of their friends, and 
reduced to the necessity of purchasing one part of their rights by the 
sacrifice of others equally important, and to which they were equally 
entitled.* ^ 

While the natiMr was thus broken by faction, and borne down by 
tyranny in the government, a (rain of adverse events, or rather a series 
of mismanagements, afforded perpetual fuel to the angry feelmgs by 
which the nation was inflamed. The pensioning of the clans, the worse 
than brutal affair of Glenco, the cool and cruel extinction of the 
Darien colony, with the inextinguishable hostility manifested towards 
the African company, were all laid hold of by the Jacobites — who, 
claiming fellowship with the country party, and occasionally voting 
along with them, had become exceedingly popular — and held forth as 
undeniable proofs that England had determined on the ruin of the 
Scotish nation. In consequence of these clamours, the Scotish parlia- 
ment, in place of providing supplies for the necessary expenses of the 
government, and settling the succession to the crown in the protestant 
line, in unison with the English parliament^ was chiefly occupied with 
schemes for securing the nation from the oppression of English counsels. 
For this pretended purpose was passed, in the year 1703, the so often 
applauded act of security, whereby a great many provisions were made 
respecting the mode of procecdure in parliament, in case of the queen a 
death, with the conditions under which the successor to the crown of Eng- 
land should be allowed to succeed to that of Scotland, which were to be, 
** at least, freedom of navigation, free communication of trade, and liberty 
of the plantations to the kingdom and subjects of Scotland established by 
the parliament of England." It also provided that tbe whole protestant 
heritors, and all the boroughs in the kingdom, should forthwith provide 
themselves with fire-arms for all the fcnciblo men, who were protestants, 
within their respective bounds ; and they were further ordained and ap- 
pointed to exercise the said fencible men once a month, at least. No 

• Notliinji^ can be more false and fulsome than the ]Kine«ryrics that, by presby- 
t^rian writers, have been often poured out upon kin^ William, whose conduct towarda 
tbe Scotish church was in many instances impolitic, uiyust, and tyrannical. 


daiue of this celebrated act, however^ is more remarkable than that 
ngBfding the successor to tlie crown, which declares tliat he shall be 
*' always of ^e royal line of Scotland, and of the true protestant reli- 
poD," which so evidently militated against the pretender, that it has 
beeD aapposed to haye been inserted by the influence of the duke of 
Hamilton, in order to secure his own succession to the crown, he being, 
dier tlie bouse of Hanover, the next protestant heir. This supposition, 
it most be admitted, has been supported with great plausibility, and goes 
frr to explain the hesitating indecision which afterwards, on so many 
ocawoDBy marked the conduct of his grace ; yet it is still possible that 
he might have nothing further in yiew by the admission of this clause 
than the Jacobites generally had, which was to procure the support of tlie 
prediyteriaiiBy without whose aid they found themselves unfit to carry 
tliis or any other particular measure through the house. Nothing is 
more certain than that he had the instructions under which he was acting 
St this tinie, sent him from St. Germain's ;* and it would be but an 
ungratefbl labour to prove so distinguished a patriot the detestable be- 
trsyer of two interests at the same time. Another remarkable act 
psflsed by tlus parliament, was that *< anent peace and war ;" which pro- 
vided among other things, " That after her majesty's death, and failing 
hein of her body, no person, at the same time king or queen of Scot- 
land and England, shall have the sole power of, making war with any 
prince, state, or potentate whatsoeTer, without consent of parliament." 
To the firat of these acts, the act of security, the royal assent was re- 
fused, but the last, in the hope of soothing the house^ and inducing it 
to grant supplies, was passed apparently without any hesitation. A 
proposal for settling the succession in the house of Hanovery given in to 
this parliament, was treated with the utmost contempt — some proposing 
to bum it, and some insisting that the earl of Marcfamont, who presented 
it, should be sent prisoner to the castle. It was at last thrown out of 
the house by a plurality of fifty-seven voices. That the movers of some 
of these measures, and a few of their supportera were really in earnest 
with regard to the liberties of the nation, we cordially admit— but the 
efiective numbera were found among the Jacobites, who, strange as it 
may appear, were confident that in the end they should be able to im- 
prove tbem all for promoting passive obedience, and indefeasible heredi- 
tary right. 

ThoBe violent proceedings on the part of the Scotish parliament, 
amid not fail to alarm the English ministry, and particularly the queen, 
to whom it was proposed by the earl of Stair, tliat an English army 
filjould be sent into Scotland, and there maintained at the expense of 
England, fur the purpose of keeping possession of the country during 
the remainder of her life, and that she should henceforth in that countiy 
tall no more parliaments, an advice every way worthy of the projector of 
tlie butchery at Glenco, but an advice which her majesty had the good 
««ii8e to reject. That she possessed ample" resources in her kingdom of 
Engkuid to have carried through such a project, she probably did not 

• Vide Stuart Fapen, 1703. 


tieed to be told, but it vrns utterly inconsistent 'mth the maxiiUs of her 
government, among which that of positive compulsion seems to have had 
no place, and it was equally so with the enlightened and philanthropic 
views of some of the principal of her advisers, who, looking at the abso- 
lute authority acquired by the crown in that country since the union of 
the crowns, and aware, especially should it come into the hands of an 
able and ambitious monarch, of the dangers thence accruing to the liber" 
ties of England, had determined upon an union of the two countries 
upon such a basis as should at once create, if not an immediate unity of 
feelings, at least an unity of interests. Instead, therefore, of showing any 
thing like irritation at what had been done, the queen and her ministry 
bestowed honours and rewards pretty liberally upon all who had stood firm 
en the side of the court-^made a few changes among the principal officers 
of the Scotish administration, and ^;ain convened the parliament. In 
consequence of these measures, a considerable number were gained over 
to the side of the court, but there was still a majority on the other side. 
The act of security was again carried through the house, and, in order 
to obtain, as has been alleged, a money bill, was now perfected by the 
royal assent. This has generally been considered as a blander in poli- 
tics, such as with regard to Scotland the English government had but 
seldom been guilty of committing. Perhaps it was so, but it was one 
of those fortunate mistalces that often serve a cause more effectnally 
than the most deep laid and long matured schemes. Hitherto the most 
formidable opposition to the union of the two kingdoms had always 
been found on the side of England, and perhaps nothing could have 
so effectnally prevailed upon her people generally to acquiesce in the 
measure, as the spirit and temper of Scotland manifested, especially by 
this act. 

Whatever might have been the motive for passing the act of security, 
the English ministry showed themselves perfectly alive to what might 
he its consequences, by the measures they adopted with regard to the 
relative situation of the two nations, and aware that now they must 
either lose the Hanoverian succession in Scotland, enter into a war with 
that people, or grant them, according to their ostensible desire, a treaty, 
they began to thiak of an union in good earnest, though, at no previous 
period, could they have proposed it with so little hope of success. All 
possible preparation was of course made for carryiog forward the measure, 
without loss of time. The parliament, along with some acts, apparently 
. hostile to Scotland, passed one, empowering her majesty to nominate com- 
missioners, to meet with commissioners to be appointed by the parlia- 
ment of Scotland, for that effect. The duke of Argyle, who was known 
to be a favonrite with the presbyterians, was sent down as high com mis* 
sioner, and the parliament of Scotland was by him again opened with 
extraordinary splendour on the twenty-eighth day of June, 1705. A 
letter from the queen to the parliament was presented by his grace, in 
which she particularly recommended the settling of the succession in 
the protestant line, in preference to all other business, and next to 
that, the treaty of Union, with regard to which, she hoped they would 
follow the example of the English parliament, and towards which sbe 


promised most bear^y her best assistance. These measures the com- 
missioner also, after the example of her majesty, insisted particularly 
upon in his speech, as expedients necessary for preventing that min 
with which they were but too plainly threatened. The first, the settling 
tlie aacceesion in the protestant line, he observed was ahsolntely ne- 
cessary for securing peace, and cooling down those heats which had 
with great industry, and with too much success, been raised among 
them. The second, the treaty with England, being what they them- 
^Ivefi had often discovered so strong an inclination for, he could not 
snppoee would meet with any opposition.* 

Before entering upon the proceedings of this parliament, it may not 
be improper to mention that it was composed of four parties, the court 
party, the country party, the cavaliers, and the iquadrone volanie. The 
first of these were, for the most part, in the revolution interest, though a 
few of them were suspected, and most probably with justice, to have an 
eye chiefly to their own. The second were mostly presbyterians, and bv 
the oonntry in general, were regarded as men of probity, aiming, though 
they might sometimes be misudcen, sincerely to promote the best in- 
terests of thdr country. Through a defect of judgment, however, or 
the preponderancy of prejudice, they were often the dupes of, and voted 
to promote the measures of their bitterest enemies. They were headed 
by^ the duke of Hamilton, and Fletcher of Salton, both of whom, but 
tf^pedally the last, were strenuous advocates for liberty and independence. 
The thiid party consisted of a body of men who were episcopal in re- 
ligion, and Jacobite in politics, and were distinguished by the name of 
cavaliers. They were decidedly hostile to the revolution, the present 
establishment of the church, and the protestant succession ; but they 
joined with the country party in their outcry of grievances, the decay 
of trade, the oppressive we^ht of English influence, and the want of 
patriotism and public spirit. In all their measures, however, they had 
nothing further in view than to disturb or delay the succession in the 
proieatant line, and by this means to recommend themselves to the notice 
of the pretender, on whom they would willingly have bestowed the 
crown without any limitations either with regard to liberty or religion 1 
Tlie fourth pretended to be of no party, but to hold the balance between 
the cythers, whence they had their name, but their object was only to make 
themselves of more consideration to the court, and so to be taken into 
favour upon the best possible terms, and, their mercenary motives being 
but in concealed, they were hated and despised by all. Their leader at 
this time was the marquis of Tweedale. 

When the house proceeded to business, the parties were shy of coming 
to a trial of strength, and three weeks were spent upon minor matters. 
Wlien the settlement of the succession came to be discussed, however, 
the cavaliers proposed, and, with the help of stray votes from the other 
parties, carried a resolution against it. They also succeeded, settle 
where it would, in clogging it with a number of restrictions and limita- 
tioos, which Lockhart, one of the most zealous of them, confesses they 

* Lockhart Papers, toL i. p. 115. Campbell's Life of John, Duke of Argyle, 

^e9— 93: 


<1id in case it should come to the house of Hanover^ and to iograttato 
themselves with the people, *< who groaned exceedingly under the op- 
pression of England, and were extremely fond of every thing that 
seemed to free them from it I" It was probably with the same views 
that they carried a great many resolutions for regulating the sittings and 
the proceedings of parliament, which, as, in consequence of the Union, 
they never came into practice, it would be out of place here to detail. 

The draught of an act presented by the earl of Marr for appointing 
commissioners to treat with those who had been nominated on the part 
of England upon an union of the two kingdoms, came at length to be 
discussed. This draught was drawn after the act of the English parlia- 
ment, which was represented by Fletcher of Salton as scurrilous and 
haughty, and he exhorted them ** to resent this treatment on the part of 
the English by throwing the motion of a treaty, until it was proposed in 
more civil terms, out of the house." This motion, however, was rejected, 
and the cavaliers, aided by the country party, finding it to no purpose 
to oppose the treaty any longer in general terms, attempted to clog it, 
like the succession, with such restrictions as should effectually prevent 
it from taldng effect, and for that end, a clause was proposed by the duke 
of Hamilton, ** that the union to be treated on should no ways derogate 
from any fundamental laws, ancient privileges, offices, rights, liberties, 
and dignities of this nation.*' This proposal was debated at great length, 
and was at last rejected by a plurality of only two voices, seven or eight 
of the cavalier and country purties, according to Lockhart, being absent 
when the vote was taken. Having lost this clause, the cavaliers presented 
another in these words, ** Provided always that the said commissioners 
shall not go forth of thb kingdom, to enter into any treaty with those to be 
appointed for England, until there be an act passed by the parliament of 
England, rescinding that clause in the English act, by which it is enacted 
that the subjects of Scotland shall be adjudged and taken as aliens after 
the twenty-fifth day of December, 1705." This also they enlarged upon 
at great length, as necessary to vindicate the honour of the nation from 
the injustice of the English in that act, still hoping the English parliament 
would not comply with the demand, and the treaty would be thus pre- 
Tente<i. This was opposed upon the same grounds as the former proposals 
of the party, but finding the house inclined to adopt it, the court party met 
it by a motion to this effect, ** that the clause should be approven, but that 
it should not be engrossed into the act for a treaty, but pass as a resolve 
of the house, that after the foresaid act is finished, the house will im- 
me<liate]y proceed to consider whether the clause should be by a par- 
ticular act, or by an order of the house." Being put to the vote, thin 
last was carried, by which the court party considered tliey had it in their 
own power, for if it was turned into an act at the close of the session, 
they conld refuse the royal assent, which would render it nugatory, and 
they might proceed with the treaty whether the obnoxious act of tlui 
English parliament were repealed or not. Before stating the vote, how- 
ever, upon the act for a treaty, the duke of Athol entered his protesta- 
tion in the following terms : — << In regard that by an English act of 
parliament made in the last 8c:}siou thereof, intituled, an act for tho 


effectnally securing England from tbe dangere that may arise from 
«^veral acta passed lately in Scotland, tbe subjects of this kingdom are 
adjudged aliens born out of tbe allegiance of the queen, as queen of 
England after the twenty-fifth day of December, 1705. I do therefore 
protest for myself and in the name and behalf of all such as shall ad- 
here to this my protestation, that for saving the honour and interest of 
her majesty as queen of this kingdom, and maintainiog and preserving 
tbe undoubted rights and privileges of her subjects, no act for a treaty 
with England ought to pass in this house unless a clause be adjected 
thereto, prohibiting and discharging the commissioners that may be no- 
minated and appdnted for carrying on the said treaty, to depart the 
kaBgdom in order thereto, until die said act be repealed and rescinded 
m the parliament of England.'^ To this protestation most of the 
cmvalien, a few belonging to the country party, and nearly all the 
aqoadrone adhered, malang in all twenty-four peers, thirty-seven barons, 
and eigSiteen burgesses.* 

By the ume the vote was taken upon the act for the treaty it was 
kie, and the sederunt having been a long one, many of the members as 
they gave their votes, went out of the house, not expecting any more busi- 
neas to come on for that night, but the last name on the roll was scarcely 
called^ when the duke of Hamilton, addressing himself to the chancellor, 
moved that the nomination of the commissioners for the treaty should 
6e leli wholly to the queen. Nothing could have been more astonishing 
to luB friends than such a proposal from his grace, who had all along ex- 
cltdmf^ with the utmost bitterness against entering into such a treaty 
oo any conditions. Twelve or fifteen of them, filled with rage and 
despair, ran out of the house, crying that he had deserted and basely 
betrayed them. Those of tbe party that remained, debated the question 
with his grace's own arguments, but when it came to the vote, it was car- 
ried by eight voices, among which that of his grace made one. This was 
no sooner over, than the whole act, empowering commissioners to meet 
and treat with England, was voted and approven, when the duke of 
Athol again protested against it, and was adhered to by twenty-one 
noblemen, thirty-three barons, and eighteen burgesses.f 

The conduct of the duke of Hamilton on thb occasion was certainly 
Tcry Btiaoge, and by no means easy to be accounted for. It has, as we 
have already noticed, been ascribed to a secret hankering which he had 
the Scotisb crown — ^to a desire to be nominated one of tbe com- 
1 himself— and to the secret intrigues of the earl of Marr — 
I it may be with more truth and propriety ascribed to the difii- 
eulty of the case operating upon the vanity, the selfishness, and the 
imbecility of his grace's character. Whatever was the motive with the 
duke of Hamilton, the effect was salutary, as it removed the last remain- 
ing difficulty on the part of the Scotish parliament in the way of enter- 
ing upon the treaty, and the English parliament, contrary to the expec- 
tations of the Scotish cavaliers, having shortly after repealed the act 
that had been so particularly excepted against in Scotland, and thus taken 

• tofUi&rt Pnpen, vol. i. p. 139. f Ibid. p. 138. 


every obstacle out of the way, her majesty, in the month of March, 
1706, issued out two commissions, one for Scotknd, and one for Eng- 
land, appointing the following persons commissionerB for treating of an 
Union of the two kingdoms, viz. for Scotland, the earl of Seafield, lord 
chancellor, the duke of Queensberry, lord privy seal, the earl of Marr, 
and the earl of Loudon, secretaries of state, the earls of Sutherland, 
Morton, Weemys, Leveo, Stair, Roseberry, and Gfasgow, viscount 
Duplin, lord Ross, lord Archibald Campbell, Sir Hugh Dalrymple, pre- 
sident of the session, Adam Cockbam of Ormiston, lord justice clerk, 
Robert Dundas of Amiston, one of the lords of session, Robert Stuart 
of Tillycoultry, do. Sir Alexander Ogilvie of Forglan, do. Mr. Francis 
Montgomery of Giffen, Sir David Dalrymple, Sir Patrick Johnston, 
lord provost of Edinburgh, Sir James Smollett, George Lockhart of 
Camwath, William Morrison, younger of Preston Grange, Alexander 
Grant, younger of Grant, William Seton, younger of Pitmedden, John 
Clerk, younger of Pennycuick, Hugh Montgomery, lord provost of 
Glasgow, Daniel Campbell, and Daniel Stewart, taxmen of the customs. 
On the part of England, his grace the archbishop of Canterbury, his grace 
the archbishop of York, William Cowper, keeper of the great seal, the 
lord Godolphin, lord treasurer, the enrl of Pembroke, president of the 
council, the duke of Newcastle, privy seal, the dukes of Devonshire, 
Somerset, and Bolton, the earls of Sunderland, Kingston, Carlisle, and 
Oxford, viscount Townshend, lord Wharton, lord Gray, lord Poulet, 
lord Somers, lord Halifax, John Smith, speaker of the house of com- 
mons, William Cavendish, marquis of Huntington, John Manners, 
marquis of Granby, Sir Charles Hodges, and Robert Harley, secretaries 
of state, Henry Boyle, chancellor of the exchequer, iord chief justice 
Holt, lord chief justice Trevor, Edward Northey, attorney general, 
Simon Harconrt, solicitor general, Sir John Cook, advocate general, 
and Stephen Waller, doctor of law.* 

The commissioners on both sides were all of the whig party, the 
archbishop of York excepted, who never condescended to honour them 
with his presence, and Geoi^ Lockhart of Camwath, who was a violent 
Jacobite, and by the adrice of his party, sat as a spy upon their proceed* 
ings, but took no part in their deliberations.f He was at the same time 
directed to embrace the opportunity for canvassing the English tories, 
in order to learn how far they might be disposed to go in case of an in* 
vasion from France, headed by the pretender, which was, at that time, 
anxiously expected by the party, and he communicated accordingly 
with the duke of Leeds, the lord Granville, and other of the leading 
tories, but found them utterly averse to do any thing for James, at least 
60 long as the queen lived. This he caiifully communicated, with 
every thing relating to the treaty of Union, to captain Straiten, who 
was immediately despatched to France with the tidings, and to solicit 
the French king for assistance in this their hour of peril and extremity. 
A particular account of the state of feeling in Scotland, so minute as 
to characterize almost every individual of the least notoriety, had also 

* Juockhart Papers, vol. i. p. 141. f Ibid. p. 145. 


BDt ID the Fraacb, «id SootorFicnch courts, a week or two 
pnvMMM to Sirsiton's Mttiog o«t oa his embassy, bat the victorious 
career of Mariborongh had so eaabarrassed the roost Christian king, 
thai ail he oovld do for the friends of JaaMS, was to giro thein iair 
words for the preseat, and liberal promises for the futare. With 
Scrakoa, Jaaaes sent home lettera to the dnke of Uamiiton, the earis of 
Errol and Maiiachsl» and the riscennt Stonnont. In that to the riscoonft 
SuMwionty were eadpaed letteia to the dokeof Atbol, and to the marquis 
of Monferaae, to be delircred as might be thonght proper. ^ The fimt»" 
Tiorkhart observes, ** was delifered and kindly receired, but the other 
pofoon was tamed soch an obstrapecons reneg«ks that it was to no por- 
poae to make any attempt on him, besides, there was a visible danger of 
litt discovering all to Ae ministers of state, who, though they knew 
that captain Stoaiton had been in Fmnoe, took no notice of it, he hav* 
i^ been furmshed with credentials from AofMt^ merchants in Edinbuigl^ 
to act as sapercargo in the ship which transported him."* 

The coBomisBioners for the treaty of Union held their Brst meeting at 
the Cockpit, Westminster, on the sixteenth of April, 1706, which was 
opened by a speech from the lord Coarper, keeper of the great seal of 
England, to the following effect ;-^'< My lords,T«*We the commissioners 
^ipointed by her majeaty, and aathorised by the parliament of England 
to coosolt and treat with year lordships, Os empowered in the like 
BBOoner hy her majesty and the parliament of ScoUand, concerning aa 
union of the two kin^oms, and each other things aa we the commis- 
asonen on both parties shall think convenient and necessary for the 
honour of her majesty, and the common good of both kingdoms, do 
apprehend there never was, in any assembly of this nature, so little reason 
ns at present, for the commissjoners of England to give any verbal assur- 
anoea of their zeal to promote and complete (so fiur as in their power) 
the great and good design we are met about ; suice it cannot be doubted 
bat we bring along with as the same sentimeats winch so lately appeared 
ia the pariiunent of England, where they took care to manifest, by a 
aolenm act, that they did postpone all other considerations to their evi« 
denciag a good and friendly disposition towards Seotland-^-the parlia- 
ment <rf England, in making that unexpected advance, seeming resolved, 
if p<Mnble, to attain that union which has been so long thought necessary 
by all that wish well to the prosperity of both kingdoms. And we most 
aincerely assure your lordships, we do accordingly meet your lordships 
widi hearts folly resolved to use our utmost endeavours to remove all 
the difficulties in this treaty-^to prevent all misunderstandings — and 
dierisfa and improve the good disposition to one another; and to^iave 
the genersl and joint good of both kingdoms solely in our view, and not 
the aeparate of either, but to act as if we were alrsady united in interest, 
and had nothing left but to consider what settlements and provisions are 
BKwt likely to conduce to the common safety and happiness of this whole 
Uaad of Groat Britain. Which measures, if pnraued on both parts^ wt 

• lioekhart Papcra, toL i. pp* 141), i;.0. 


hope may enable us to prepare such terms of union, as may profe satitf* 
factory to her majesty, and the parliament of both kingdoms.'' 

To this speech the lord chancellor of Scotland made the following 
reply i~^^* My lords, — The lords conunissionen for Scotland have de- 
sired me to assure your lordships, that they meet yon on this occasion 
with great willingness and satisfaction, to treat of an union betwixt the 
two kingdoms, and of such other matters and concerns as may be for 
her majesty's honour, and the maintaining a good understanding between 
the two kingdoms. We are convinced that an union will be of great 
advantage to both ; the protestant religion will be thereby more fibrmly 
secured, the designs of our enemies effectually disappointed, and the 
riches and trade of the whole island advanced. This union bath been 
often endeavoured, both before and since the kingdoms were united in 
allegiance under one sovereign, and several treaties have been set on 
foot for that end, though without the designed success ; but now we are 
hopeful that this shall be the happy opportunity of accomplishing it 
Her majesty hath frequently signified her good inclinations towards it : 
and we are the more encouraged to expect success in this treaty, by the 
good disposition that appeared in the parliament of Scotland to it, and 
by the friendly proceedings of the parliament of England, which give 
general satisfaction. We have a great confidence in your lordships* 
good intentions ; and we shall be ready, on our parts, to enter into such 
measures with you as may bring this treaty to such a conclusion, as may 
be acceptable to her majesty, and the parliaments of both kingdoms."* 

Ceremonies being exchanged, and certain rules of procedure agreed 
upon, the negotiations were opened on the part of the English com^ 
nissioners by the following proposal :*.<< That the two kingdoms of 
England and Scotland be for ever united into one kingdom, by the name 
of Grreat Britain — ^that the united kingdom be represented by one and 
the same parliament, and that the succession to the monarchy of the 
united kingdom, in case of failure of heirs of her majesty's body, be 
according to the limitations mentioned in the act of parliament made in 
En^and, in the twelfth and thirteenth years of the reign of king Wil- 
liam, intituled, an act for the further limitations of the crown, and the 
better securing the rights of the subject." The Scotish commissioners 
having demanded time to consider of this proposal, and being convened 
for that purpose, all of them, Mr. Lockhart excepted, who, as he has 
told us himself, by the orders of his faction, " sat silent, making his ob- 
servations," were willing to accept it ; but as they knew that a federal 
union would be more agreeable to their countrymen in general, they 
agreed, that without positively rejecting the above, a proposal to that 
effect should be made. This was done accordingly, but meeting with 
no encouragement from the English commissioners, all of whom were 
bent upon an incorporating, or what they called an entire union, it was 
chopped. Nothing else seems to have occurred that occasioned any 
thing like a serious difference of opinion. Her majesty attended their 

• Defoe's Histoiy of the Union of Great Britain, foUo ed. pp. 81, SB. 


MbtnAom twice, on the twenty-fint of May» and the twenty-eiith of 
June; on both of theee oocaMooB she inquired porticolarly into their 
progreav, end <m the laet» addreased to them the following qwech :— * 
*^ My lorde, I am come hither once more to aee what further progreaa 
yoo have made in tbia treaty, and to preaa a speedy condoaion of it^ 
in legard my servants of Scotland, cannot, without great incouTeniency, 
be much longer absent from that kingdom." On the twenty-eecond of 
July, 1706, the treaty was completed, and next day, in name of the 
commissioners, presented to the queen at St. James', by the lord keeper 
of England aod the lord chancellor of Scotland, each of whom com- 
pGmented her in a short speech upon the happy issue of their n^o- 
listionB, to which her majesty, made the following gracious reply :— 
** My lorda^-*-! giTO yon many thanks for the great paina you have 
ukem in tbia treaty, and am very well pleased to find your endeavours 
sad applicattona have brought it to so good a conclusion. The yfr* 
ticulars oi it seem so reasonable, that I hope they will meet with appro- 
bation in the parliaments of both kingdoms. I wish, therefore, that 
my serYanta of Scotland may lose no time in going down to propose it 
to my aubjects of that kingdom ; and I shall always look upon it as a 
peculiar happiness, if this union, which will be so great a security and 
sdTtntage to both Idagdoms, can be aocompliahed in my reign.'* Caro 
was, at the same time, tdcen to keep the artidea secret, till such time 
as they should be laid before parliament ; and an order of council waa 
issued the same day, forbidding all hooka and wagers upon the subject.* 
On their return to Scotland, the commissiooers, though they were not 
at liberty to specify the artidea of the treaty, were cardul to give such 
representations concerning it, aa for a time made an impression on the 
public mind of a fiinmrable kind ; but no sooner did the particular pro* 
▼isions of the treaty begin to transpire, than, prindpally through the 
indefittigable exertioDs of the Jacobitea, it became the subject of the 
most violent reprobation. Dreading the confirmation of the Union, 
which they considered as the grave of their hopea, and able to obtain 
no assistance from abroad, the party became perfectly frantic His 
giace the duke of Hamilton, in the prospect of what had now taken 
place, and in order to be provided for it, had, in 1704, sent an order to 
the pretender, by Mr. James Murrsy, for twenty-five thousand pounds. 
** The manner," says Mumy, " in which be proposes to dispose of this 
money, is to take a share of it to himself, to assist him to defray the 
great expense which he will be obliged to make for maintaining bis 
credit with his party — to distribute another in augmentibg and strength* 
ening his party, and in preserving and confirming those who are already 
of it, according as he shall see necessary for the service of his majesty— 
and to employ the rest in purchasing arms." Whether this demand was 
in whole complied with, or in part, we have not been able to discover, 
but in 1705, we find a second demand made on behalf of the same 
party, for thirty thousand livres, " which managed faithfully,'* the writer 
remarks, ** would be of greater utility here to the king's service, than 

• Oboe's Iliitorr of tbe Union of Great Britain, folio ed. pp. 47, 88, lOQ, 104^ 
Cunplbcll't life of John, Duke of Argyle, p^ IIS. 


fotk can imagtfie ;" ind, ** in short, withom thiB «iipi^ H is abMlutely 
hnp'wstble te adnmoe our sfiain."* It was now tinir iMrtime to oontend, 
tts it were, for exiBtence, ia ddault of all this neoesMiry aupply— «aad it 
reqaiied the united atreagth, hifliieDoe> and canning of the whole party, 
as they were sore to be met in the same determined apirit. The adyo- 
cates of the reTolution and the proteBtant BBOoeaaion, eqnally aware with 
the Jaeobites c^ the importance of the matten now at iaane, were pre- 
pared to make no common effort. They had already gained a eignal 
adnmtage; and one ef!brt more, they coodnded, vnrald render &eir 
triumph complete. Whatever they m^t think respecting themaelveay 
or whatever degree of confidence they might have in th^ snpportersi 
the leaders of the Sootish administntion, ftom the aotidity of the prtn« 
dples of which they were now the advocates, and the vast utility of the 
measnres they were pursuing, were, at this time, well entitled to the 
support of their country, and the approbation of all good men. Perhaps 
fortunately however, excellent as was their cause, and the objects they 
had in view, they were not left to depend solely on principle, or the 
lofty aspirations of single-handed patriotism. The English ministry 
aware of the difficulty of their situation, transmitted, at their request, 
twenty thousand pounds, to be applied in paying up arrean due to indi- 
viduals by the government, which, from the manner in which it was 
distributed, may with the utaiost certainty be denominated the purchase 
motley of the Union.f 

The parliament which was to determine the question, was assembled on 
the third day of October, 1706. To this parliament the duke of Queens- 
berry was appointed high commissioner. The queen's letter, as well as 
the speeches of the commissioner and chancellor, insisted principally on 
the benefit that would necessarily result from the Union, and recom- 
mended in the strongest manner its ratification. Subsidies were also 
Wanted, but anxious to carry through the treaty of Union before the op- 
position, which-was already formidable, should gather more strength^ the 
court party prevailed to have the articles read at the first sederunt, when 
they were ordered to be printed, along with the nainutes of the pro- 
eeedingfi of the commissioners, for the use of members, afKer which, the 

• Stuart Papen for 1704 and 1705. 

t The JbUowliif were the persons to whom this money was paid, in the sums ap» 
pended to their names, aa dedared upon oath, before the commissioners appointed in 
the year 171 1, to wramine the public acooimti, by David Naime, at that time secrelBry 
4apate of Scotland. 

To the earl of I^larehmont, ^.^ «.«« <•««. 

— the earl of Cromar^, .... ..««. «m^ i.^ 

<— the lord Prestonhall, — .^ — «^ 

^ the lord Ormiston, lord juatioe derk, «^ ..^ 

*» the duke of Montnoee, ..^ ..^ ..^ 

— . the dtlke of Athdl, .^ .^ «... ..^ 

^ the earl of Balcarras, ..^ .^^ ..w. ..^ 

^■^ the earl of Dtmmoor, ..^ ..^ ...^ ..«« 

<M the lord Anstruther, ».^ ...«» .«^ ..^ 

•- Mr. Stewart of Castle Stewart, .^ .^ 

•^ the earl of Eglinton, — ..^ — 

mm the lord Froscr, ..^ «,^ ..^ ..^ 

Coarry fcfrward, Jei,e04 17 7 

f 1,104 17 














•djoanied to tbe teoth, wUch was occupied in aettling preoe- 
» sdmiBistmiig 09A^ he. On the twelftby the nading of tbe 

of Union wee agnin resttned, wben it was mored by the 
cavaliera, that all recorda relating to former treaties between Scot- 
laad and England, sbonld be laid before the honse, and that in tbe 
uitemia of partiamenty they aught be seen in tbe lower pariiament 
htam&f where the lord register ahould order some of bis servants to 
noend. Hiis, after some debate, was agreed to. Tbe reading of tbe art»« 
dcs being resnmed, they were again violently opposed, and the necessity 

' anggested, probably for the firM time in a Scotish parliament, of 
; tiU members conld oonsnlt their oonstitttents, without whose 
i h was alleged they bad no power to sanction such a treaty 
mm dw Unioa. As a fintber meanft of delay, some of the Jacobite 
it s u bcra made a motion for a general fast before proceeding to discuss 
s softer so weighty, and in which the interests of the church were so 
deeply inpliGated. This oecaaioned a very warm debate, in which it 
was observed, that the motion had oome from such as had seldom been 
uif ml either to fost or pray. The purpose, indeed, was evidently no 
alber than to make the minirten of the gospel the advocates of sedition, 
mmd the motion was opposed with the greatest energy by the most sober 
snd Toligions members of tbe honse. It was acoordmgly put off for tbe 
fweaent, and tbe house acyonraed till the fifteenth. On Uie fifteenth, it 
WW again moved that the articles of Union be taken into consideration 
agreeably to the minutee of hist sederunt. It was moved in opposition 
to tUa, that time should be aUowed the memben to take more deeply 
into oonsideration articles of such serious import as the annihilating of 
tile Mttion. After a long debate, and a great deal of quibbling, the vote 
was at length stated, <* Proceed to consider the articles of the treaty or 
delay ?*' which was carried in the affirmative by a plurality of sixty«four 

Brought forward, £^eOi 17 7 

To tlM kcd C«Biock, now FolwarUi, _ 


— Mr. John Campbell, ..^ ...^ ..^ 

^ the «nl of Forfar, — — — — 



— Sir Kenoth M^^fpTiy, .^ .^ .^ 


— the carl of Glencaim, »«« ..^ ..^ ..^ 


— the eari of Kintore, w^ .^ <^ — 


— theoariof Findlater, — — — .^ 


zSfs^'focr'-'i'" n -■- 


— theeariof 8ealleM,lorddinica|]Qr, — — 


^themarqniaofTweedak, _ .^ 


— the duke of Roxbanh, .^^ .^ ..^ 


~ the lord Elibank, — — 


^ the lord Bomf,_ «-• ^ _ _ 

11 8 

— M^ Cunningham of Eokatt, — — 


— the messenger that brought down the treaty of Union, 


•^ Sfa- Wmiam Sharp, ^.^ — .^ »^ 


— Patrick Covdirmin. prsfMt of Wigton, _ 


«- the CommSaaloner for equipage and dally allowanoe, 


jOK),MO 17 T 

*tbm balmnee of flre bundled and fttty pounds icy e n to cn thiningi and •eTenpcno& (be earl uT 
davow acknowledsod fac fcoeivod flrom ford Godolpfain, when he aooountcd to bu lordship for Of 
tveatjr thousand pounds as expended |yy the above p«rticul«n.— LocUiait ftptn, voL L pp. 951$ 966i 


voices. It \vas agreed, lioweFer, lliat the house should not proceed tr» 
vote tt[>on any of the articles, till they were all at least once read over 
and discoursed upon hy the members. This reading, with the remarks 
especially of the dukes of Hamilcon and Athol, the marquis of Annan— 
daJe, the lords Belhaven and Bal marine, Fletcher of Salton, and Siir 
David Cunningham of Milncraig, who were at great pains to point ouft 
what they called the absurdity and unreasonableness of the several arti- 
cles as they went along, occupied the house till the first of November.*^ 
While the cavaliers within doors were thus doing their best to retard 
the progress of the treaty, to their great satisfaction the opposition with'- 
out doors was daily becoming more formidable. Edinburgh was crowded 
with ^sitauts, from all quarters of the country, of all ranks, sexes, and 
ages, all of whom were become, if not skilful, at least confident poli- 
ticians. The outer parliament house, and the approaches to it, were 
every day ere the parliament met, crowded wiUi people, exclaiming 
against the Union, and reprobating all who had been, or were in any 
degree its promoters. Queensberry they reviled in the most bnitid 
manner, and pursued along the streets with showers of atones, but the 
duke of Hamilton was regularly escorted to his lodgings in the Abbey* 
by a mixed multitude of disorderly persons, who, with loud huzzas, 
exhorted him to stand by his country, with assurances that he should be 
supported. Nothing is mora surprising than to see the garbi^ vanity 
will feed on, the dishonourable shifts faction will have recourse to, and 
the dirty tools she will employ. The duke of Hamilton was perhape 
the loftiest man in the nation, jealous of his dignity, and haughty and 
supercilious among persons of his own rank to a very high degree, yet 
he condescended not only to sufler, but to encourage, and apparently to 
enjoy the applauses of this contemptible rabble, day after day, till, swoln 
with the idea of their own importance, and secure of the approbatioa 
of the whole party, as well as the special protection of his grace, they, 
on the twenty-third of October, after having carried him to &e lodgings 
of the duke of Athol, another of their favourites, proceeded to the resid- 
ence of Sir Patrick Johnston, who had been a commissioner for the 
treaty of Union, was one of the representatives in parliament for and 
late lord provost of the city of Edinburgh, drove in his windows with 
stones, burst open his doors, and searched every corner of his house, 
'^ threatening to tear him into a thousand pieces.'* Sir Patrick fortunately 
had got out of the way, and a detachment of the town guard arriving 
after a while, secured his house and protected his family from farther 
outrage, but the crowd kept possession of the streets during the greater 
part of the night, threatening destruction to all whom they supposed to 
bs any wise favourable to the Union. At an early hour in the mornin<% 
however, •a detachment of the foot guards cleared the streets, secured 
ihe Nether Bow Port, and placed a guard in the Parliament Close. 

This disgraceful riot Lockhart has detailed with apparently great 
satisfaction, and he chuckles over ** the consternation that seized the 
courtiers on this occasion,*' who were " terribly afraid of their lives, 

* Defoe's History of the Union, folio cd. Article — Abstract of the ProoesdiojfM 
of the Scutish PurUament, p. (>. Lackliart rupcit>| vol. i. pp. 161, 169. 


tlis pMnge makiiig it evident that the Union was crafnined down Scot- 
lud'B throat I"* It was, indeed, the creation solely of the Jacobites, 
aod created with an intention of taking numy liyes, bm like the greater 
pvt of their projecta, dinppobted their expectations, and had an effect 
aito^tber the reverse of what was intended. Being at once seen through 
bydl sober thinkers, it broaght some degree of discredit upon the whole 
body of the o|^MMttion, as neither so enlightened, nor so disinterested as 
tkf themselTea would have had the world believe. The privy council 
ako took oocasioii from it next day to station troops in the P^liament 
CloBe, and other oonvenient pku^ throngbout the city, for the pro- 
tection of parliament and ita membera, and the whole army, both horse 
«ad foot, was immediately drawn together in the neighbourhood, so 
as (0 be in readiness in case of any similar outrage. A proclamation 
vas at the same time issued against all tunmltaous meetings, wherein 
all peisoQs were commanded to retire from the streets, whatever time 
tfaay should be warned by beat of drum, under pain of being instantly 
fired open by the guards, to whom an ample indemnity was by the 
niDe instrument granted, in case they should kill any of the lieges in 
10 doing. ^* These measures," Lockhart observes, ** discouraged others 
from Disking any attempt for the future," and " the placmg of these 
gnarda overawed many, both in and out of the house." Of course they 
exdted the angry feelmgs of the cavaliers in no ordinary degree, and the 
prodamation of the council bemg submitted to parliament for its ap- 
pn>bBtioo, occaaioned a debate, wherein the virulency of the whole 
faction was eminently displayed. The parliament, however, passed a 
Tote of thanks to the council, and requested them to continue their care 
for the public peace, and the safety of parliament. Against this vote, 
tbe earl of Errol protested as an infringement of the privileges of par- 
liament, of the rights of the dty of Edinburgh — and of his right as lord 
high constable of Scothind, in consequence of which, he alone was en- 
titliHi to guard the parliament without doors, as it vras the undoubted 
right of the earl Marischal to guard it within-^in which be was sup" 
ported by a long list of names, the greater part of which are found on 
every protest that was taken during the sitting of this parliament.f 

The mob of Edinburgh were now brought into some tolerable order, 
Intt it was not to that city the machinations of faction were confined, 
lite utmost exertions had been made, and were still making to rouse tho 
nbble from one end of the nation to the other, and the success was such, 
that it has been confidently stated, that the state of the weather alone, 
^ich was unusually inclement, prevented such an assemblage at Edin- 
burgh, as would have overwhelmed all opposition, and, by breaking up the 
parliament, put an end at once to all thoughts of the Union. Addresses 
^ere in the meantime got up, and poured in from all quarters, almost from 
^ery town, parish, hamlet,. and corporation, inveighing in the strongest 
^cnna against the measure, as necessarily involving the entire ruin of the 
country in all ita interests. That which gave the Jacobites the greatest 
i^opes, however, was one, and indeed it was the only one that had any thing 

• Loekbart Papcr% vol i. p. 163. f Ibid. pp. 165, 166, 


reaaomble in it, by tbe eomminKMi of the General AmeoMy of the 
cborch of ScoUaiid, of whichy though ihe proofc of their hatred were dther 
before the eyes, or freah in the meauiriea of all men, they now set them- 
selves up as the special partisans. They had alraady attempted to havo 
a day of fiuting appointed by the parliament^ in the hope of tnming it to 
their own advantage, bnt had £uled, and now that the commisMon ap- 
pointed a fast day for tbemselTes, and recommended it to piesbytertea 
to do the same« they eagerly laid hold of it, and where ths ministers 
were weak, and at the same time aealous, made it the mean of pcodnc- 
iog no little mischief. In Edinboigh, this last was observed with great 
solemnity, Qneensberry, the high commisstonep, and Seafield, the chan- 
cellor, with all the prindpid cheers of state, attended public woiship, 
and the work of the day was conchided with order and propriety.* 
In Glasgow, however, when the last came to be observed, Inattera went 
on very differently. There ^e dislike to the Union had been very 
strongly manifested, under the idea that it was to endanger the Scotish 
church, and the fears of the people in genenl were no doubt sincere, for 
there were but few Jacobites among them. The few that were, bow- 
ever, having like their brethren in other places, become sealons in a high 
degree for the perpetuity of presbytery, exerted diemselves with a seal 
worthy of new converta. Tbe magistrates were importuned not only by 
tbe rabble, bnt by many respeotable citisens, to address the parliament 
against the measure, which the lord provost, Mr. John Aird, declining 
to do, it was resolved to get up one without him. While the citisens 
wore coatemplatbg this measure^ the seventh of November arrived, the 
day appointed in Glasgow for observing the fest, when the Rev. Mr. 
Clark, minister of the Tron church, preached from Ezn viii. 21. 
*< And I proclaimed a fast there, at the river of Abava, that we might 
afflict ourselves before our God, to seek of him a right way for us, 
and for our little ones, and for all our substance," and pursuing the 
idea of his text with more zeal than judgment, having descanted upon 
the efficacy of prayer in ito own place, bnt ita fatiUty when not se« 
conded by vigorous exertion, concluded his sermon wiUi these words, 
<* wherefore, up and be valiant for the city of our God," which so 
inflamed his bearers, that running into the streets, and joined by others 
as enthusiastic as themselves, created a mob which attacked, and in 
part plundered the house of the lord provost, who was under tbe ne- 
cessity of leaving the dty, as was also another g«itleman, the laird of 
Blackhouse, who had delivered his qiinion on the «de of the provost, and 
whose house likewise was attacked and plundered by the patriotic rioters. 
An address wa^ now got up under the patronage of the incorporations, 
most numerously signed, and Messrs* John Bowman, dean of guild, 
Robert Scott, deacon of the tailors, and John Stevenson, deacon of the 
shoemakers, despatched to Edinburgh to present it to the parliament. In 
the meantime, the rioters kept possession of the town, searched the 
houses of all such as they supposed friendly to the Union, for arms, 
which, wherever they found, they carried away, and headed by a no* 

* Defoe's History of the Union, folio ed. Article-^CsrryiDg on of tho treaty, p. 96, 


I ti die name of Findlay, who liod finriMrlf been a Mr* 
fHBl ia the eraiy> began te fonn themaelTes into military oi^hr, appointed 
oflieeny and were on the point of mardiing to Ediabvr^b, for the pnrpoee 
of MHBiing to rHae the parliament* The artidee of the Uaiqo they 
pdblidy bnnt, emitted a printed deelaration in defonee of their condtieH 
aad a few of them, nnder Findlay, actnally marched for Edhihntgk 
They recnnied» howoTer, to Glaagow on the third day after they had left 
k» whither they were followed by aboat two hundred and for^ dragoons, 
iriio carried F&dhiy» their general, with a penon of the name of M ent- 
gomeryt his Mmniale in command, prifoaera to Edinbatgh casde^ which 
hrooght the affair to a oeaclnsion.* 

A aimilar fitfce waa abovt the aame tone acted at Dnmfriee, where 
the artidre of Union were likewiae eomantted to the flames, and a 
declaration emitted* This was done in the midst of some 
of men in arms, who snp p eae d themaelres on the rovte far 
£chahai]e^9 to prevent, by breaking op die parliament, the ratification of 
this odions trealy. The arrind of this pmty at Edbbanh was sao* 
gauwly espeeted by the cavaliers, bat the whole was a trid^ played otf 
npoa their crednlityy being only the result of the intrignes of Ker of 
Kerakad, a government spy, among a few well meaning eomtrv peoptei 
a^ for a time^ aristook Inm for an honest man, and whens, thai he might 
with a better graov claim the reward of his villaay, he thus for two oi^ 
three days empioyedi after whicfa he pennaded them peaceably to return 
lo their nual occupationsbf 

Another maMsavre of the same hind was made by CnnHhigham e# 
Edmtt, who had been a major in the arssy, afterwaids one of the 
Dwien adveatnrerB» and at this time apparently without any profitaide 
employment, for the want of which, he seems to have been very much 
a patriot. Pieteoding to have a powerful interest in the western 
ihiras^ he proposed raising an insurrectiott there, at the bead of wMehf 
ho too was to inarch to Edmbuigb, for the double purpose of misifiif 
the parliament, and restoring king James* To encourage bim in thesis 
designs^ Cochcsn of Kilmaienock, and Lockhart of Camwatb, advanced 
him fifty gainess, and gare him a promise, that in case any thing befeH 
him in the prosecntiaQ of his purpose, they would provide for his wife 
and children. The didce of HamiHoa was ^w engaged to lend him aH 
his influence, aad the duko of Athol was to bring up a ht^ body of 
H i ghl a nd em to joia him before entering the MMWopsUst Cunningham, of 
ooafBOy went to the west^ where bis progress was at fiiet, as be alleged, 
soflsewhat impeded, ia coaieqoenoe of the goverameat having gained 
over Mr. John Hepburn, who was the leader of a great body of pres^ 
byteriana^ but he was soon relieved, by discovering that the vilkny of Mr. 
Hepburn bed been laid open by Mr» John Madkmillan, who was now 
become the onda of these people, who, to the number of eight thousand 
aien, anaed aad trained, were iaunediately to assemble at Haasiltoni 
whence they were to proceed stmigfat to Edinburgh. Of these eight 

* Defoe's Hlstoiy of the Union, folio ed. pp. 56-^71. Annals of Gla^fow, by 
Dr. JaiiMB OeUuid, toL iL pp. GS, 6S. 
t McissbsoC JslM Kcr, Em^ jif Kmland, pwti. p. S4. 



thonsand^ throngb the secret practices of the duke of Humltooy as wan 
stated by CunnioghaiD, only Sire hundred of the more ardent came 
forward, a force too small with which to take the field, and in conse- 
queooe, the whole design was broken. The parliament, pretending to 
be alarmed at these warlike demonstrations, repealed the act of secnrity* 
which at once put an end to them, as no body of men could after- 
wards appear in arms, without being liable to be taken up as rebelo. 
Such is the history of this affair, as told ^ by Lockhart, and after 
him by many others;* but we know that Mr. John Hepburn waa 
never at any period of his life disposed to rise against the goTemment, 
the authority of which, in things lawful, he maintained against Mr. 
Mackmillan, nor was he at any«time deserted by his people ; and Mr. 
Mackmillan, though he had been disposed to rise against the gorem- 
ment, would have taken care that his rising should not advance the 
interests of James, whom he cordially hated, and for whom all this parade 
of preparation was made. If the reader will look back to the note, page 
XX., he will find in the list of those among whom the money sent down 
from the English treasury was divided, Cunningham set down for one 
hundred pounds, which we think sufficiently illustrates the nature of hia 
transactions, and explains clearly the whole of this afiiur. 

Knowing what they knew, it was impossible but that the members of 
administration must sometimes have smiled at this bustle of opposition. 
The duke of Argyle good humouredly recommended the petitions, that 
flowed in upon the house in such incalculable numbers, as partica* 
larly suited for the manufacture of paper kites, against the return of 
the season when they should be in request. The earl of Marchmont, 
less, complacent, moved that they should be thrown out of the house, 
as being seditious libels upon the government; in which opinion the 
bouse seemed to agree, till Sir James Foulis of Collington, solemnly 
assured the members, that if these petitions were not received from the 
individuals intrusted with them, the subscribers would, at the door of 
the house, crave liberty to deliver them out of their own hands, which, 
as it would have been a very tedious process, the house wisely avoided 
by receiving them in their less ceremonious form.f They were also 
careful to obviate, in some degree, the only solid objection in them, by 
passing an act for the security of the church, and declaring it to be a 
fondamental article of the treaty, which, though its provisions did not 
come up to what presbyterians in general would have expected, and 
weie very far short of what the Jacobites now wished to see conferred 
upon her, satisfied some, and greatly cooled the ardour of opposition 
in all. 

On the first of November, it was moved that the house do now pro- 
ceed to a further and more particular consideration of the articles of the 
treaty, all of which had already been read and discussed at considerable 
length. Tlie great object of the cavaliers being delay, that they might 
have the benefit of the various demonst-rations of public opinion above 
related, several of which had not yet been made, they, again moyed '< that 

• Lockhart Papers, vol. i. pp. 197—102. f lUd. p. llfk 


tbe te^er c o Midc f adoa of thwe article be postponed* till the Bentunenls 
of tbe portiameiit of England be known respecting them, and tiH the mem- 
ben of thu house be more particnlarly instructed, by seTerally consolt- 
tog their constituents." To second these views, a great number of 
adcfa neascB were this day presented, the reading of which, and the repe« 
tttioa of all the former arguments that had been used against the treaty, 
orciipied the whole day, and the sederunt was closed by reading the first 
article^ and agreeing that it should be resumed to-morrow. On the 
racceediDg day, tbe first article of the treaty was again read, and haviqg 
fiiiled in all their former proposak, the caTaliers now, as the next 
and surest method of perplexing tbe house and procuring delay, pro- 
posed to begin with the security of the church. Defeated in this 
also, they lastly insisted upon having all the articles read and agreed 
upon, before they proceeded to ratify any of them. They particu- 
larly enlarged upon the danger of ratifying the first article, till they 
had agreed upon all the rest, as the parliament might be immedi- 
ately dissolved, and Scotland would then be united to England without 
any tenns whatever ; and this most ridiculous supposition had like to 
have gained the ear of the bouse, till it was obviated by the lord Regis- 
ter, who made a motion *' That the house do proceed to take the first 
article into consideration, with this proviso, that if all the other articles 
be not adjusted by the parliament, the agreeing to and approving of the 
first article (hall be of no effect," which, after a keen debate, was at 
length carried. 

The whole subterfuges of the cavaliers being now exhausted, the 
article itself came of necessity to be debated, and the united strength 
and talent of tbe party were brought into action on this occasion. Mr. 
Seton of Pitmedden, one of the commissionem for the treaty, opened 
the discussion with a speech of great good sense and moderation, in 
which he insisted, not so much on the utility of the treaty, though thai 
was not forgotten, as upon its necessity — he went over the diiferent 
plans that had been laid down for redeeming the country from that de- 
gradation into which it had fallen, and showed with great force of re»* 
soning, that except an incorporating union, such as was now before 
them, not one of these plans would produce any lasting ot salutary 
consequences. For the happy effects attendant on the incorporating of 
independent states, he appealed to Spain, formerly ten, France, twelve, 
En^and, seven, and Scotland herself two kingdoms, all of which had 
been indisputably benefitted by their coalescence. Confined to argumen- 
tation of this kind, the matter would have been very soon set at rest, 
for, generally speaking, there were no arguments could be bronght to 
bear against the measure, but such as were founded in ignorance or 
prejudice— the honour of the nation, the subversion of the constitutiony 
and, above all, the loss of independence, were the magical phrases which 
awakened the wildest emotions in the bosoms of the orators, and drew 
tears from the eyes of their transported hearers. <<What!" exclaimed 
his grace the dtike of Hamilton, with an enthusiasm that for the moment 
entranced even the bitterest of his opponents, '* What ! shall we in half 
an hour yield what our forefathers maintained with their lives and 


fortniies lor m many a^? Are time bere aeae of ilia < 
those wortliy patriots wbo itefoBcled iho liberty of tlioir oouBlry agMnoa 
alt invaders — ^wiio nsskted the great king Uohert Bruce to rettora tte 
constitution, and avoii;^ the fabcliood of England and usurpation of 
Baliol ? Whore are the Douglases and tlm Campbells ? Wheio aro 
the peers ? where are the barons ooce the bulwark of the nation ? Shall 
we yield up tlie sovereignty and independency of tlie nation^ when w« 
are coninianded by those we represent to preserve the aamoi and assured 
of then* assistance to support us.'** 

Fletcher of Salcon was notlitng behind the duke of Haniltoo, either iit 
Tohemency of speech or of spirit ; but the Demosthenea of the party was 
lord Belhaven, who melted the house with the nMSt humiliating views, and 
pathetic detuls of that ruin which he saw treading on the heels of the treaty: 
— ** My lord chancellor," he began, <* when I consider this afliEdr of aa 
union betwixt the two nations, aa it is expressed in the several articles 
thereof, and now tiie anbject of our deliberation at this time^ I find my^ 
mind crowded with variety of very melancholy thoughts, and I think it 
my duty to disburden myself of some of them, by laying them before^ 
and exposing them to the serious consideration of this honoumble house. 
<< I think I see a free and independent kingdom^ delivering up that 
which ail the world hath been fighting for since the days of Nimrod ; 
yea, that for which most of all the empires, kingdoms, states, principali- 
ties, and dukedoms of Europe, are at this very time engaged in the 
most bloody and cruel wars that ever were, to wit, a power to manage 
their own affairs by themselves, without the assistance and counsel of any 
other. I think I see a national church, founded upon a rock, secured by 
a claim of right, hedged and fenced about by the strictest and pointedeat 
l^^al sanction that sovereignty could contrive — voluntarily detcpodiag 
into a plain, upon an equal level with Jews, Papists, Socinians, Armioiane, 
Anabaptists, and other sectaries. I think I see the noble and booourablo 
peerage of Scotland, whose valiant predecessors led armies against their 
enemies upon their own proper charges and expenses, now divested of 
their followers and vassalages, and put upon such an equal foot with 
their vassals, that I thiuk I see a petty English exciseman receive more 
homage and respecti than what was paid formerly to their quondam 
Maci»llanmores. I think I see die present peers of Scotland, whose 
noble ancestors ocmquered provinces, overran countries, reduced and 
subjected towns and fortified places, exacted tribute through the greatest 
part of England, now walking in the court of requests, like so many 
English attomies ; laying aside tlieir walking swords when in company 
with the English peers, lest their self-defence should be found murder* 
I think I see the honourable estate of barons, the bold assertors of the 
nation's righu and liberties in the worst of times, now setting a watch 
upon their lips, and a guard upon tbeir tongues, lest they be found guilty 
of Bcandalum magnahtm, I think I see the royal state of borougha 
walking their desolate streets, hanginfj^ down their heads under disap* 
pointmentiy wormed out of all the branches of tbeir old trade, uncertain 

• Lockhart Papery voL L pp. 180, 181. 

DiMMTATioii, kc Maix 

to tarn to, n cco M iU ted lo beoMM p w n tf ca i to iMr »kiiui 
bmI yely after «U, findiag their «nde to fiiftified hj coiD|»iiiett 
by pffwcriptieiisy that they lieBpair ef anyeocceM thereim. 
i thodc I MO our learaed judges teying wide their prKtiquee aod deci- 
■OMy etsdymg the eenmoa law of Eaff^land, gravelled with oer/corarMr 
mm priuBett writs of eiror, Tordiets indorer, ^eotumtfirmm^ iDJunctionSy 
de»m, &e. and frighted with appeals and ayooations, becanse of the 
aew regalatioBs aod reetaficatioas they may meet with. I think I aoe 
the valknt and gallant soldiery either sent to learn the plantation trade 
afanwd, or at home pettttomag for a small subsistence as the reward of 
their honovrahle exploits ; while their old corps are broken, the conmioa 
saldicffs left to beg, and the yoongest English corps kept standing. I 
think I see the honest indostrions tradesman loaded with new taxes and 
hnpoaitioDs, diiappointed of the equivalents, drinking water in place of 
ale, eaung his saltless pottage, petitioning for encouragement to his man- 
afcityiicii, aad answered by counter petitions. In short, I think I see 
the laborious plooghmaa with his com spoiling upon hit hands for want 
of sale, cursing the day of his birth, dreiMling the expense of his burial, 
and oncertain whether to marry or do worse. I think I see the incurable 
difficulties of the landed men, fettered under the golden chain of eqoiva- 
lests, their pretty daughters petitioning for .want of husbands, and their 
sons for want of employments. I think I see our mariners delivering up 
ihor stripe to their Dutch partners, and what through presses and neces- 
sity, earning their bread as underlings in the royal English navy. But 
above all, my lord, I think I see our ancient mother Caledonia, like 
Cesar, sitting in the midst of our senate, rueftdly looking round about 
her, covering herself with her royal garment, attending the fotal blow, 
and breathing out her last with zettu quoque mi JUL 

Are not these, my lord, very afflicting thoughts ? And yet they ara 
but the least part suggested to me by these dishonourable articles. 
Should not the consideration of these things vivify these dry bones of 
euis ? Should not the memory of our noble predecessoni' valour and con- 
stancy rouse up our drooping spirits? Are our noble predecessors' souls 
got so for into the English cablMge-stock and colliflowers, that we should 
show the least inclination in that way ? Are onr eyes so blinded, are 
oar ean so deafened, are our hearts so hardened, are our tongues so fol- 
tered, are our hands so fettered, that in this our day, I say my lord, that 
in this our day, that we should not mind the things that concern the very 
bdng and well-being of our ancient kingdom, before the day be hid from 
onr eyes ? No, my lord, God forbid, man's extremity is God's oppor* 
tunity. He is a present help in time of need, and a deliverer, and thai 
right early. Some unforeseen providence will fall out, that may cast 
tlw balance ; some Moses or other will say, ** Why do ye strive together 
since ye are brethren?" None can destroy Scotland, save Scodand's 
sdf, bokl your hands from the pen, you are secure. Some Judah or 
other will say ** Let not our hands be upon Uie lad, ho is our hroUier. 
There, will be a Jehovah Jtreh, and some ram will be caught in the 
thicket when the bloody knife is at onr mother's throat, let us up then, 
ay lord, and let our noble patriots behate themselves like men, and wa 
know not how soon a blessing may come." 


This was only the ezordinm of fak lordship's speech, btended ^ to 
enconrage a free and full deliberation, without animosities and beats." 
Full of this happy idea he proceeds, ** That I may path a way, my 
lord, to a fall and calm reasoning this affair, which is of the last conae- 
qnence unto this nation, I shall mind this honourable house that we 
are the successors of our noble predecessors, who founded our monarchy, 
framed our laws, amended, altered, and corrected them from time to 
time, as the affairs and circumstances of the nation did require, withoat 
the assistance or advice of any foreign power or potentate, and who, 
during the time of two thousand years, ha^e handed them down to us 
a free independent nation, with the hazard of their li^es and fortunes. 
Shall not we then argue for that which our progenitors ha^e purchased 
for us at so dear a rate, and with so much immortal honour and glory ? 
Shall the hazard of a father unbind the ligaments of a dumb son's tongue, 
and shall we hold our peace when our patna is in danger ?*' After 
much more to the same purpose, be adverts to the divisions which pre- 
▼luled over the whole island, and to the immense wealth and growing 
prosperity of the English nation, in consequence of which, he thinks it 
will be hard to persuade them to a self-denial bill. 

<* It is quite otherwise,** he continues, " with us, my lord, we are an 
obscure poor people, though formerly of better account, removed to a 
remote corner of the world, withoat name, and without alliances, our 
posts mean and precarious, so that I profess I do not think any one post 
of the kingdom worth the hriguing after, save that of being commissioner 
to a long session of a factious Scots parliament, with an antedated com- 
mission, and that yet renders the rest of the ministers more miserable. 
What hinders us, then, my lord, to lay aside our divisions, to unite cor- 
dially and heartily together in our present circumstances, when our all is 
at the stake. Hannibal, my lord, is at our gates I Hannibal is come 
within our gates ! Hannibal is come the length of this table I he is at 
the foot of this throne I he will demolish this throne I If we take not 
notice, bell seize upon these regalia, he*ll take them as our ftpolia opimoy 
and whip us out of this house never to return again." * 

This, with a great deal more to the same purpose, delivered with all 
the pomp of action, for his lordship, in the course of his speech, fell upon 
his knees and implored, paused, and wept— ^ould not fail to produce a 
▼ery powerful effect. Seton of Pitmedden rose to reply, but was pre- 
▼ented by the house, as contrary to the rule, that no member should speak 
twice in one day upon the same subject. The altercation which this 
occasioned, necessarily cooled the state of feeling into which the members 
had been wrought, and the earl of Marchmont, being declared in pos- 
session of the floor, by a reply odd and laconic, gave it at once an entirely 
opposite direction. ** We have heard," said his lordship, *< a very long 
speech, bnt it requires only a very short answer. Behold he dreamed, but 
lo I when he awoke, he found it was a dream." The house was at once 
convulsed with laughter, and time has completely justified the severity 
of his lordship*s remark. Other speakers, however, succeeded, and the 

• Defoe*8 Minutes of the Proceedings of the ScoUsh Parlistnent upon the Artielee 
of Union, folio ed. pp. SS— 89. 

DItiBBTAtldK, Sec 

m adjonmed till Monday, the fourth of Novevabery when the 
fiiBt article was carried by a plurality of thirty-ttiree Toices. The duke of 
Athol eotered hiB protest against this article, << As contrary to the 
boDonry the interesty and fundamental laws and constitution of this king- 
dom, the birthright of the peers, the rigbM and privileges of the barons 
and boroaghs, as contrary to the claim of right, property, and liberty of 
the subject, and third act of her majesty's parliament, 1703," &c &c. 
To this protest, there adhered twenty-one lords, tbirty-three barons, and 
twenty-nine burgesses, in all eighty-three.* It had been preriously agreed 

* To SToid repedtioa of names, we ahall (Are the following list of the Sootish 
psriiamcnt as they divided oo the first Article of the Union, November 4th, 1706, 
snd npoo all sabsequent divisions the lists were nearly the same. No. I.*-Thoao 
who voted for the Article. No. II — Those who voted against it. The dulie of 
Qneensberryy being lord commissioner, had no vote, bat he reqacited hia name oa 
^ to be added to the list of approvers. 

The Eari of Seafield, Lord 

Marrais of Montnse, 

Doke of Argyle. 
Marqois of Lothian. 
Earl of Manr, Secretary. 
Earl of London. 
Earl of Crawford. 
Earl of Satherhmd. 
Earl of Rothes. 
Earl of Mortonn.' 
Earl of Eglinton. 
Earl of Rexborgh. 
Eari of Haddington. 



Earl of Galloway. 
Earl of Wemyss. 
Earl of Dalhonsie. 
Earl of Leven. 
Earl of Balcarraa. 
Earl of Forfar. 
Earl of Kilmarnock. 
Earl of Kintore. 
Earl of Dunmore. 
Earl of Marchmont 
Earl of Hynford. 
Earl of Cromarty. 
Earl of Stair. 
Earl of Roseberry. 
Earl of Glasgow, ^i. Dep. 

Earl of Hoptonn. 
Earl of Delorain. 
Viscoimt Duplin. 
Viscoant Gamock. 
Lord Forbes. 
Lord Elphinstouna. 
Lord Ross. 
Lord Torphichen. 
Lord Fraser. 
Lord Bamff. 
Lord Elibank. 
Lord Duffiis. 
Lord Rollo. 
Lord Register. 
Lord Justice Clerk. 


Ar Robert Dlcksone of Inverask. 

William Nisbet of Dirletoon. 

John Cockbom, Jan. of Ormiston. 

Sr John Swinton of t^ ilk. 

Sff Alexander Campbell of Cesnock. 

Sff William K«>r of Greenhead. 

Arddhald Douglas of Cavers. 

WiDiam Bcnnet of Grubbet. 

John Hnrray of BowhilL 

John PHncle of Hainiog. 

William Alorrison of Piiston Grange. 

Geem BallUe of Jerviswopd. 

Sir John Johnstoun of WesterhalL 

William Douglas of Domock. 

William Stewart of Castle Stewart 

John Stewart of Sorbie. 

Frsnds Mont g omery of GiUan. 

Jehn Montgmncry of Wrae. 

Sv Robert FoUock of that ilk. 

William Dalrymple of Glenmuir. 
John Hadden of Glenagies. 
MunjFO Grahame of Gorthy. 
Sir Thomas Burnet of Leyes. 
William Seton, jun. of Pitmedden. 
Alexander Grant, jun. of that ilk. 
Sir Kenneth Mackenxie. 
JEmbm M acleod of CatboL 
John Campbell of Mammore. 
Sir James Campbell of Auchinbreck. 
James Campbell, jun. of Ardldnglaas. 
Sir W^illiam Anstruther of that ilk. 
James Halyburton of Fitcur. 
Alexander Aben^rombie of Glassoch. 
William MaxweU of Cardross. 
James Dunlmr, iun. of Hcmprlgs. 
John Bruce of Kinross. 
Ur. Robert Stuart of Tillyooultry. 

Sr Fitriek JohnatooD. 


CoU. Areskin. 

James Sent 



ihit the tCate of tins, aad all the snoeeedkig toIm, and a fist of the 
BBemben as tbey Toted, tbould be regularly printed. 

It was at this stage of the hnsiBess that the act of security for the 
Idric was ei^rossed, and here the candiers exerted tbemselTes for pres- 
bjrtery to the Tsry utmost, offering and pressing many additional daaaes 
to the act for its preserration, which could not be supposed to find 
■Mich fiiTonr with those presbyterians who saw their mean i ng, which was 
not to secure ptesbytery, a system they had always considMed aa their 
bane, but to prefent the uniMi, by irritating Englaod, and by so stating 

Sir John Aretkin. 
JwDM Soittie. 
Patrick Moncrieffe. 
G^OTg^ Monro, 
oir Amlrew Hobn^ 
William Coltran. 
Sir Peter Halket. 
Sir Junes Smollet. 
WOliam CarmichML 

Duke of Hamilton. 
Dake of Athole. 
Marquia of Annandale. 
Earl of ErroL 
Earl MaritchaL 
Eaii of Buchan. 
Earl of Glencaim. 

Danfet Mackleod. 
Sir DaTid Dalrvmple. 
Sir Alexander Og3rlTie. 
John Clerk. 
John Roaa. 
Sir Hagh Dalrjmple. 
Patrick Orylrie. 
George AUafdioa 
William AlTis. 

No. II. 


Earl of Wigton. 
Earl of StFathmenb 
Earl of Selkirk. 
Viaooont Stermoat. 
Vieoonnt Kilsyth. 
Lord Semple. 

Roderick Mukeozie. 
J<rfm Urquhcrt. 
Sir James Stewart 
Daniel CampbeL 
Sir Robert FortMs. 
Robert Donrlas: 
Alexander Maitland. 
George Dalrymple. 
Charlea CampbdL 

Lord Oliphant. 
Lord Hahniwino. 
Lord Blaatjre. 
Lord Barganey. 
Lord Belhayan. 
Lord Kianaiffd. 


George Lockhart of Camwath. 
Sir James Foolis of CoIUngton. 
Andrew Fletcher of Salton. 
Sir Robert Sinclair of Longfoi 
Sir Patrick Home of Renton. 
Sir Gilbert Eliot of Minto. 
William BailUe of Lamington. 
John Sinclair, Jan. of Sterenson. 
John Sharp of Hoddam. 
Alexander Fergoaon of Ida. 
John Brisbane of Bishoptona. 
William Cochran of Kiimaronock. 
Sir Humphrey Colquhoun of Luas. 
Sir John Houatone of that ilk. 
John Grahame of Killairn. 
^ames Grahame of Bucklyrie. 
Thomas Sharp of Houaton. 

Sir Patrick Murray of Auchtertyr* 
John Murray of Strowaik 
Sir Darid Itamsay of Balmain. 
Alexander Gordon of Pitluiig. 
James More of Stoniewood. 
John Forbes of Culloden. 
David Bethune of Balfour. 
Thomas Hope of Rankeiller. 
Patrick Lyon of Auchterhonse. 
James Caniegie of .Phinharen. 
Darid Graham, younger, of Fintry. 
James OgyMe, jun. ot Boyne. 
Alexander Mackgfe of Palgotm. 
Sir Henry Innea, Jan. of that ilk; 
Alexander Douglas of Eagleshaw. 
George Mackenzie of Inchoulter. 

Robert Inglia. 
Alexander Robertaon* 
Walter Stewart 
Alexander Wataeo. 
Hugh Montgomery. 
Alexander Edgar. 
John BUck. 
James Oswald. 
Robert Johnstounsk 
Alaxandw Duft 


Francis MolUson. 
Walter Scot 
George Smith. 
Robert Scot 
Robert Kellle. 
John Hutchinson. 
William Sutherland. 
Archibald Shiels. 
John Lyon. 
•^ 1 Stewart 

Georga Brodia. 

George Spenoe. 

Sir DuTid Cunnlngiianu 

William JohnaaaoM. 

John Carrutherai 

George Home. 

James Bethun. 

Jolm Bayne. 




tiie arddet as migbt secure their being lejeeled dwre in the end. 
Accordingly, lord BialhaTett ** did iwotest in his own name, and in name 
of all those who shall adhere to him, that this act is no ndid secnri^ 
to the chnrch of Scotland as it is now establidied by law in case of 
sn incorporating muon, and that the chnrch of ScotUuid ean have no 
real, solid security by any manner of nnion by which the daun of right 
is unhinged, our pailiament incorporated, and onr distinct sovereignty 
snd independency abolished." This protest was adhered to by the 
mincipal leaders of the party, who were decided episcopalians, and had 
fiogiish episcopalians been eqnaliy void of honour and conscience widi 
themselves, their opinion had certainly proved correct, as was monm- 
fiilly experienced when the party, many of them the same individoals, 
attained to a share in the government a few years afiterwards. 

The second article, which established the succession to the crown as 
the same was established in England, was, if possible, still more keenly 
debated ihan the first. The cavaUers here lecnrred to their old scheme o£ 
limitadons upon the successor, suited as they pretended, to the state and 
circumstances of the country ; and here, as in the case of p re s byt e ry, 
srguing in the very teeth of their known prindples, they advanced, dmost 
in their abstract forms, many of the boldest and most startling doctrinea 
of liberty, not that they reaUy understood or relished these doctrines^ 
but fearing that the English succession was to be adopted after all, 
they wished to extmguish the prerogatives of the crown out of hatred to 
Hanover, for if their darling James did not obtain it, the more contemp- 
tible it could be made, so much the better for them. They were on 
this occuBOon again supported by lord Belhaven, in the following 
■ingttlar strsin of argument : — ^ I desire," said his lordship, ^ to be re* 
solved what are the motives that should engage us to take England's 
iocceaBion upon thdr own terms? Is it not strange that no answer 
should be given to this question, save that when you come to consider 
the rest of the articles, you shall be satisfied on that demand* This u 
a new way of arguing, my lord, — a method without precedent, transven- 
bg nature; and looks more like design than fair play. I profess I 
think the huge and prodigious rains that we have had of late, have dther 
drowned out, or found out another channel for reasoning than what was 
formerly, for by what I can see by this new method, the agredng to the 
first artide shall be a suffident reason for agreeing to the second, and 
the agreeing to the second for the third, and so for alL If there waa 
ever such a firce acted, if ever reason was Hudibrased — ^this is the tim^ 
Consult all the treaties since the beginning of the. world to this day, ana 
if you find any one precedent, I shall yield the cause. 

*' I shall instance, my lord, one for all, and that is the first and worst 
treaty ever was set on foot for mankind ; and yet, I am sony to say it, 
there appears more ingenuity in it than our procedure. When the ser-^ 
pent did deceive our mother Eve, he proposed three advantages before 
he presumed to advise her to eat the forbidden fruit, llje first was 
taken from the sight, the second from the taste, and the third from the 
advantage following thereupon. That from the nght was enforced by a 
' behold how lovely and comely a thing it is,' it is pleasant to the eye— 


ihu from llie tMte, ten a penutnon ^tmth was good for nooiKiiiiieiity 
< It 18 good for foody'-^tfait from the adnmtago, <It will make yo« wise, 
yo ehaU be as gods ; diiefofore upon all these oonmderations eat.' 

** Allow ne, my lord, to nm the poraUel of this with relation to our 
proeedmre in the treaty. Upon the firat aoooant that oar nation had of 
the treaty'a being fiaiahed betwiit the two natiom, people appeared all 
generally rery well satisfied, as a thing that wonld tend to die removal 
of all jealonsies, aad the settling a good understanding betwixt the two 
kingdoms ; bat so soon as the articles of the treaty appeared in prints 
the yery sight of them made such a change, as is almost inconeeirablo. 
They are so finr from being pleasant to the eye, my lord, that the nation 
appears to abhor them. Ooe would think, my lord, that it had been the 
interest of those who are satisfied with the thing, to have gone immo* 
dtatdy into the merits of these particular aiticles which relate to Scot- ' 
land, and to baye said, Gentlemen, be not affiighted with their ugly 
shape, they are better than they are honay-*--«ome, taste ; oome, midce 
a narrow search and inquiry, they are good for Scotland, die whole- 
aomest food diat a decaying nation can take. You shall find the adnui«- 
tages-«-yoa shall find a change of comfitinn-^yoa ehall faeeome rich im* 
mediateiy — you shall be like the English, the most flourishing and the 
ridiest people of the universe. 

** But our procedure, my lord, hadi been very far from tbe prodeooe 
of the aerpent, for all oar aiguroents have ran open this blunt topic 
Eat, swallow down this incorporating Umon — ^though it please neither 
eye aor taste, it must go over ; yoa must believe your physicians, and 
we shall consider the reasons afte rwa rds. I wish, my loiti, that our loaa 
be not in some small manner proportionable to that of oar finit parents ; 
they tfaongbt to have been mcorporate with ^ gods, but in pbce of 
thai, they were justly expelled paradise, lost their sovereiguty over the 
cteatures, and were forced to earn their hiead with the sweat of their 

Such reasoning was certainly very properly met by a call for the vote, 
upoB which it coald aot reasonably be expected to have mudi influence. 
Accordingly, the second article was carried vritfa the sune ease as the 
first, though it was protested against by the eari Maiischal, in tenns of 
tbe act of security, which had already provided, ** that no person coold 
be designed successor to the crown of this redm, after ber majesty's de- 
cease, and liuling heirs of her body, and at the same time successor to 
the crown of England, unless, that in this, or any ensuing parliament 
(luring her majesty's reign, there be such conditions of government 
settled and enacted, as may secure the honour and sovereignty of this 
crown aad kingdom, the freedom, frequency, and power of parliaments, 
the religion, liberty, and trade of this nation from Englidi and foreign 
influence." Hie adherents to this protest were nearly, if oot alto« 
gether, the same who adhered to that of tbe duke of Athd.f 

The third article, which settled "die representation of the kingdoms to 

• Dc£m*« Miatttes of the PuMaedincs of the Seotiih Psittament upon 4hs Tnmr 
of Union, folio edit., p. 63—65. 
t trfiddHBrt Papers, toL i. p. 181. 

, oil the |Mk* of the oova- 
f upon origiMl eontstciay eon- 
nf^ &e. &io. the wo half of wbicb, hiul 
tWjT boon pfeTionaly vednoad lo piooliot^ instaid of ibo ^vorjr wont, bad 
aade ScoUADd tbe rwry besi governed cowrtry in ibo UQlverto; but ox- 
celleot ao these azionis were, diero ww nol ooo of tbe whole party, 
Fletcher of Solton excoptedy with whom they had proctieaUy tbe weight 
ofafeolher. They wei« is their months locfo figiro of 8p«ec)s fitv^ 
to emborraaB, bat not intended to inatruct or enUgbteo thetr q)poneDta, 
aad seryiag to impceas the nnthinking part of the eonnmnity with rever- 
•otial lospeet for their talenta and their patanoliaBi. IVi|)ttlarity had 
from tbe firet dawn of their expeetadons, been an object of their parti- 
calar atteationy and every day broiigfat now denooatnitlons how neoas- 
sry it wna to their auoceas. Of ooiix8e» the debate on tbia article waa 
iUnminated with prodigiouB flaabaa of seemingly diaintereated feeling, and 
gBDerooa regard for the ngbta and priyiiegaa of all claaaea of the qom- 
miinity, wbile^ at tbe same time, it waa daricened with the meet hideona 
views of tbe tyranny and oppreaaion that might owknially be expectad 
bom an Eagliab parliam^t. Nor waa the artiele aUowed to come to 
die TotOy tin the marqnis of Anoandale bad entered a protest against it 
flo the aamo gronnds aa the two former, but with the addition of ^' ita 
being minons to the church as by law eatabliahed, and aa what wonld in 
DO degree answer tbe peaoeable and friendly ends proposed, but wonld, 
on the contrary, create dismal distiaoticwa and animoaties among our*^ 
selves, and such jealousies and mistakes betwixt ns and omr neighboan, 
ss would iovolvo these nations in fatal breaches and confusions." Tbia 
ibo was adhered to by the same nmaea as the former two,* 

Fmdiog themselves thus completely over-matcbod in the senate, tbe 
caraliera once more bethought themselves of calling in, from whatever 
quarter they could find it, some external aid— -and for this purpose they 
adopted a measure, for which they found a precedent in the history of the 
minority of James Y. This was to invite as many of the barons, free- 
holders, and heritors, as could be prevailed upon, to come to Edinburgh, 
that they might in a body wait upon tbe high comnussioner, and by a 
prolocntor entreat bb grace to lay a^da the designed Union, at least, till 
they had informed tbe queen of the present temper and disposition of tbe 
nation, and obtained an order for calling, a new parliament, to settle the 
present diHurbances, and provide against the calamities that were but 
too certninly to follow theni. A request of this kind, backed with such 
numbers as they contemplated, it was presumable, the commissioner wonld 
scarcely take it upon him to deny ; and though be did, it was resolved that 
a national address, representing the same things, shonld be drawn i;^, aa 
Bumenmaly signed as possible, and forthwith transmitted to the queen* 
This project originated with tbe duke of Athole and Fletcher of 
Sslton — was recommended by the duke of Hamilton, and generally ap* 
proved of. Every individual of the party, of course, waa employed to 
warn his friends to come apeedily forward, Mr. Henry Manle waa 

• Lockhsrt Pspen^ yqL i. p. 189. 


chosen to be their proloeator, an addvoM wm pveptrBd to tbo queen, 
fire hundred gentlemen were abeady oone to Ediabuifh, many faan- 
dnKls more were upon the road, and to-motrow waa appointed for put- 
ting the scheme in execntion, when the whole was marred by the duke 
of Hamilton, who, except there was a daiise added to the address in- 
timating their being perfecdy willing to settle the sacoession on the 
house of Hanover, absdlutely refused to have any $hing to do with it. 
The shock of an earthquake, or the bursting of a volcano^ could not 
haye bad a more petrifying influence upon the party than this declara- 
tion. The perpetual bustle they had kept up for so many years — the 
unwonted stretches they had made, and were now making, had all along 
for their principal object the exclusion of Hanover, and explicitly to 
declare for him in the very outset of their new career, seemed abso- 
lutely impossible. Violent altercation was the natural result, and several 
days were spent attempting to compromise their differences. Their friends 
from the country, in the mean time, living in town at a vast expense 
and doing nothing, began to be uneasy, many of them returned home, 
and the government, coming to the knowledge of the fact, issued a 
proclamation discharging all such assemblages, which, being approved 
of by the parliament, completely baffled the whole scheme. This pro- 
clamation was protested against by Geoige Lockhart of Carnwath, and 
adhered to by the whole body of the cavaliers.* 

By this time the parliament had arrived at the twenty-second article 
of the treaty, approving every article as they came along, and it was 
evident the whole would be very soon brought to a conclusion. All 
means that could be thought of had been employed to retard and to 
defeat the measure, but in vain, and further opposition seemed hopeless, 
when the duke of Hamilton convened the leading men of his party, and 
in the most moving terms, exhorted them to make one effort more to 
save their dying country. He then proposed that the marquis of An- 
nandale should renew his motion with regard to the succession to the 
crown, which, it was not doubted, would be rejected, when a protesta- 
tion was to be entered and adherecl to by the whole party, after which, 
they were to withdraw in a body from the house, never to return. The 
national address formerly proposed, when the barons should have waited 
on the commissioner, signed by as many hands as could possibly be 
obtained, was then to be transmitted to the queen, which, his grace as- 
sured them, would induce the English to drop the union if any thing 
would. He then presented the draught of a protestation, embracing 
gfjnerally all the arguments which had been brought against the treaty, 
which, with some hesitation, was finally agreed to. This protestation 
contained a clause in favour of the succession of the house of Han- 
over, on which account the duke of Athol refused to si^ it, but he en- 
gag^ to leave the house along with the party, and to join in all that 
should be afterwards thought to be necessary. 

Every thing thus prepared, the next day, being the day appointed 
for making their last attempt to preserve the independence of the nation, 

• Lockhttrt Papon, yol. S. pp. SOS, 204. 


urn looked fonmd to whfa the doepeot Mizielf. There must have beeo 
liftbiB time, ho wever , a oeMidenhb oheoge in the pqinlar feeling, for 
tt was thought aeoeenry that a mmiher of gentlemeo, and of the better 
tort of otinns, ehoukl, oa that moniing, anemble round the parliament 
kiQK, to wait upon, and to protect the separating members, in case they 
sbonld be insnlted and maltreated as they came from the hoose. The 
ioportant morning so ardently desired, at length came, but the resolu- 
tioo of his grace, the duke of Hamilton, failed ; he was attacked with 
toodiacb, and refused to leave his lodgings. The reproaches and 
the detpalr of his party at length prevailed on him to go to the 
hooae, but no entreaty could prevail upon him to enter the protes- 
tatioo, till the parliament had advanced so far that the attempt was 
coDsidered hopeless, and of course was never made. This last disap- 
poiotment completely disconcerted the whole party, and it was the more 
Utteriy regretted, when it was afterwards found, that if the protestation 
bid been given in, the ministry had resolved to dissolve the parliament, 
tod relinquish the union as a hopeless undertaking.* 

The conflict may be said to have been now at an end. The twenty- 
lecond article, though it occupied the house for three days, and was pre- 
ceded by six protestations, was carried with little trouble. The re- 
namder may be said to have been concluded without any opposition ; 
tnd when the earl of Seafield, the lord chancellor, signed the engrossed 
oemplification of the articles, he returned it to ihe clerk with this re- 
niaric, ** Now there's ane end of an auld sang."f The parliament pro- 

• Lodkhart Fspen, toL L pp. »»-«lS. 

t Artidea of Unum bdvetn StoOoMd and England, 

The Articles of Union wen agreed to on the twenty-eeoond day of July, in the 
fcvrth year of the leicn of Her moat caosdlent MideatT, Anne, by thearaoeof God, 
Qbmo of Scotland. £nf land, France, and Ireland^ IMender of the FUth, &c. and 
a the year of oar Lord, one thouaand seven hundred and aix, hy the Commiaaionera 
sonunated on behalf of the Kingdom of Scotland, onder her Mi^eaty'a Great Seal of 
Scotland, bearing date tho twenty-eeyenth of February, in pursuance of the fourth 
Act of the third aeaalon of her Majest/a current Parliament of Scotland, in the 
Amrth year of her Migesty*8 reign: and the Commiaaioners nominated in behalf of 
the Kingdom of England, under Her Maieaty*8 Great Seal of England, bearing data 
at Weatminster, the tenth day of April ; m pursuance of an Act of Parliament made 
la England, the third Tear of Her Maietty*a reign, to treat of, and oonceming an 
vnion of thcaaid Kingdoms, which artidea are, m all humility, to be preaent^ to 
^tf Queen'a moat exedlont Majeaty, and offered to the conaideration of the respective 
nliamenta of both Kincdoma, pursuant to the aaid Acts and Commissions. 

I. That the two Kingdoms of Scotland and England shall, npon the first daj of 
Uay next, eoaning the date hereof, and for ever after, be united into one Kingoom, 
W the name of Great Britain ; and that the ensigns armorial of the said United 
Kingdom to be such aa her Majesty shall appoint ; and the crosses of St. Andrew 
•od St George be conjoined in such manner as Her Migesty shall think fit, and 
ewd in all flags, banners, standards, and ensigns, both at sea and land. 

II. That the succession to the Monarchy of the United Kingdom of Great Brit- 
sin, and of tlie dominions thereunto belonging, after her moat sacred issue, and in 
de&ult of iaaoe of Her Mi^eaty, be, remain, and continue, to the most excellent 
Princess Sophia, Electress and Dutchess Dowager of Hanover, and the heirs of bet 
ksdy, being Prutestantiib upon whom the crown of England is settled by an Act of 
Psriiament, made in England in the twelfth year of His kite Mc^esty, King Wil. 
liim III., entitled, l*.i Act for the fairther Limitation of the Crown, and better so 
coring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject. And that all Papists, and persona 
nvrving Papists, shall be excluded from, and for ever ineanable to inherit, poasesa, 
er enjoy^ the imperial Crown of Great Britain, and the dominions thereunto bo- 

ttsmM iHTaoDuosoAy 

eoeded to cfaooM repnwinftiinmi for Sootfand u» thtf fot Biitisb 
parlkunent, wiiicb vras consiiderad m an higliaggiravAtimi «f all iu fonner 
delmqueacieB, and was pnHested agauMt by ibe aMntifi#d and irritated 
cayaliers, as conliwy to the iweatj-memoA anicle of (be uoioii. The 

loogbiff, or any pari therapf ; and in eyery such caacy the Crown, and GoTemment 
■haD, nova, time to time, descend to, and be enjoyed by such penon, being a Protes- 
tant, as should bare inherited and M^oyed the same ; in ease such Fapists, or pcnaoii 
manring a F^^t, was aaturaUy dead, aocordinfcto the provision for the descent of 
the Crown of England, made by another Act of iParllament, in England, in the first 
year of the reign of their late Mijesties, King WHliam and Queen Mary, entitled, 
an Act declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Sab|Mt, and settling the Suoces- 
sionofthe Crown. 

III. That the United Kingdom of Great Britain be represented by one and the 
same Fterliament^ to be styled the Parliament of Great Britain. 

IV. That aU the sul^Jects of the United Kingdom of Great Britain shaU, from 
and after the Union, have liill freedom and intercourse of trade, navigation, to and 
from any port or place within the said United Kingdom, and the ^minions and 
plantations thereunto belonging, and that there be a oommonieation of all other ng^tu^ 
prhrilqgBs, and advantages, wmchdo or may belong to the subjects of either Jung- 
dom, except where it is otherwise expressly agreed m fhese Articles. 

V. That all ships belonging to Her Majes^*s sulgects of Stttthmd, at the tima of 
signing this treaty for tlie Union of the two Kingdoma, though fortign built, shall 
be deemed and pass as ships of the built of Great Britain ; the owner, or where 
there are more owners, one or more of the owners, within twelve months after the 
Union, making oath, that at the time of signing the said IVeaty, the same did belong 
to him or them, or to soma other sulyect or subjects of Scotland, to be particularly 
aamed, with the places of their respective abodes, and that the same doth then belong 
to him or them, and tliat no Foreigner, directly or indirectly, hath any riiare^ rent, 
or interest, therein ; which oath shall be made before the chief officer or officera of 
the Customs, in the port next the abode of the said owner or owners ; and the said 
officer or officers shall be empowered to administer the said oath; and the oath 
being so administered, shall be attested by the officer or officers who administered 
the same ; and being registrat by the said officer or officers, shall be delivered to the 
master of the ship for security of her navigation, and a duplicate thereof shall be 
transmitted by the said officer or officers to the chief officer or oAceys of the Customs 
in the port of Edlnbuigh, to be there entered in a register, and from tlience to be 
sent to the port of London, to be there entered in the general register of aU trading 
ships belonging to Great Britain. 

VI. That cll parts of the United Kingdom, for ever, from and after the Union, 
ahall have the same allowanoes and encouragements, and be under the same prohl- 
Utions, restrictions, and regulations of trade, and liable to the same customs and 
dnties on import and export ; and that the allowances, encouragements, prohil>itiona| 
restrictions, and ragulationa of tradc^ and the customs and duties on import and 
export, settled in England when the Union commeucesi shall, from and after the 
Union, take place throughout the whole United Kingdom. 

VII. Tliat all parts of the United Kingdom be, for ever, from and after the 
Union, liable to tne same excises on all exciseable liquors ; and that the excise 
settled in England, on such liquors, when the Union commences, take place through- 
out the whole United Kingdom. 

VII L That from and after the Union, all foreign salt which shall be imported 
into Scotland, shall be charged at the importation there, with the same duties as the 
like salt is now charged with, beine imported into England, and to be levied and 
secured in the same manner; but bootland shall, for the space of seven years from 
the said Union, be exempted from the naylng in Scotland for salt made there, the 
duty or excise now payable for salt made in England; but, from the expiration of 
the said seven years, siuUl be sulpect and liable to the same duties for salt made in 
Scotland as sh^ be tiien payable ior salt made in England, to be levied and secured 
In the same manner, and mth the like drawbacks and allowances, as In England ; 
and, during the said seven years* there shall be payable in England, for aU salt 
. made in Soytland and iI]|^K)rted from thence into England, the same duties upon the 
importation as shall be payable for salt made in England, to be levied and secured 
In the same manner as the duties on foreign salt are ; to be levied and secured in 
England, and that, during the said seven years, no salt whatsoever be brought from 
Seoiland to England br land. In any manner, under the penalty of forfeitiog the 
salt, and the cattle ana carriages made use of in bringing the same, and paying 


H«nlkDii, as the lewwd of lus tc y r w i rti on, -attanipted to 

~~ ekded as one of the re p r ne nt e ii yet of the ScotMi peer* 

imaUe to e£fect it, the qneen hsving given poeitiFe ovdem 

of her eervmte ebodd gave faiin aay ooantenance, which 

. rfiilHoji Ut eTtrrlvMlialwf Meh Mlt, and prapcnrkloaeUj fiir a mater or 
kanr quantity, for which the carrier, as well as the owner, shall be liable Jointly 
and oev«ndly ; and the pcrsMM bringing or canying the sam«^ to be imnrlMned by 
aay eoe Joataee of the Peaee, by the spaoe of six months^ without bail, and ontu 
lbs pcttalty be paid ; and that, during the said aeren years^ all salted flesh or fish 
oyvted fnm Scotland to England, or made use of for Tictoallinr sh^ in Scotland^ 
sad an flaali pat on board in fiootlaod to be exported to parte beyond eeas, which 
AaH bo anltod with Scotch salt, or aey arixtnrs therewith, shall be foHcited, and 
s»y be aeiMd; and that, Iran and after the Union, the Lawa and Acta of Parli»- 
ncnt in Scotland lor pfaidng, coring^ and paddng of henriogs, white fish and 
nhnsn, lor oxportatien, with fiadgn salt only, and for presenting of frauds in 
coring and packing of fiah, be eontinQed in fivce in Scotland, auUect to such altera* 

fiene aa ahdS be made by the Ptoliament of Gieat Britain : and that all fish ex. 
psrtsd fipom Scotland to parts beyond the mma, which ehall be cured with foreign 
■It only, ahall haw the saaae.eaaes, pmBJiiwe, and dxawbachs, aa are or shall bo 
I as expert the fOw fish from England ; and if any 1 

aUowed to aueb pcsasns as expert the Ufce fish fium England ; and if any matters or 

fraud relating to tiw said dnues en salt, shall hereafter ^pear, which are not suift* 

datly provided againat by this article the same ehaU be subset to such fiirthsr 

irarialena aa shall be thought fit Inr the Pariiament of Grsat Britain. 

IXs TbMt whcnerer the enm er one million nine hundred ninety-seTcn thousand 

Ired and sixty-three pounds eight shillings and fourpence halfpenny shall 

by the Parliament of Great Britain, to be raised in that part of the 

Uaitod KlnKdom now caQed Kngiand, on land and other things usually charged in 
Acts af FnUament, these, for granting an aid to the Crown by a bmd tax, that 
ysitaf the United KingdeHs, now calted Scotland, shall be chanred, by the same 
Act, with a fiother sum of Ibrty-eight thousand pounds, free of aU charges, aa the 

^eeta of Seotland to such tax; and so nroportionably for any greater or lesser sum 
riiwd in Kngiand ; by any tax on land, and other things usually chaned together 
with the land, and that such ^aeta lor Scothmd in the caeee aforesaid, be raised and 
orileetad in tlse same manner as the esm now is in Scotland, but suljject to such 
Mfulatiano in the manner of collectings aa sbaU be made by the Parliament of Great 
■* ■ lin. 

That daring the oontinuanee of the respeetiye duties on stamp paper, ydlum. 
■ • ■ ^^ . -^ -^ S^Zid Sail 

XL 1 

, by the eereral Acts new in £oros in Englaml^ Scotland shall not be 
I wHh the esme respective duties. 

Xl. That during tbe continuance of the dutka in England on windows and lights 
wbieh d f t r i ■lin es en the fiiat day of August, one thwaiand seTon hundred and ten, 
aeetbnd ahaB net be cherged with the same datiee. 

XIL That during the eentinuanm of the dntle% pajmble in England, on ooalL 
oifan, and cindcf% which deterasines the thirtieth day of September, one thousand 
•■vcn hondrod and ten, Scotland ahall not Im charged therewith for coals, culm, and 
dnden, ee n s umf d there^ but shall be charged with the esme duties, aa in Eogland, 
kr all oaaLealm, and cinders, not conaumed in Scotland. 

XIII. ThaM daring the cwntinnaure of the duty, payable in Engl&nd, on malt. 

vUch detemiinea the twenty-fourth day of June^ one thousand seven hundred and 
^ ■ " 'aUnotbad ■ * - 

t Kingdom 1 . ^ , _ . _ 

m by the Pariiament of England, belbte the Unlan, except thoee consented to iu 

y-fourtn day or June^ oi 
nreo, Seotiand shaU not be charged with that duty. 
I of Scotbnd be not clian 

XIV. That the iUnffdom of &othuid be not cliaiied with any other duties, laid 

tbis treaty; in regard, it ie agreed, that aU neeeuaury prarision shall be made by the 
FltfUaaacnt of Seotland ler the public duvga and serrice ol that Kingdom, for the 
few one thouaand eeveu hunmrcd and aeren; prerided, nevertheless, that if the 
nriisnicnt of £n|dand thinh fit to lay any farther fanpoeitioas by way of eustmns, 
M'sudh exetaee, m by virtue of this traaty, Scothmd is to be charged equally with 
EaglBnd. In each case, Seothmd shall be liable to the same customs and exeiMtag 
md hate an equivalent, to be settled by the Parliament of Great Britam. And 
ncJBgH cannot be anppoeed that the PMameat of Great Britain will ever Uv any 
nmef burthcna en Ae United Kingdom, but what they shall find of necessity at 
Ibat time, lor the pnaervation and good of the whole, and with due regard to the 

dKaaatancceandaUiitimofemy pvtof the United Kingdom, therefore it ia 
•peed, there be no tether aicnpaon Insiated on fiir any part of the United Klnf* 
"*'*'• .- - bqrand whiit are •Inadyi^Mad 

, but that the rnneidaffitisii of any 


sfforded no small gnitificftdon to many of hu frianda, who did not 
liesitate to declare^ that for some such paltry expectations, he had be- 
trayed them and his country's canse at the same time. 

Thus was this great work, that had occupied the wisest heads and 

on in this treaty, thall be left to the determination of the Farliament of Great 

XV. Wliereas, by the terms of this treaty, the subjects of Scotland, for preserrin^ 
an equality of trade throughout the United Kingdom, will be liable to seTeral cos- 
toms ^nd excises, now payable in England, which will be applicable towaids pay- 
ment of the debts of England, contracted as before the Union. It is agreed that 
Scotland shall have an e<tuivBlent for what the subjects thereof shall be so charged 
towards payment of the said debts of England, in all particulars whataoerer, in 
manner following, viz. tliat before the union of the said Kingdoms, the sum of three 
hundred ninety-eight thousand and eighty-five pounds ten shillings be granted to 
Her Majesty, by the Parliament of England, for the uaea aflermentioned, being the 
equivalent to be answered to Scotland, for such parts of the said customs and excises, 
upon all exciseable liquors with which that Kingdom is to be charged upon the 
Union, as will be applicable to the payment of the said debts of Enghind, aooordiiig 
to the proportions which the present customs of Scotland, being thirty thousaBd 
pounds per annum, do bear to the customs in England, computed at one million 
three huAdred forty-one thousand fire hundred and fifty-nine pounds per annum. 
And which the present excises on exciseable liquors in Scotland, being tiiirty-three 
thousand and five hundred pounds, per annum, do bear to the excises on exciseable 
Hquors in England, computed at nine hundred and forty-aeven thousand six hundred 
and two pounds, per annum, which sum of three hundred ninety^ight thousand 
and eighty-five pounds ten shillings, shall be due and payable at the time of the 
Union ; and, in r^;ard, that after the Union, Scotland becoming liable to th^ naM 
customs and duties, payable on import and export, and to the same excises on all 
exciseable liquors, as in England, as well upon that account, as upon the increaae of 
trade and people, (which will be the happy consequence of the Union,) the said 
revenues will much improve, beyond the before-mentioned annual values thereof, of 
which no present estimate can be made ; yet, nevertheless, for the reasons aforeaaid, 
there ought to be a proportionable equivalent answered to Scotland. It Is agreed, 
that, after the Union, tiiere shall be an account kept of the said duties arising in 
ScotUnd, to the end it may appear what ought to be answered to Scotland, as an 
equivalent for such proportion of the said increase as shall be applicable to the pay- 
ment of ^e debts of England. And for the farther and more effectual answering 
the several ends hereafter mentioned, it b agreed, that from and after the Union, 
the whole increase of the revenues of custom and duties on import and export, and 
excise upon exciseable liquors in Scotland, over and above the annual produce of the 
said respective duties, as above stated, shall go and be applied for the term of seven 
years for the uses hereafter mentioned, and that, upon the said account, there shall 
be answered to Scotland annually, firom the end of seven years after the Union, an 
equivalent in proportion to such part of said increase as shall be applicable to Uie 
debts of Encland. And, whereas, from the expiration of seven yean after the 
Union, Scotland is to be liable to the same duties on salt made in Scotland, aa shall 
be then payable for salt made in England. It Is agreed, that when such duties take 
place there, an eouivalent shall be answered to Scotland for such part thereof as shall 
be applied towards payment of the debts of EngUnd, of which duties, an account shall 
be kept, to the end it mav appear what is to be answered to Scotland, as the said 
equivalent. And generally, an equivalent shall be answered to Scotland for such 
parts of the EngUsh debts as Scotland may hereafter become liable to pay, by reason 
of the Union, other than such for which appropriations have been made by Pkriia- 
ment, in England, of the customs or other duties on export and import, excises on 
all exciseable liauors or salt, in respect of which debts, equivalents are herein before 
provided. Anfl, as for the uses to which the said sum of three hundred ninety- 
elffht thousand eighty-five pounds ten shillings, to be granted as aforesaid, and 
im other monies which are to be answered or allowed to Scotland as aforesaid. 
It b agreed, that out of the said sum of three hundred ninety-eicht thousand 

rtv-five pounds ten shillings, all the public debts of the kingdom of Scotland, and 
the capital, stoclc, or fund, of the African and Indian Company of Scotland, 
advanced, together with the interest of the said capital stock, after the rate of five 
pounds per cent, per annum, from the respective times of the payment thereof shall 
be payed. Upon payment of which capital stock and interest, it is agreed, the said 
Mmpany be dissolved and oeaae, and also that from the time of paadng the Act of 


ihe wanaest beftrU of both oadona for so maay ages, at length accom* 
pliahad, in direct opposition to the great body of the Scotish peoule, and 
ia a way, that, it must be admitted, reflects no great credit on toe men 
by whom it was managed^ who, te from seeing their way clearly, and 

nriisBMOt in FiBgland, lor ndbins tiio nid ram of three hnndred ninety-eight thon- 
MBod cighty-flTe pounds ten ihilliiifi, the said compaDy shall neither trade nor grant 
liecBse to txade. And as to the oTerplns of the said sum of three hundred ninety- 
eight thousand eishty-fiye pounds ten shillings, after the miyment of the said debts of 
the Klngtlmn of Scotland, and the said capital stoclc and .Interest, and also the whole 
iacreaae of the said rerenues of customs, duties, and excises, aboTO the present yalue^ 
wUeh ahall ^rise in Sctotlnnd during the said term of seTen years, together with the 
efniraleBft wkich shall become due, on account of the improremen., thereof in Scot- 
Ind, after the nkl term, and abo as to all other sums, which, according to the agree- 
■ints aforesaid, may beoome payable to Scotland, by way of equiyalent, for what that 
Kiflgdom shall hereafter become liable, towards payment of the debts of England. 
It is agreed, that the same be applied in manner following, viz, that out of the same^ 
wiMt oonsldention shall be found necessary to be had for any losses which prirate 

I ma^r^sustain, by reducin(^ the coin of Scotland to the standard and Tslue of 

a in 
appBadton ^ ^ . 

f rie s and improyements in Scotland, as may most conduce to the general good of 

naysustain, I , 

Cho ooin in £ngland, may be made good. And alterwards the same shall be wholly 
' owaraa encouraging and promoting the fisheries and such other numufto- 

I Uuted Kingdom. And it is agreed, that Her Mijesty be empower^ to appoint 

Commissioners, who shall be aooountahle to the Parliament of Great Britam for 
diepoainy the siid sum of three hundred ninety-ei^ht dionsand and eighty-fiye pounds 
ten shillings^ and all other monies Which shall arise to Scotland upon the agreement! 
aforesaid to the pnrpoeco before mentioned. Which Commissioners shall be em^ 
powered to call for, receiye, and dispoee, of the said monies, in manner aforesaid, 
and to inspect the books of the seyeral Collectors of the said revenues and of all other 
[ from whence an equivalent may arise ; and that the Collectors and Man- 

a^tn of the said revenues and duties be obliged to cive to the said Commissioners, 
sobscribed anthentie abbreviate of the produce of such revenues and duties arising in 
their respective districts. And that the said Commissioners shall have their olioe 
within the limiu of Scotland, and shall, in such office^ keep books, containing ao- 
eevnts of the amount of the equivalents, and how the same uiall have been disposed 
of from time to tim^^ which may be inspected by any of the subjects who may desire 

XVI. That from and afUr the Union, the coin shall be of the same standard and 
value throughout the United Kingdom, as now in England, and a Mint shall be 
eootinued in Scotland, under the same rules as the Mint in England, subject to such 
ngulationa as Her Mijesty, Her Heirs or Successors, or the Parliament of Great 
Britain shaB think fit. 

XVII. That from and after the Union, the same weights and measures shoU be 
used throaghout the United Kingdom as are now established in England ; and stand- 
ards of we^hts and measures shall be kept by those boroughs in ^tland, to whom 
tiie keeping the stan^brds of weights and measures now in use there^ does of special 
rij^t belong; all which standards shall be sent down to such respective boroughs 
firem the standards Icept in the Exchequer at Westminster, sulgect, neverthdess^ to 
soi^ rmlaiions as the Parliament of Great Britain shall think fit 

XVIII. Tliat the laws concerning regulation of trade, customs, and such excises 
which Scotland is, by virtue of this treaty, to be liable to the same in Scotland fhnn 
and aficr the Union as !n England; and that, all other laws in use within the King- 
dom of Scotland do^ after the Union, and notwithstanding thereof, remain in the 
■me force as before, (except such as are contrary to, or inconsistent with, the terms 
of this treaty,) but alterable by the Parliament of Great Britain, with this differ- 
ence, bctwiiLt the laws concerning public rig}it, poller, and dvil government, and 
chose wliich eoooem private right : tnat the laws whicn concern public richt, m>licy, 
sod civil government, may be made the same throughout the wnole Uruted King- 
dom ; but that no alteration be made in the laws wnich concern private right, ex- 
cept for evident utility of the subjects within Scotland. 

XIX. That the Court of Sesdon, or College of Justice, do, after the Union, and 
■otwithotanding tliereof, remain in all time coming, within Scotland, as it is now 
constitntod by the laws of that Kingdom, and with the same authority and privileges 
SB before the Union, suUeet, nsverthelesi^ to such regulations for the better adminla- 
txaUon of Jostioe as shall be made by the nariiament of Great Britain. And that 
the Court of Justiciary do also^ after the Union, and notwithstanding thereol^ re- 



obviating the objections of their coantrymen by the force of reeeoa 
and truth, carried every thing by influence, and the cavaliers, aliter they 
had mustered up what they considered unanswerable aigumeats, were 
most commonly silenced with the vote, which was sure to go against 

main in all time coming within Scotland, as it b now oonatitntcd by the lawi of that 
Kingdom, and with the aame authority and priTilegea, aa before the Union, anbject, 
nevertheless, to such n^ulationa aa shall be made bf the FSrliament of Great Britain, 
and without pr^udioe of other rights of Jnatldarj. And tliat all Admiralty iuria> 
dictioDS be under the Lord Hlsh Admiral, or Commissioners for the Adminuty of 
Great Britain for the time being. And tliat the Court of Admiralty, now estab- 
lished in Scotlauii, be continued, and tlut aU reviews, reductions, or suspensions of 
the sentences in maritime cases, competent to the Jurisdiction of that Court, remain 
in the same manner after the Union, as now in Scotland, until the FSrliament of 
Great Britoin shall make such n^gulations and alterations aa shall be Judged ez* 
pedient for the whole United Kingdom, ao as there be always continued in MoCland 
a Court of Admiralty such as is in England, for determination of all maritime cases 
relating to private rights in Scotland, competent to the jurisdiction of the Admiralty 
Court, sttlyect, nevertheless, to such regulations and alterations as shall be thought 
proper to be made by the Parliament of Great Britain. And that the herltrale 
rights of Admiralty, and Vise- Admiraltiis in Scotland, be reserved to the re s pectfve 
proprietors, as rifhts of property ; subject, nevertheless, as to the manner of C9cei«l»> 
ing such heriuble rights, to such regulations and alterations aa shidl be thought 
proper to be made by the Parliament of Great Britain. And that all other Courts, 
now in being within the Kingdom of Scotland, do remain, but sutject to alterations 
hy the Parliament of Great Britain ; and that all inferior Courts within the said 
limits, do remain subordinate, as they are now to the Supreme Courts of Justioe 
within the same. In all time coming. And that no causes in Scotland be cogpMdUe 
by the Courto of Chancery, Queen s Bench, Conunon Pleas, or any other Court te 
Westminster HaJH ; and that the said Courts, or any other of a like nature, after the 
Union, shall have no power to cognosce, review, or alter the acts or sentences of the 
Judicature within Scotland, or stop the execution of the same ; and that there be a 
Coiut of Exchequer in Scotland, after the Union, for deciding questions coneemfng 
the revenues of customs and excises there, having the same power and anAorlty in 
such cases aa the Court of Exchequer has In England ; and that the said Court of 
Exchequer In Scotland have power of passing signatures, cifta, tutorles, and In oUier 
things, aa the Court of. Exchequer at present in Scotland hath ; and that the Court 
of Exchequer that now is in Scotland do xvmaln, until a new Court of Exchequer 
be settled by the Parliament of Great Britain, in Scotland, after the Union, and 
that after the Union, the Queen's Majesty and her Royal sueoessors, may eonttnue 
a Privy Council In Scotland, for msorvlng of public peace and order, untu the Far^ 
liament of Great Britain shall think tt to alter it, or establish any other effectuid 
method for that end. 

XX. That all heritable offices, heritable jurisdictions, oAcea for life^ and juris- 
dictions for life, be reserved to the owners thereof, as rights of property, in the same 
manner as they are now enjoyed by the laws of Scotland, notwithstanding of thic 
treaty. _ 

X aI. That the rights and privileges of the Royal Burvhs of Scotland, as they 
now ar<^ do remain entire after the Union, and notwitlistanaing thereof 

XXII. That, by virtue of this treaty of the peers of Scotland, at the time of the 
Union, sixteen shall be the number to sit and vote in the House of Lords, and forty, 
five, the number of the representatives of Scotland, in the House of Comrnons of the 
Parliament of Great Britain. And that, when Her Majesty, her heirs or successors, 
shall declare her, or their pleasure, for holding the first, or any subsequent Parliament 
of Great Britain, until the Parliament of Great Britain shall make ftuther provi- 
slon therein, a writ do Issue, under the great seal of the United Kingdom, directed 
to the Privy Council of Scotland, commanding them to cause sixteen Peers, who 
are to sit in the House of Lords, to be summoned to Parliament, and for^-five 
members to be elected to sit in the House of Conunons of the Parliamcyit of Great 
Britain, according to the agreement in this treatv, in such manner as, by the Par- 
liament of Scotland, shall be settled before the Union ; and tluit the names of the 
pcn«<ii)s so summon«»d and elected, shall be returned by the Privy Connrii of Scotland 
into the Court from whence the said writ did issue. And that, if Her Mijesty, on 
or before the first day of May next, on which day the Union is to take pIsMDe, shall 
declare, under the great seal of England, that it is expedient that the Lords of 
^^ariiamcnt in England, and Commons of the praent Parliameut of England, 


tfaem ; benee Lockfaart has sarcastically remarked, << that the courtiers 
had ean and would not hear, hearts and would not .understand ; nay, 
motttha but would not speak.*' In many cases, indeed, this sUence was 
wise, for the greater part of the topics which the cavaliers insisted on^ 

ilMiild be Che Members ef their resoectiTe Houan of the first Parliament of Grrat 
Britain, for and on the pert of EiijfUnd, then the said Lords of Parliament of lEng- 
iamit and Commona of the present Parliament of England, shall be the Members 
of the rnecdTO Houaes of the first Parliament of Great Britain, for and on the 
part of £naland. And Her M«gesty may, bv her Koyal proclamation, under 
Che KreaC acal of Great Britain* appoint the said first Parliament of Great Britain 
Co meet at such time and place as Her M:\jesty shiUl think fit, which time shall 
not be kae than fifty days afW the date of such proclamation ; and the time and 
place of oneh Parliament beinff so appointed, a writ shall be immediately issued, 
under Che g^raiCaealof Great Britain, directed to the Privjr Council of Scotland, 
§ut the aununoning the aixteen Peers, and for electing &rty-five Members, by 
whoaa Scotland is to be represented in the Parliament of Great Britain. And 
the Lords of Parliament m England, and the sixteen Peers of Scotland, such 
sixteen Peers being summoned and returned in the manner agreed on in this treaty, 
and the Members of the House of Commons of the said Parliament of England, 
and the IbrCy-fiTe Members for Scotland, such forty-five members being elect^ and 
rsCumcd in manner agreed on in this treaty, shall assemble and meet rcspectiTcly in 
their respeetiTe Houses of the Parliament of Great Britain, at such time and place 
m shall be ao uvpointed bv Her Mi^esty, and shall be the two Houses of the first 
ftrllnnent of Gnat Britain ; and that Parliament may continue for such time only 
as tho present Parliament of England might have continued if the Union of the 
two Kuigdoms had noC been made^ unless sooner dissolved by Her Majesty. And 
Chaty every oae of Che Lords of Parliament of Great Britain, and every Member of 
the Houae of Commons of the Parliament of Gi'eat Britain, in the first and all 
sacceediog Parliaments of Great Britain, until the Parliament of Great Britain 
shall oChf^wise direcC, shall take their respective oaths, appointed to be taken instead 
of the oaths of aD^iance and supremacy by an Act of Parliament made in England 
Inthefiiut] ' * - . . .- -- ... 

an Act 1.- „ „ - - ^ „ ,. 

faig aChcr Oaths, and make, subacribe, and audibly repeat, the declaration mentioned 
in an Act of Parliament made in England, in the thirtieth year of King Charles 11., 
snCitaled, an AcC for the more cfiectiul preserving the King*s Person and Govem- 
menC, by disabling Papists from sitting in either House of Piu-liament, and shall 
Cake aad subscribe tho oath mentioned m an Act of Parliament made in England, 
in the fiiaC year of Hw Al^esty's reign, eutituled, on Act to declare the Alterations 
in the Oath appointed to be taken bv the Act, entituled, on Act for the further Se- 
ruriCy of His M^esty*s Person, and the Succession of the Crown In the IVotestanC 
Hue ; and lor extingnlshing the hopes of the pretended Pi'lnce of Wales, and all 
other pnCcnders, and their open and secret abettors ; and for declaring the association 
to be deCcstnined at such time, and in such manner, as the Members of both Houses 
of Parliament of England #»re, by the said respective Acta, directed to take, make, 
and subacribe the same, upon rhe peualties ond disabilities in the said respective Acts 
tttitsrnr* : and it is declared and agreed, that these words, this realm, the crown of 
this realm, and the Queen of this realm, mentioned in these oaths and declaration 
rontalnnd In aforesaid Acts, which were intended to signify the crown and realm of 
Eaefaoid, shall be understood of the crown and realm of Great Britain ; and that, 
in that aenae the said oaths and declaration be taken and subscribed by the Members 
of both Houses of the Parliament of Great Britain. 

XXIIL That the foresaid sixteen Peers of Scothmit, mentioned in the Inst pre. 
«edinr Artidc^ Co mt in the House of Lords of the Parliament of Great Britain, 
■hall hare all privileges of Parliament, which the Peers of England now have, and 
wUeh thcT, or any Peers of Great Britain shall luive after the Cnion, and par- 
ticolariy Che right of sitting on the trials of Peers : and in rasp of lh«' trial of any 
Peer in the time of adioumment or prorogation of Parliament, the said sixteen 
Peers shall be summoned in the same manner, and have the same ]iowrrs and priri- 
Icgfs at such trial as auv other Peer of Great Britain ; and that in case any trial of 
Peers shall hereafter DKpptn when there is no Pnrliauient in boinsr. the sixteen 
Peers of Scotland, who sat in the last preceding Parliament, shall bo Hitmmoned in 
the sune manner, and have the same powers and privileges at such trials, as any 
sCher Peers of Great Britain ; and that all Peers of S(*otIand, and th«-lr successors 
to their kofMHirs and dignities, shidl, from and after the Union, be Peers of Great 

oaths of aD^iance and supremacy by an Act of Parliament made in England 
fiiat year of the reign of the late King William and Queen Mary, entituled, 
t for the Abrogating of the Oaths of &ipremacy and AUegiance, and appoint* 


and particalarly those that were the oftenest repeated, were so gnmHj 
absunl, as to be nnworthy of a serious reply ; hot there were many things 
objected to, that might have been happily iilnstrated, and broogfat witkut 
the grasp of the pid>lic mind by~ sober argament and free discosaiony 

.Britain, and have rank and precedency next, and immedlatelv aftar, tha Peara of 
the like orders and dcigrees in En^^lana, at the time of the Union, and before all 
Peers of Great Britain, of the lilce orders and demes, who may be created alter the 
Union, and shall be tried as Peers of Great Britidn, and shall enjoy all jniyileges of 
Peera, as fully as the Peers of England do now, or as they or any other Peers of 
Great Britain may hereafter enior the same, except the rir ht and priyflege of si^ 
ting in the House of Lords, and the priyileges depending thereon, and partictilariy 
the right of sitting upon the trials of Peers. 

XXIV. That from and after the Union, there be one great seal for the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain, which shall be different from the seal now used in 
either KLoj^dom, and that the quartering the arms as may beat suit the Union, be 
left to her Mi^esty. And that, in the meantime, the great seal of England be used 
as the great seal of the United Kingdom, and tliat the great seal of the United 
Kingdom be used for sealing writs to elect and summon the Parliament of Great 
Britain, and for sealing all treaties with foreign Princes and States, and all public 
acta, instruments, and orders of State, which concern the whole United Kingdom ; 
and in all other matters relating to England, as the great seal of England is now 
used. And that a seal in Scotland, after the Union, be always kept and made use 
of in all things relating to private rights or grants which have usually passed the 
great seal of Scotland, and which only concern offices, grants, oonunissiona, and 
nrivate rights, within Uiat Kingdom ; and that until such seal be appointed by Her 
Mi^esty, the present great seal of Scotland shall be used for such purposes. And 
that the priyy seal, signet, casseL signet of the Justiciary Court, quentereeals, and 
seal of Courts, now used in Scotland, be continued ; but that the said seals be 
altered and adapted to the state of the Union, as Her Mi^esty shall think fit. And 
the said seals, and all of them, and the keepers of them, shall be sul^ect to suck 
nrulations as the Parliament of Great Britain shall hereafter make. 

XX V. That all laws and statutes in either Kingdom, so far as they are oontmry 
to^ or inconsistent with, the terms of these Articles, or any of them, shall, from 
and after the Union, cease and become yoid ; and shall be so declared to be^ by the 
respectiye Parliaments of said Kingdoms. 

Follows the tenor of the foresaid Act for securing the Protestant religion and 
Presbyterian Church Government: — 

Our Sovereign lady and the estates of Parliament, considering that by the late 
Act of Parliament for a treaty with England for an union of both Kingdoms, it is 
provided that the Commissioners for that treaty should not treat of, or coDceming 
any alteration of the worship, discipline, and government of the Church of this 
Kmgdom, as now by law established, which treaty being now reported to the Par- 
liament ; and it being reasonable and necessary that the true Protestant religion, aa 
presently professed ^thin this Kingdom, with the worship, discipline, and govern- 
ment of this Church should be effectually and unalterably secured ; therefore Her 
Mi^esty, with advice and consent of the said estates of Parliament, doth hereby estab- 
lish and confirm the said true Protestant religion, and the worship, discipline, and 

Evernment of this Church to continue without any alteration to the people of this 
id in all succeeding generations ; and more especially. Her Mi^esty, "with advice 
and consent foresaid, ratifies, approves, and for ever confirms the fifth Act of the 
first Parliament of King William And Queen Mary, intituled, an Act ratifying the 
Confession of Faith, and settling Presbyterian Church Government, with the liaiU 
other Acts of Parliament relating thereto, in prosecution of the declaration of the 
estates of this Kingdom containing the claim of right, bearing date the eleventh of 
April one thousand six hundred and eighty-nine ; and Her Mi^esty, with advice 
and consent foresaid, expressly provides and declares, that the foresaid true Protea- 
tant religion contained in the above-mentioned Confession of Faith, with the form 
and purity of worship presently In use within this Church, and its Presbyterian 
Church government and discipline, that is to say, the government of the Church by 
Kirk Sessions, Presbyterie urovincial Synods, and General Assemblies, all estab- 
lished by the foresaid Acts of Parliament, pursuant to the claim of right, shaJl x«- 
main and continue unalterabli>. ; and that the said Presbyterian government shall be 
the only government of the Church within the Kingdom of Scotland. And, fur- 
ther, for the mater security of the foresaid Protestant religion, and of the worship» 
discipline, and government of this Church, as above established, Her M^esty, withacU 

Dt8flSRTAtlON/&C. zir 

HfUdi were totaUy negleeted. The federal Union, of wbieh nmny were 
•o v«ry fond, might easily bare been demoostrated, from their own show- 
ra^, to have been ineligible ; and, at any rate, the evils, that were pointed 
oot, particalarly with regard to the diurch, and the predicament in which 
her members were to be placed by the treaty as it stood, ought to have 
been attended to, and the aid that was proffered for preventing them, 
tboi^ proAsred with no friendly intentions, accepted. In this respect, 

Tfa« md confent fimnld, ttatntcB and ordains that the Universities ond Colltges of 
St. Andrews, G]aiffow> Aberdeen^ and Edinburgh, as now established by law, shall 
continae within this Kingdom for ever. And, that in all time coming, no Profes- 
sors, Prineipals. Regents, Masters, or others bearing oiBoe in any Unirersity, Col- 
Iege» or Sebool* within this kingdom, be amiable, or be admitted, or allowed to con- 
tinue in the txerdae of their said functions, but such as shall own and acknowledge 
the ciTil government in manner prescribed, or to be prescribed by the Acts of Par- 
Bament. As also, that before, or at their admissions, they do, and shall aeknow- 
hdge and iirofeas, and shall subscribe to the said Confession of Faith, as the 
confession of their faith, and that they will practise and conform themselves to the 
worship presently in use in this Church, and submit themselves to the government 
and discipline thereof, and never endeavour, directlj^ or indirectly, the prejudice or 
subversion of the same, and that before the respective Presbyteries of their bounds, 
by vriiatever gift, presentation, or provision they may be thereto provided. And, 
ftBTther, Her Majesfy, with adrioe foresaid, expresslv declares and statutes, that 
■one et the sobjects of this Kingdom shall be liable to, but all and every one of them 
for ever, free of any oath, test, or subscription within this Klncdom, contrary to, or 
Inconristent with the foresaid true Protestant religion and Presbvterian Church 
government, worship, and discipline^ as above established, and that the same, within 
the boonds of this Church and Kingdom, shall never be imposed upon, or required 
of them, in any sort. And, lastly, that after the decease of Her present Majesty, 
whom God long p r ese r ve , the Sovereigns succeeding to Her in the royal government 
of the Kingdom of Great Britain, sImU in all time coming, at his or her accession 
to tlie Crown, swear and subscrilw that they shall inviolably maintain and preserve 
flie foresaid settlement of the true Protestant religion, with the government, wor- 
ship, discipline, right, and privileges of this Church, as above estabuahed by the laws 
of this Kingdom, In prosecution of the claim of right. And it is hereby statute and 
ordained, thiat this Act of Parliament, with the establishment therein contained, 
shall be held and observed in all time coming, as a fundamental and essential condi- 
tfam of any treaty or union to be ooncluded betwixt the two Kingdoms, vrithout any 
aUcralion thereof, or derogation thereto, in anv sort, for ever. As also, that this Act 
of Parliament and settlement there contained, shall be Insert and repeated in any 
Aet of Parliament that shall pass for agreeing and concluding the foresaid treaty or 
union betwixt the two Kingdoms, and that the same sliall be therein expressly de- 
dared to be a fundamental and essential condition of the said treaty or union. In all 
time coming. Which Akticlvs op Union, and Act immediately above written, Her 
Majesty, vnth advice and consent foresaid, statutes, enacts, and ordains to be, and 
esntinoe in all time coming, the sure and perpetual foundation of a complete and 
entire union of the two Kingdoms of Scotland and England, under this express con- 
dition and provbion, that the approbation and ratification of the foresaid Articles and 
Aet sh^ be no ways binding on this Kingdom, until the said Articles and Act be 
ratified, approven, and confirmed by Her Majesty, with and by the authority of the 
Parliament of England, as they are now agreed to, approven, and confirmed by Her 
Majesty, with and by the authority of the Parliament of Scotland, declaring, never- 
thclBBs, that the Parliament of England may provide for the security of the Church 
of England, as they think expedient, to take place within the bounds of the said 
Kingdom of England, and not derogating from the security above provided for 
estsUishlng of the Church of Scotland within the bounds of this Kii^dom. As sUm^ 
the said Piu-liament of England may extend the additions and other provisions con- 
tained in the Articles of Union, as above insert, in fiivours of the sulgects of Scot- 
land, to and in ftvours of the subjects of England, which shall not suspend or dero- 
gate firom the fane and effect of this present ratification, but shall be undcntood as 
herein included, without the necessity of any new ratification in the Parliament of 
Scotland. And, h»tly. Her Majesty enacts and declares, that all laws and statutes 
in thto Kingdom, so far as they are contrary to, or inconsistent with the terms 
of these Articles, as above mentioned, shall from and after the Union cease and b»- 


indeed, better terms ought to have been obtained. In all civil req>ecta, 
the treaty, on the part of England, was libeFal, and worthy of the great 
Btatesmen with whom it originated ; but with regard to religion, it was 
the very reverse. It aligned on the, part of the English ministry^ cer- 
tainly no small degree of confidence, to require Scotland to guarantee 
the perpetuity of a system of avaricious supeFstition, which she bad by 
solemn oath become bound never willingly to submit to at home, nor to 
give any active countenance to abroad ; and it was, and is, degradation, 
which our language, copious as it is, has not woids sufficiently to ex- 
press, for Scotishmen and presbyterians to be compelled to swear anti- 
christian oaths of supremacy, and take the sacramental test, when bearing 
the commission, and going about the afiairs of an independent nation. 

Witnessing, however, such things submitted to even in these days of 
untrammelled liberty, and of unvailed illumination, we may well be al« 
lowed to drop a forgiving tear over the less complex and less guilty 
actings of our fathers, hemmed in as they were between the Scylla of 
slavery and persecution on the one hand, and the Charybdis of anarchy 
and conquest on the other. It must not be overlooked, that of the 
numerous body designated by the name of cavaliers, and many of those 
that adhered to what was called the country party, who in their despair 
advanced some of the first principles of liberty, there was not one but 
was at bottom the advocate of passive obedience, and unalienable inde- 
feasible hereditary right, Fletcher of Salton excepted, and he again was 
poisoned with democracy and deism. An enthusiast for the ideal liberty 
of the Grecian republics, he was a very fit advocate for what at that 
time was dignified with the names of »Scotish liberty and independence, 
which consisted in the nobles having the power of trampling upon the 
king, the barons, and upon one another as occasion offered — and the 
barons or lairds trampling upon their tenants or dependants so long as 
it was their pleasure, and hanging or drowning them when it was for 
their real or supposed profit. What kind of a philanthropist he was, 
may be inferred from this, that he could devise no remedy for that over- 
flowing pauperism which the misrule of so many ages had produced, 
but to reduce the poor to absolute slavery, and divide and domesticate 
them upon the lands of the different proprietors. His plan for civilizing 
the Highlands is strongly illustrative of the same ferocity of character. 
** It were to be wished," he says, << that the government would think 
fit to transplant that handful of people and their masters, who have 
alwa3rs disturbed our peace, into the low country, and people the High- 
lands from hence." He was a man, indeed, who had imbibed ideas far 
beyond those that were common either to his age or country, but, like 
the greater part of men possessed of superior genius, was more fanciful 
than solid — more speculative than practical. He had, moreover, a defect 
of temper, that rendered him of little utility as a coadjutor in the man- 
agement of public affairs, being tenacious to a tittle of bis own views, 
however extravagant or impracticable. He was also iraseible to the last 
degree. So far did this unhappy failing carry him, that after coming to 
England with the unfortunate duke of Monmouth, 1685, in an altercation 
with the mayor of Limn, about a horse that had been inipi'csscd into 

DrssBRTATiON, ke, xlvfi 

tile service of the party, he drew forth a pistol and shot hiin, in conse^ 
qneace of which, hiB serricee, however valuable they might have beeo, 
were lost to the cause in which he was engaged, as he was necessitated, 
tA escape the odium of the act, to retnm to Holland. On another 
orcasion we find him collaring John earl of Stair, in the parliament 
hoQse, on account of an expression which he was pleased to say glanced 
at him, and demanding satisfifection on the spot.* From such a man, what 
was to he expected ? Or what policy could be practised towards him, 
hot to stand as ranch at a distance, and run the hazard of as few duels 
with him as possible ? All these circumstances taken together, go far to 
eioMe the Scotish ministry of that period, for being suspicious of every 
proposal made by the party in opposition to them, and shy of taking 
their assistance, though on some occasions they might have done so 
with advantage. 

It ought also to be considered, that from the temper displayed by the 
ctvaliersy who all at once seemed to take the interest and the glory of 
the conntry so much to heart, there was scarcely an alternative for all 
who truly valued liberty and religion, but to accept of the Union, though 
the terms had been much less advantageous than they really were. It 
wts impossible that such men as Sunderland, Somers, Halifax, Godol- 
pMn, and Cowper, who were at this time the chief managers of English 
afffiirsy riiould not have seen the scheme that was thus roatnring under 
the mask of patriotism, and if they had entertained any doubts on the 
■abject, the act of security, with others of the same stamp that accom- 
pssied it, could not have fidled to have set all these doubts at rest. It 
could not ful to strike the most superficial observer, that something more 
was meant by that act, bold as it was, than met the ear ; and tiJcen in 
connexion with the refusal to settle the succession, it was not difficult to 
aee what that something was. England had declared for Hanover, 
which was more afflictive to the present race of Scotish patriots than 
the lose of Darien, or the want of any of those privileges for which they 
were clamouring so loudly ; and having obtained this act for putting the 
nation into military array, they intended by and by to declare for James, 
and with the aid of the English Jacobites, hoped not only to defeat the 
proteetaat succession, bnt to obtain the ascendant in both countries, and 
thus to be enriched, not by trade, which, with all the noise they made 
about it,' they hated and demised, but by lucrative places, liberal pen- 
nons, and the estates of their opponents, the leading men among whom 
they had already doomed to the gallows or the stake. This design was 
rertainly not a tittle dangerous, more especially as it was, by the dupli- 
rtty of the party, so covered, that the greater part of the whigs, blindeil 
by their prejudices, were promoting it with aU their influence as condu- 
cive to their own views. The English nation in general, however, saw 
the purpose that was intended to be accomplished clearly, and her legis- 
tatoTs took immediate measures to defeat it, by passing the bill we have 
already noticed, declaring, that no Scotishmen, not resident in England, 
thould enjoy the privileges of Englishmen till such time as an union ahoald 

• Ufe and PcUtical Opinions of Fletcher of Sslton, &c. ftc 


be-coBcliidedy or the toocessioa to the crowa settled as it had been in 
Englaiid. Her mi^ty was, at the same tune, adTised to pat the town 
of Newcastle in a proper state of defence— to secure the port of Tyne- 
mouth, and to repair the fortifications of Carlisle and Hull. It waa sdeo 
reqaested that the militia of the four northern counties should be called 
out, a competent number of regular troops stationed on the borders, and 
a squadron of ships ordersd to cruise on the Sootish coast to shut up her 
commerce and prevent her from communicating with France. These 
measures, happiiyt were never put into execution, the Scotish parliament 
having appointed commissioners for the Union, which occasioned the re- 
peal of the act by which they were authorised, before the time specified 
for their commencement arrived. Had it been otherwise, the consequence 
would in all probability have been a war between the two countries, the 
result of which could scarcely have been other than fa^ to ScotLand, 
and she must have submitted to such terms as the conquerors chose to 
impose upon her. 

It is also worthy of remark, that the benefits of the Union were 
greatly retarded, and all the evils that unavoidably attended it increaaed 
and accelerated, by that detestable faction which laboured so assiduoooly 
to prevent its completion. The treaty itself was planned by consum* 
mate wisdom, and great liberality on the part of the English, and by 
Englishmen has, for the most part, been executed with good faith. There 
was no attempt made to infringe it in the smallest particular, till the 
Scotisb Jacobites, by a protracted series of intrigues, and a new train 
of perjuries, wriggled themselves into power in the last and disastrous 
years of queen Anne, and probably, to fulfil in some degree their own 
predictions, as well as to forward the interests of the pretender, kept 
trenching upon it every day, till happily the sudden death of the queen 
put an end to their power, and gave Uieir villanous practices another di* 
rection. Since that time no further attempts have been made upon it, 
and the encroachments then made, as they were, even by the unprincipled 
faction that made them, admitted to be contrarv to its spirit, and were 
avowedly intended to promote its dissolution, might have been long since 
rectified, had those whom they most deeply concerned, shown any tbipg 
Hke zeal or cordiality in the matter. Upon the whole, though we neither 
approve of that bribery and corruption by which this union was estab- 
lished, nor dare pronounce it in all respects perfect, we admit that few 
treaties have been made in the world, that have been productive of ao 
many blessings. The most deeply felt evils that attended it and no 
great political change can be effected without encountering evils of con- 
siderable magnitude*— were transient and local ; its benefits have been 
permanent and universal. It has given competence to the cottage, 
elegance to the palace, and stability to the throne. It has imparted 
health to the body politic, and a resistless energy that has been felt and 
acknowledged in every quarter of the world ; and it has been a prin- 
cipal mean of establishing that heaven-derived flame, whose vivifyii^ 
heat, emanating from the shores of Britain, is already felt in many 
distant lauds, and the light of which, we trust, shall at no distant period 
irradiate the utmost ends of the earth. 



Book I. 

KaHamai fedings eonaequtiU on the Unum-^Liirignea of the French eotart^JVeffOtiatume 
efedLamd Hooie MetHng ofiktftnt Union ParKament-^JPr^paratione for invading 
SeoHamd French JUet ehated iy admavl Bgng^XHapereed, and partly destroyed, 
in a tempeet^-JhseohUion of Parliament-^Ifew Parliament and it$ proceedingo^ 
Reiroepeet of eedeaiastical affiaAro-~The eld Dieeentera^Mr, John Sepbwm^~-The 
Qemetal Aeeembfy of the Ckurch of SeoOand. 

X HE trea^ of Union having been ratified by the legislature of 
both countries, the Scodsh parliament was dissolved on the 
twenty-eighth day of April, and on the first day of May, one 
thousand, seven hundred, and seven years, the kingdoms of 
Scotland and England became one, henceforth to be designated 
the Kingdom of Great Britain* This, though an event that, 
properly modified, had long been desired by the wise and the 
good of both nations, was one that could not fail, in the nature 
of things, to excite painful reflections, if not tumultuaxy and 
angry feelings, in the bosoms of the less enlightened, espedaUy 
among Scotishmen, who being of the weaker party, and most 
likely to be benefited by the measure, had, perhaps, according 
to the general constitution of our nature, the best right to be, 
or to pretend to be, very much ofiended. Scotland, though 
the poorer, was by much the more ancient of the two kingdoms, 
having subsbted, according to her best historians, as an in- 
df^ndent nation, firom a period prior to the Christian era. 
When her more opulent, but less spirited sister, bent beneath 
the power, and submitted to become the pupil of Rome^ she^ 
intrenched among her barren heaths, and behind her snow-dad 
mountains, bade defiance to the conquerors of the world, pre- 
ferring wild, sometimes lawless, liberty and independence, to 


submission, though accompanied with security and ciyilization. 
True, indeed, she had maintained this independence with ex- 
treme difficulty, and, through the imbecility and obstinacy 
of her last dynasty of kings, it had been reduced to a mere 
shadow; but still it bore the naroe^ and with men in general, 
though we may lament, we cannot deny the fact, that names 
are all in all. 

At the same time it must be admitted, that there was, in the 
circumstances of the case, much to excite regret in the most 
peaceably disposed, and to awaken siispicion among the best 
informed and most conscientious part of the community. 
Twenty years had yet scarcely elapsed since the abdication of 
James VII. put an end to a tyranny, civil and ecclesiastic, the 
most relentless that had ever afflicted a nation professing to be 
Christian, and on that occasion, die managers, both in church 
and state, had sat down upon a constitution far short of what 
had been previously attained, and of what, after so much bitter 
experience^ might reasonably have been expected. Instead of 
being guided by those clear and determinate principles which 
had been unfolded by the Reformers and patriots of a former 
and a better day, and which had been sealed with the blood of 
die noble host of confessors and martyrs of the Scoddi church, 
they had given themselves up to ftnded maxims of interest and 
expediency, in consequence of which, while they duped them* 
selves, they disappointed the just expectations of the people. 
Far frmn exploring the sources of so many evils, and purging 
out from amcmg them, those who had been the abettors of such 
profligate apostasy, and the ministers of such wanton tyranny, 
erray thing like inquiry was studiously avoided, and evoy 
incumbent, provided his mcMrals were at all tolerable, who was 
willing to abide by, or, in other words, to recdve his salary 
np<m die footing of the new order of things, remained in his 
place;* thus adding to the already enormous catalogue of 
public evils, the guilt of opati falsehood and undisguised hy- 
pocrisy. The consequences, which had already become ap- 

* Soe declaration by the moderator, that this aisembly would depose no 
incumbents, simply for their judgment anent the government of the diurch 
&C. Unprintcd Acts of Assembly, 1690, Ses. 6th. 

HlffTOKT or SOOTLAMfi. 8 

pBTcnt, were exaedy sudi as m^t hare been expected. Jjufco- 
warm iDdifierency was applauded as moderatioa and good 
seiise, while intrepid honesty waa stigmatised as bigotry, or at 
best, but ill timed and imneoessaiy serapulosUy. Alienatioiw 
<£ the popular right were tbua artifiilly placed under the prov 
tecdon of the popular Toice; and, instead of showing any dia* 
position to recover that which had been lost, every new leader 
gave proo& of his sordid servility, by the Ceieility with which 
he oonld sacnfice more. This was the ease especially with the 
drarcfa, nor was the state in a what more promisiBig condition* 

Unfortunately for Scotland, English gold, from a very early 
period of her history, possessed too much attraction for the 
patriotism and public spirit of many of her sons. This had 
often been mounifully experienced, even when the nation was 
inflamed by the rivalry of anihitioD» and» from a sense of reit- 
erated injuries, wrought up to a feeling of the bitterest ani- 
mosity. That upon the union of the crowns, and the con- 
sequently increased intercourse between the two countriest 
diis attractian should either have been weakened iu itsdf, or 
have beoome less effectual upon those who were esqposed to 
its influence^ it would certainly have been foolidi to expect* 
On the contrary, it appears to have been prodigiously iocreasedL 
Brought into immediate ocwtact with the FingUsh nobility, all 
that extortion could wring from their numerous but naked* 
and indolent retalno^ was insufficient to cover the poverty of 
the S(x>tish diieftains^ while their ostentatious and haughty d^ 
meanonr, at the same time that it manifeflled their pride» r^iOH 
dered it disgusting and contemptible. Places and penaiouffi 
under the richer government^ beeame» of course^ the sola aia\ 
of tbe Sootish nobiUty, ^nd rivalry in the pursuit of thes^ 
objecta, proved a source of accuroulating misexy to their un- 
brtunate country. Every page of Sootisb history, under the 
reigns of James VI., the two Charleses, and James VII., con** 
firna this melancholy statement, end it was the dexteroua 
management of this pitiful thirst for goldt by the English mm- 
istiy, that at length accomplished an unioq* that had been so 
long desiredf and ao often attempted in vain. 

It ia impossible, however, for any government, be its adminr 
imaters ever so profligate^ and its means of oonruption ever so 


abundant, to satisfy, in this way, all the clamorous expectants, 
who from birth, wealth, or fimcied importance, will think 
themselves entitled to its particular notice, especially when, as 
was now the case in Scotland, these expectants are very nu- 
merous, and their claims almost equally balanced. In all such 
cases, in proportion as the successful expectant is gratified, 
the unsuccessful one will be mortified and enraged, and this 
rage and mortification, when he has many fellows, he will be 
at little pains to conceal, though he will be carefiil, lest he 
should lose his revenge, to clothe them with names of gently 
or of imposing import, and to back them with pretensions, 
that, however false or foolish they be, are found by experience 
to be always prevalent with mankind. Society is never, at 
any period, or in any place, so happily constituted, as not to 
supply materials for such unworthy purposes, but never, per- 
haps, did any coimtry afibrd more complete scope for the 
exercise of this pernicious ingenuity than did Scotland at this 
time. The absence of her monarchs, and of course of her 
principal gentry, for nearly a century, part of which had been 
imbittered by violent internal warfare, and a still more exten- 
sive portion by an odious tyranny, alike destructive to the lives 
and the properties of the people, had paralyzed her industry, 
crippled her commerce, and carried any siuplus arising from 
her yet infant agriculture, to be spent in a foreign land. The 
administration of the M iddletons, the Lauderdales, Rotheses 
and Perths, aided by the Dalziels, the Grahams, the Griersons, 
the Johnstons and the Bruces, with their assistant hordes of 
barbarians, had impoverished a great part of the country, par- 
ticularly the western shires, to such a degree, that, notwith- 
standing the indemnifications granted by the revolution parlia- 
ment, many respectable families were reduced to the verge of 
beggary. A course of untoward seasons too, had added greatly 
to the general distress, and England, unlucky England^ with 
her intrigues and connexions, was charged by the popular 
voice, as having occasioned the whole. 

The union, of course, so far from being regarded as a 
blessing, was looked upon as a curse, confirmatory of all the 
evils under which the nation had groaned for ages, and its 
dissolution considered an end so desirable, as almost to war- 


rant die use of any means for its attainment. By genuine 
presbyterianS) though one of its most ostensible ends was, 
the securing the Protestant succession, to which they were 
most sincerely attached, it was r^arded with h(»Tor, as in- 
TolTing the nation in the guilt of a partial, if not in aiformal, 
renunciation of the covenants, National, and Solemn .League, 
the indissoluble obligations of which the most lax among 
them had not, as yet, ever thought of calling in question; 
and though the church of Scotland concurr^ in it, upon 
having her establishment made an unalterable article thereof 
she lost, by so doing, the &vour and the support of many of her 
sons, which to this day she has not been able to r^ain. By 
Episcopalians and Papists it was abhorred, as trampling upon 
what they accounted peculiarly sacred, indefeasible hereditary 
right; and the nobility, even many of them who had basely sold 
themselves to promote the measure, when they beheld the anni- 
hilation of the parliament, and the dissolution of the whole frame 
of government, feeling the loss of influence, and the degradation 
of their order, felt the most pungent regret, and would most 
gladly have retraced their steps. The merchant, from the 
total loss of trade, which was now diverted into new channels, 
where, though he had possessed the inclination, he had neither 
the skill nor the capital necessaiy for following it, partook oi 
the same r^rets in a still higher degree, as did the whole body 
of the people, from their abhorrence of the multitude of taxes 
and taxgatherers, with which they felt themselves in every 
department surroimded and daily insulted. 

This universal feeling of dislike, was also greatly aggravated 
by the manner in which the union was carried into effect. 
Though the management of the Scotish revenue was to &11 in- 
to the hands of the English administration on the 1st of May, 
commissions were neither made out, nor officers appointed to 
execute them, so that the whole trade of Scotland was suspend- 
ed for nearly three months— -nor was even the equivalent remit- 
ted, till after the lapse of the same period.* The commission- 

• In the XV. Article of the Treaty of Union, *" It b agreed that Scotland 
ihaQ bare an Equivalent for what the subjects thereof shall be charged to- 
wardi pajment of the sud debts of England, in all particulars whatever, in 


6rs also^ ^ftn they were appointed^ whetW for die qkcis^ 
the customs, or eren for maaagtng the eqiiiraleiit} were not 
at all such as a pradent respect for ihe prqudioes of the peo- 
ple would hare selected. Instead of being men eminent for 
political wisdom, good manners^ and moral dignity, ^o might 
have conciliated the refractory, soothed the wayward, and awed 
into submission the petulant and the presumptire part of the 
community, they appear to hare consisted of the refuse of both 
countries,* Scotishmen who, by obsequious servility and in- 
terested fawning, had rendered themaelves odious to all classes 
of their countrymen, with Englishmen, who^ no longer able to 
subsist at home, were willing to undertake a pilgrimage to this 
land of barbarity and barrenness^ as the last resource of sordid 
souls, to prolong, at whatever expense, the last dregs of an 
existence already swallowed up in misery. Fn»n such char- 
acters, placed in circumstances of peculiar difficulty, filling 

manner following, vix, that before the Union of the said kingdomti the mxL 
of three hundred, ninety-eigbt thousand and eighty-five pounds, ten shillings, 
be granted to her Majesty, by the Parliament of England, for the uses after 
menCioned, being the Equivalent to be answered to Scotland, for snch parts 
of the customs and excises, upon all exciseable liquors with which that kii^ 
dom is to be chained upon the Union, as will be apptieabie to the payment of 
the said debts of England, according to the proportions which the present 
customs of Scotland, being thirty thousand per annum, do bear to the customs 
in England, computed at one million, three hundred forty-one thousand, five 
hundred and fifty-nine pounds per annum." 

* " A set of commbsioners was appointed, one for managing the customs^ 
the other the excise of Scotland, consisting partly of English and partly ci 
Scotsmen, though these latter had no pretensions to entitle them to that name, 
save their being horn in that country ; they and all that were employed after^ 
wards as commissioners for mans^ng the equivalent, or advanced to any of 
the new posts, bemg downright rencgadoes, and rewarded on no other ac- 
count, than the assistance they gave in selling their country. At the same 
time, vast numbers of surveyors, collectors, waiters, and in short, all or most 
of the officers of the customs and excise, were sent down firom England, and 
these, generally speaking, the very scum and canalia of that epuntry, which 
remembers me of a very good story. " ' Some time thereafler a Scots mer* 
chant travelling in England, and showing some apprehensions of being robbed, 
his landlady told him he was in no hazard, for all the highwaymen were gone; 
and upon his inquiring how that came about, '* Why truly," replied she, 
** they are all gone to your country to get places.' " Lockhart Papers, vol. i. 
pp. 22J, 224. 


offices wludi the Tirtaes and the talaits of archangels could 
widi difficid^ have rendered reqiectaUei what was to be ex- 
pected? What but that which really followed, increased 
disgust and disaffection* So far» indeed, were the fjoglish 
fincxn manifesting any friendly feelings^ that they carried all 
their home measures toward Scotland, with extreme rigour^ 
seiang, **with a peculiar a&ction ci roughness, wines and 
other commodities,'' that had been imported, on the faith ot 
the union, otherwise perhaps, than strict prudence would have 
dictated, but in a way which, it had been confidently antici- 
pated, by a liberal and fiiendly policy would be overlooked. 
The consequence of all this was, on the part of the ScotLdi 
people^ hatred to Ekigland, and increased ioterest in the ex- 
iled fiunily, whidi they displayed by celebrating, in Edinburgh 
and Tarious other places (rf* the kingdom, the birth-day of the 
pretender, in the most open and avowed manner. 

In die meantime, the court of France, reduced, by the vigour 
of the English administration, and the military talents of the 
duke ot Marlborough, to a state of despondency bordering on 
despair, despatched, at the request of the court of St Ger- 
mains^ colonel Hooke, an {Englishman who had gone over with 
James VII. and had obtained preferment in the French service, 
on a special mission to Scotland, funiished with letters fix>m 
the chevalier de St. George, to prepare his adherents for a 
general rising in his favours. For this rising, the means were 
to be furnished partiy by die French, though they were in no 
condition to qpare either men or money, and by means of it^ 
they hoped to be able, if not to overthrow, at least so to 
embarrasi^ the government of England, as to obtain a peace, 
sDch as they themselves should dictate, in the course of the 
winter.* 'nux>ugh unforeseen circumstances, however, the 
winter elapsed before any thing could be undertaken. 

Having made aU necessary preparations for his journey, 
Hooke left Paris in the month of January, 1707, taking his 
route direct for Scotland, hoping, no doubt, to profit by the 
tumultuary spirit that, in consequence o{ the treaty of union, 
then in the course of being concluded, was raging in that un- 

* Secret Hiitory of Col. Uooke's Negotiations in Scotland, Sec. p. 10. 


happy country. Meeting, however, with contraiy winds, it 
was the month of March before he arrived at the castle of 
Slaines, an old fortress in the shire of Aberdeen. Here he 
found the countess of Enrol, the earl's mother, in waiting for 
him, with letters from her son, of the most friendly and 
flattering import, testifying the greatest impatience to be in- 
troduced to him, and assuring him, ^< that all the well afiected 
would exert themselves to the utmost on this occasion, as their 
last resource, being persuaded, that at the worst they would 
obtain better conditions sword in hand, than those of the 
union." From the countess he also learned, further, " that Mr. 
Hall, a priest, and the confident of the duke of Hamilton, had 
been widi her, waiting for his [Mr. Hooke's] arrival for some 
considerable time," and she put into his hands a letter, in which, 
for his employer, the duke of Hamilton, he entreated Mr. Hooke 
to come to Edinburgh, where, he informed him, the duke, who, 
with all his friends, wm rpady to risk every thing for the che- 
valier de St. George, would take care to liave every thing ready 
for his accommodation, and begging for his grace, immediately, 
what letters he might have been intrusted with for him. The 
countess, at the same time, like a prudent and wise politician, 
wishing to secure, for herself and family, the ear and the services 
of Mr. Hooke, advised him not to be in haste, '* as the duke ot 
Hamilton's affairs were greatly altered within a few months 
past, all the world having abandoned him, and all the well 
affected come to an open rupture with him ;" and though lord 
Kilsyth, die great marshal, and even her son the high con* 
stable, still kept some littie correspondence with him, it was 
not at all upon political accoimts, but merely for the sake of 
ancient intimacy ; and as he had been suspected of correspond- 
ing with the court of London, she cautioned Hooke to be 
particularly careful how he trusted him. But for more minute 
information she referred him to her son.* 

In order to avail himself of this advice, Hooke, who seems 
to have been very well qualified for the business in which he 
was employed, ordered M. de Ligondes, who had brought him 
over from Dunkirk, to proceed with his vessel to Norway, and 

* Hookc*s Secret Negotiation^ p. 17* 


to return to the coast in the course of three weeks, and the same 
day despatched a messeoger to the high constable and to Mr. 
HalL From the former he requested advice. The latter he 
informed of his intentioii to wait upon the duke of Hamilton, 
as soon as he had recovered the fatigues of his journey; and, in 
returoy demanded to know what measures had been taken for 
admitting him into the presence of the duke, and for rendering 
his visit to Edinbuigh safe. His messenger returned in five 
dii^s, with assurances that the. constable would be with him in 
the end of the week ; that the duke of Hamilton was so much 
indisposed, ihat as yet he could not see him, but would write 
by the constable.* 

Hooke in the meantime, addressed himself to lord Prum- 
mcmd, sec(md son to the duke of Perth, whom he sent upon a 
mission among the Jacobites of the north and north-west, with 
a copy of his Instructions from M . de Chamillart,f and of a 

* Upoke's Secret N^otiations, p. 17. 

f The following is a copy of these Infltnictioiia, from the Stuart Papecs, 
pubUahed by Macpherson, along with his History of Great Britain. They 
&play very particularly, the sdfiah views of the: French court, and the total 
Ignorance under which that court laboured with regard tp the condition of 
Scotland. In the prosecution of these Instructions, Hooke displayed great 
diUgence and fidelity, as a spy or emissary of .France, though ,yeiy little of 
cither as an ambassador of James. 

" To be certab of making a diversion in Scotland, which will embarrass the 
Eoglidi, and oblige them to bring back a considerable body of troops to Eng- 
land, the Scottish nobility must be in a condition to assemble 25, or 30,000 
men, and to clothe, arm, equip, and maintaiathffim, during the campaign : i.e. 
«t least ax months, to commence at the beginning of May. 

** The favourable dispositions of the nobility, leave no room to doubt but 
they wili make their utmost effi>rts to withdraw themselves from the yoke 
which llie Engtish nation intends to impose upon them. Before a revolution, 
which should end in the restoration of the lawful sovereign, is begun, it is 
necessary to enter into a particular detail of the forces and means which the 
Scotch can employ to accomplish it, and of the succours which they may promise 
theroselTes from the protection of the King, who u no less interested in the 
success of this enterprise, than his Britannic Migesty. It b for these consid- 
eratioDS^ that his Majesty hath judged it proper, before he makes any positive 
promise to the Scots, to send over Mr. Hooke, in order to acquire, upon the 
spot, a perfect knowledge of the state of tlungs, to form a well digested plan 
with tfie nobility, to reduce it to writing, and to get it tigned by the principal 
men of the country; giving tiiem assurances of bis Majesty's sincere desire, and 

1. B 


letter from the chevalier, directed to all his friends in genera], 
assuring them of his resolution to come and put himself at 
their head. To all this was added a paper, drawn up by 
Hooke himself, representing the extremity to which the nation 

his dispositions to send them the succours which may be necessary for them; 
and his Majesty recommends, in a yeT7 particular manner, to Mr. Hooke, not 
to engage him in expenses, which those he is obliged to lay oat elsewhere, 
will not allow him to support, nor to give them any room to hope for more 
than he can fgrnish, . 

'* llie articles which are to be the principal objects of his attention, are, first, 
to inform himself, with certainty, of the number of troops of which the army 
shall be composed, and of the generals, and other officers, who are in the 
country, to command them ; if they stand in need of some of those which 
are in France; of what rank, and how many; the particular places where 
those men, who yoluntarily engage, shall assemble, and the place of general 
rendezvous afterwards. 

" To know who will clothe, arm, and equip them; if they have cloth in the 
country, and if they are able to pay for it : who will furnish fusees, swords, 
bayonets, belts, bandaliers and powder flasks, linen, stockings, shoes, hats, 
and other utensils, such as hatchets, pickaxes, and spades. 
" If they have any artillery, of what size, and what quantity. 
^ If they have stocks and carriages for cannon. 
" If they have officers of artillery, cannoniers, bombadiers, and miners. 
** If they have mortars, bullets, bombs, grenades, and in what quantity. 
** If they have powder and ball, whether for cannons or for muskets. 
" What they want of these things, and what they demand as absolutely 
necessary for them; acquainting them, that it is not their interest to demand 
too much, 

•* It will not be sufficient to be informed, with certainty, that they are able 
to assemble a considerable army ; it likewise is necessary to know further, the 
means by which the nobility intend to subsist them, while they are in the 
field ; and by which they can form magazines, and assemble waggons, to follow 
the army, wherever the generals think it may be proper to order it to march. 
** The same inquiry must be made about the equipage for the artillery, for 
the use of which it will be necessary to have a certain number of horses, in 
proportion to the train which they think they should bring into the field. 

** They must not persuade themselves, that the mere goodwill of the nobil- 
ity, and the blind obedience of their vassals, in doing whatever they choose, are 
• sufficient to oblige them to remain too long from home, when they are furnished 
only with bread ; they must have meat and spirits, or at least vegetables, with 
some other drink than water, the use of which is not common in that country. 
" It is of importance to be assured of the manner in which the grain and 
^ drink shall be furnished ; of the assessment which shall be made ; of the con- 
tingent which each nobleman shall contribute in grain, drink, and other provis- 


was reduced ; touching upon the interests of its principal fam- 
ilies; proposing some expedients for reconciling them, and 
kjing open the dangers to which they exposed themselves, 
and tbe utter impossibility of their being delivered while these 

ioQs ; of the number of meo they will giye, and if they shall be clothed, armed 
tod equipped. Id short, to enter into such an exact detail, that nothing will 
reaaaiii to be done, but to take a final resolution concerning the project which 
Mr, Hooke shall form, in order to secure its success. 

** It is supposed it may be demanded further, that the person who shall 
commaod the army, should explain himself, as to the use he intends to make 
of it. Tliere will be several other things to be added, which the experience 
and good sense of Mr. Hooke will suggest to him." 

From the same work, we extract. The Dedaration of War, and the Parti- 
cular Instructions which Hooke carried along with him from the Chevalier de 
Sc George. They were as follows. 

" James the VIII. by the grace of God, King of Scotland, England, France, 
and Ireland, Defender of the Faith: to all our loving subjects of our ancient 
Kingdom c^ Scotland, greeting. 

** Whereat, we are firmly resolved to repair to our said Kingdom, and there 
to assert and vindicate our undoubted right; and to deliver all our good sub- 
jects from the oppresdon and tyranny they groan under, for above these 
eighteen years past, and to protect and maintain them in their independency, 
and all their just privileges, which they so happily enjoyed under our royal 
anceston, as soon as they have declared for us. We do, therefore, hereby 
impotwcr, authorise, and require, all our loving subjecU to declare for us, and 
to assemble together in arms, and to job the person whom we have appointed 
to ba captaio-gencfal of our forces, when required by him, and to obey him 
and all others under his command, in every thing relating to our service; to 
seize tbe goTemment, and all forts and castles, and to use all acts of hostility 
against those who shall traitorously presume to oppose our authority, and to 
I^ hold, and make use of what is necessary for the armmg, mounting, and 
sttbdatiog our forces, and obstructing the designs of our enemies; for all 
which, you are hereby fully warranted and indemnified." 
Instructions for Colonel Hooke. 

" I. You are forthwith to repair to Scotland, and to endeavour to meet 
with as many of our friends as you can, to deliver to them our letters respect- 
ivdy, by which they are to give credit to what you propose to them in our 

** n. You are to expose to them the necessity of laying hold of this op- 
pcrtanity of vmdicatmg our xiglit, and their privileges and independency, 
which, if neglected, may never be retrieved. 

* in. That as soon as they appear in arms, and have declared for us, we 
dcMgn to come in person to their assistance, with the succours promised us 


jealousies stibsist^d. A message of the ssono iiftport wa» sent 
to the dukes of Athole and Gordon, to Oj^Qvie of Boyn, and 
to Inn6S' of Coxtotm, th^ they might fatfre dl thin^ in readi- 
ness for entering upon btisiness so soon as Hooke foimd it 
convenient to see them.* 

While these preparations were going forward, lord Saltoun, 
a chief of one of the branches of the house of Frazer, coming 
on a visit ib the countess of Errol, gave to Hooke ^ still more 
unfavourable character of his grace the duke of Hamilton, 
than even that by the countess herself, stating, that his grace 
had most certainly corresponded with Queensberry and Stair, 
though he had done all he could to conceal it } that he had, 
not only while the union was in progress, broken all the mea- 
sures of the well affected who opposed it, but, after its ratifi- 
cation, exerted himself to the utmost to obtain a seat in the 
British parliament, as one of the sixteen Scotish peers, in 
which attempt, *^ though he had condescended to the greatest 
meannesses," he had utterly failed^ not having been allowed 
so much as to stand a candidate. All this, and more to the 

by the most CbHstian Kittgi which cannot be obtainM^ till they hi»ye giTen 
that ^dence of their dispositions. 

** IV. You are to (explain to themi that the declaration of war you carry 
^ith yoUy is only a summons to rise in arms, reserving to bring along with us 
dn ample declaration, for pacifying the mindk of oar people^ and the false and 
ziialicious suggestions of our enemies^ of which wr desire tht^ would send ua 
a draught ; in the meantime, you may assure them of onr Unalterable resolu- 
tion of securing to thetxl thdr rel^on, laws, liberties, and independency^ 

< V. If you iihd that a party is disposed to rise in arkn^ on what pretenoe 
whatsoever, without directly owning ou^ ailthoHty) you are to acqudfit our 
friends, that We allow, and approve of their joining with, and assisting them 
against our common enemy. 

** VI. Our commission of general is designed fbr the Earl of Arran, but in 
case he declibes it, our friends dre to name another^ whose naaie is to be 
inserted. But neither this coniMteion, nor that for letyipg of wari either in 
Scotlahd or Ireland, to be published} except you find them inlmediately dis- 
posed to take the field ; though our letter to him in Ireland may be sent, 
when it cttn bfe safely conteyed. 

^ VII. You are to Assure each of our frieMs in particular, of the true sense 
we have of his loyalty, and sufferings on that account, which We think our- 
selves bound in honour and interest, to reward to the utmost of our power.'* 
♦ Hooke's Secret Negotiations, p. 18. 


same purpose, was repeated hj the earl of Errtd on his ar- 
riral, who was supported in the most material of his charges 
hj the earl of Strathmore, lord Stormonty Fotfaeringhame of 
Powrie, the laird of Finglass, and the notorious Ker of KensK 
land, who affirmed, that he had himself carried a message to 
the duke, from the Presbyterians of the west, offering to dis- 
perse the parliament, but that the ddke ^' had put a stop to 
the rising, sayrng. It was not yet time."* 

The earl of Errol was not quite so commuxkkative, with 
regard to the aberratiom of the duke of Hamilton, as his 
mother ; but he adrised Hooke to make the best use of the 
information he had received, and by no means to n^lect the 
duke, for, though be had lost that credit which, by means of 
his mother, die dutchess dowager, he had acquired among the 
Presbyterians, his influence was still so great at the court of 
Sl Germaitis, that several ordetv had come from it to die 
friends of the chevalier, or the king, as he styled him, here, to 
do nothing without him. These orders had ev^i been re- 
peated on the present occasion. In -proot of this, he showed 
a letter from Mr. Innes, almoner to the queen, through whonigi 
James, for the most part, communicated his orders to the Soots^ 
dated Jan. Itth, this year, in which, after stating that colonel 
Hooke was immediately to go over to Scotland, he adds, ^< the 
king desires that his friends would follow the directicms of the 
duke of Hamilton, and not declare themselves till the duke has 
declared himself, when they may, without danger, follow his 
example." The earl added, that he had seen a letter from Mr. 
Stairs, secretary to the carl of Middleton, to a person in Edin-^ * 
^urgh, in which he informed that person of Hooke's voyage, 
vhich he stated to be only a feint, and declared, that the king 
of France Would do nothing for the Scots. The high constable 
showed another letter from the same court, of a still later date> 
March 1st, which stated positively, that the friends of Jame0 
** have nothing to hope for ; that they are greatly pitied, and 
ought to think of their own security."t 

Over information so important, conspirators of a less san- 
guine character would certainly have paused, and an emis- 

* Hooke*8 Secret Negotiations, p. 91. f Ibid. pp. 2S, 23, 


sary possessed of less confidence, would have been considera- 
bly nonplussed. Sober reflection, however, was never either 
the act, or the attribute of a Scotish Jacobite, and Hooke 
had drunk deeper into the spirit and manners of that country 
which had adopted him, than to be put out by the appearance 
of any inconsistency in the conduct of his employers, or the 
discovery of a little presumption in his own pretensions. In- 
stead of being warned by these monitory intimations, and 
standing aloof from a n^otiator who was only able to draw 
them into danger, having evidently no power to benefit either 
them, or the person whom they pretended to honour as their 
king, the party among whom he had fallen, clung to him the 
closer, and seemed only anxious that he should not come into 
contact with the duke of Hamilton, or any of his particular 
friends. Accordingly, we find, that when, by the advice of the 
duke her husband, Hooke wrote to the dutchess of Gordon, 
who was supposed, since the defection of the duke of Hamilton, 
to be in the confidence of the Presbyterians, she wrote him 
in return, a very flattering letter, boasting of her intimacy 
with them, of their fiiendly dispositions, and tlie reasonable- 
ness of their demands, inviting him also to come and be in- 
troduced to their leading men, but requiring a positive pro- 
mise, that he would not trust the duke of Hamilton, she having 
in her hand certain proo&, that that duke had been the cause 
of all the misfortunes in Scotland. She took care, however, at 
the same time, to recommend the duke's agent, Mr. Hall, as 
an honest man — ^he was a papist, and a priest — only advising 
her friend Hooke to be upon his guard with him, as he ** saw 
only with the duke of Hamilton's eyes,"* Hooke in return, 
begged the dutchess to *^ keep the Presbyterians in their present 
good disposition," promising ^' to keep their secret, not only 
from the duke of Hamilton, whom they particularly distrusted, 
but from all others." At the same time, he sent her a justi- 
fication of that celebrated person, written by the queen at St. 
Germains, who ascribed the misfortunes of Scotland, not to 
any individual, but generally to '^ the want of succouis." 

Satisfied in his own mind, from what he had heard from so 

* Hooke*B Secret Negotiations, p. 31. 


many quarters, that the duke of Hamilton was out of credit 
with the friends of James, Hooke professes he would have given 
him up, but that ** he believed he had still interest to intrigue 
with the Presbyterians, respecting his own elevation to the 
throne, which,** says he, " in my first journey,* I understood he 
had very much at heart." Mr. Hall, of course, was admitted 
to an audience in behalf of the duke his master; but, after 
much shuffling, if we may credit Hooke, on the part of Mr. 
Hall for the duke, and still more of impertinent vanity, and 
frothy insolence on the part of Hooke for the king ot 
France, nothing was concluded between them. The duke ot 
Hamilton had always supposed the aid of 10,000 auxiliaries 
necessary for establishing James upon the throne of his &thers, 
and without this aid, refused to take any active part in at- 
tempting it. At the menti<Hi of this, Hooke pretended to be 
highly oflfended, wondered how he could be so unreasonable ! 
and told Mr. Hall, that it was in vain to talk more about it, 
till he was more fully instructed. Mr. Hall was dismissed with 
a few fine words, evidently intended to operate upon the duke's 
self loTe, and an assurance^ that, out of respect for his grace, 
Hooke would wait yet four days, before he entered into any 
n^jotiation with the other lords, and, in the meantime, would 
expect his answer at the marquis of Drummond's. 

While he was in waiting for the duke of Hamilton's answer 
to his message, and the queries that accompanied it, Hooke was 
gratified by the entire devotion of the Drummonds and their 
friends, who seem to have regarded him as the very breath of 
their nostrils, as also by the arrival of one of his associates, who 
had been sent by the way of Holland. Mr. Hall's answer for 
the duke of Hamilton, gave a most Qielancholy account of the 
state of his grace's health, and repaid Mr. Hooke's obliging 
compliments in the kindest manner; but he begged to be 
excmsed for not answering immediately, the letters firom the 
king of France, and James, for whose restoration he would 
concur in all reasonable measures, though it was still his opin- 
ion, that that prince ought not to risk himself without a con- 

* Hooke had been in Scotland, upon a message of the same kind, the 
preceding year. 


riderable body of troops, and he concluded, by wishing Hooko 
a good voyage.* 

On the receipt df this letter, and comparing it with soroe 
other letters written by the duke of Hamilton^ which fell inU) 
his hands, probably by design, Hooke was so incensed, that lie 
would write no more, either to the duke, .or .to Mr. Hall. 
Reflecting, however, upon an assertion of the duke, .that he 
could put the king upon his throne, without any assistance 
^m France, while, at the same time, he endeavoured to hinder 
him from coming over to Scotland, Hooke was persuaded, 
'^* that he had still an intention of seising the throne himself;" 
and being assured, that in such an attempt, the Presbj^terians 
behoved to be 'his only resource, resolved to give his whole 
attention to know them thoroughly, that df. they were so dispos- 
ed, he might 'take his measures accordingly. In pursuance of 
this -plan, a courier was despatched to the dutcbess of Gordon, 
begging to be informed of all the particulars respecting tlte 
chiefe of the Presb3rterian8, and of all they had proposed to her. 
In the meantime, Hooke proceeded to the house of lord 
'Stormont, where he was waited upon by Lyon of Auchterhouse, 
who brought an answer from Lockhart of Camwadb, to a letter 
that had been sent by him, stating, ** That he came from his 
estate in the west country, where he had carefully endeavoured 
to inform himself of the dispo^tion of the Presbyterians, and 
he had been agreeably surprised to find an alteration in tlieir 
sentiments almost miraculous. You cannot imagine," 'he adds, 
** the surprismg change happened in that country, in the max- 
ims and inclinations of the inhabitants, the justness of their 
opinion with regard to the state of af&irs, their zeal, and their 
eagerness to undertake something for their king and their 
country, and this disposition does not prevail in some corners 
only, but is universal diroughout all' the counties. Can it be 
possible that so fine an^portunity will not be laid hold of ?"f 

-* Hooke's Secret Negotiations, p. 38. 

f Hooke sets forth the dignity and wealth of this laird, as he styles him, 
with great pomp, and states, that he was one of the commissioners for the 
treaty of union, and that he protested against all their proceedings, which 
latter circumstance he could hardly fail to know was not true, as it was matter 


The same things were, according to Hodce, repeated of the 
Presby tei'ians by the hdrd of Stanhopej and confirmed by the 
bird of Desterenson,* whom he calk ^* a great Presbyterian,'' 
who, coming to Sooon, assured Hooke, ^* that his vassals — 
Predyjrterians they were of course earnestly pressed him to 
take off the mask, and to join the friends of the k — of Eng- 
land." Even the national assembly of the Presbyterians, then 
sittings he inforins us, approved of every thing that the pro- 
vinciai synods and presbyteries had done against die miion, 
and rejected a motion by the royal commissioner, for con- 
gratnlating the queen upon the conclusion of the treaty ; but, 
if he did not intend to deceive he ought to have told, that 
diey approved of all that had been done for it too, and though 
they dared not, for fear of increasing the odium they had al- 
ready incurred, to speak pointedly upon the union, they did 
address her majesty in terms sufficiently submissive and pane- 
gyrical, which, if they were not intended to apply to that 
treaty, appear to be altogether without meaning.f 

flf reproach against Mr. Lockbart among the Jacobites, that he had not done 
■>; and from tfaiB reproach, Lockbart is at pains to vindicate himself very 
fiiUy, in his Memoirs of the Aflairs of Scotland. Lockbart Papers, vol. i. 
pp. MS, 145. 

* Colonel Hookers work bears every mark of authenticity, and is abundant- 
\y oorroborated by The Stuart Papers, The Lockhart Papers, &c. &c. but he 
has been so careless of his names, that it is sometimes impossible to discover 
the indiindiiab couched under them. 

f " Bot your Majesty bath also been concerned to preserve Christian unity 
tod harmony amongst us, by manifesting a pious care, not to straiten us in any 
tfaiiig, w h ere i n your Biajesty did judge our principles were concerned. We hav^ 
neb giBtefiil i mprcMi ons of this your Majesty's wise and tender management, 
as will not only inflneoce ourselves to a firm and steady loyalty, but put us 
upon naing our utmost endeavours in our stations, to maintain and promote 
it amongst all in whom we have an interest; in which we crave liberty to assure 
vour Majesty that we shall not be wanting, for we cannot but acknowledge, 
that we are nnder the highest obligations, not only as subjects, but as Pjro« 
tenants, to be constant and fervent in our addrenet to the sovereign God 
that he would richly Mess, long preserve, and prosper your Majesty, whose 
zeal for muntaimng of our holy rdigion, and restoring to their just rights 
those that have been unjustly oppressed for adhering to it, hath been in the 
course of your glorious reign, manifested to the worid, and which, to our 
great joy, hath signally appeared In your Majesty's most gracious answer to 
I. C 


In the exercise of all this sacoesBful adrrity, fiidling sick, and 
unable to travel from the acat of one nobleman to that of ano- 
ther, Hooke despatched messengers to inform them of his illness, 
and request them to wait upon him, or send their seyenU pro*- 
posak in writing. The dntehess of Gordon, who had taken the 
Presbyterians especiaDy under her protection, and who insisted 
upon seeing Hooke, was pi^cularly apprised of the drcum* 
stance, and reminded of the necessily of sending an accredited 
person, to communicate all die had to say without hm of time. 
She immediately despatched, with a yety ample letter of credence, 
a gentleman of the name of Stradian, possessing, as Hooke was 
made to believe, the entire, confidence of the Presbyterians, 
and from whom lie received a memorial, written by Ker bt 
Kersland, whom he styles, the leading man in that body, and 
** chief of one of the most considerable fiunilies in Scotland." 
Having considered the heads of this extraordinary memorial, 
of which, it may safely be presumed, the Presbyterians were 
perfectly ignorant, Hooke told Mr. Stracban, ^^ that h^ m\gbt 
assure those gentlemen, that tlieir zeal and their design was 
most agreeable to the king of England; that his desire is» 
that they should take arms; and that he would nepreswt their 
good dispositions and their demands, and would inform them 
how they were to act; that Kersland would do well to keep 
hioiself in readiness to go over to France in case of need; that 
h^ himself would regulate the manner of writing to Mr. Sftr»- 
chan, to Kersland, and to Mr. Walkinshaw, who was to re- 
ceive the ship load of powder mentioned in their memorial,** 
and he begged, of them to let him hear from them before his 
departure. He wrote also to the same pyurpose to the dutchess 
of Gordon, to be communicated by her to the chieft of the 

The Presbyterians being thus disposed of, Hooke hasted to 
bring his treaty with the other lords to a conclusion; but^ en- 
tirely devoted to the interests of France, and determined to 
engage Louis to nothing, he found this a matter of more diffir 

the late ttddnu of our lirttbro>» the distrsued and persecuted Protestants of 
F#alic^" Printed Acts of the General Awerobly of the Church of Scotland, 


* Hooke*a Secret Negotiations, p. 47. 


eul^ than he had antioipatod. Ardent in the cause of l^ti« 
macf, and eager to engage the French king in their interest, the 
different chieftaiils had stated eVery thing in the most fevourable 
light, expecting;, that succours Wotdd be the more readily grant- 
ed, m proportian as they coidd demonstrate them to be less 
needed. Hooka, hoirerer, made altogether a difierent improve- 
ment of their varkms, but generally favourable accounts. He con- 
tended, firom their own statem^kts, that they had ample means 
among themselves, and positively reiiised to oommit himself or 
his master, fibr any saooours whf^ver* After mudi discussion, 
in whidi the presumption and ignorance of both parties* formed 
the most remarkable features, it was agreed, at the suggestion of 

* Tli« f ss dif aiay tdM die foUowng sboit s^inaen ia proof. *< Tbej 
dmkwadtd what wnetonxn thcf ra^ht expect from his most Christian Majesty. 
I imwered, that I was authorized to promise every thing I shoukl judge ne- 
cessary ; that the succours therefore would be regulated by their wants ; for 
I could never judge it proper CO promise them succours whieh they had oo 
need of, and by their memorial^ it did fxot appear that they were in want of 
nany things. Tbey replied, that they had not a nind to sUte all their de- 
Bands, tiU they bad spoke to me concerning the artide of succours ; that to 
render themselves masters of Scotland, they in truth needed nothing but the 
person of the k-^ of England, arms, ammunition and money; but their design 
being to penetrate into England, and to oblige the Engtifth, either to submit, 
er to treat with them, they Would have occasion for powerful sueoours to 
mceeed in that enterprize. I answered, that I was not of their opinion — that 
from the moBient they were masters of Scotland, they would need none but 
ifaeir own forces to penetrate into England ; that there were no troops in 
Scotland that could hinder them from assembling ; that the English weTe iiof 
in a con^don to oppose so considerable am army as they proposed to raBse ; 
that they could toever want Mr pitovisioiM ia an open and plentiful coantry ; 
and that they would be able to raise contributions, which would more than 
BBppIy att their wants, after the example of their forefathers, who in the late 
van between Scotland and England, in 1659, raised 800 pounds sterling a 
day, only in the three northern counties of England, which is the poorest of 
that kingdom.** In the same style of flattery and fuBtiaii, be goes on to as* 
lore them, " thst a body of ttoaps would be of more defiment than service, 
foreigners not being used to live upon so little as the Scots." Full of the 
idea of Scotish invincibility, he gravely affirms, ** that they had no reason 
to be aflKghled at the name of regiiiar iroopa, as their own would become 
regolars itt the ipaoa of fifteen days 1 all theit aien being accustomed to. the 
Me of fte gun firom their iofaacy, aU of tliem also beiDg htiatevs ; that they 
were disciplfncd flroto the age of tweaty-sfai, arid were! perfbclly acquainted 
with all the military evolutions; that naturally they stand fire, with so little 


Mr. Graham, who had been solicitor to king James, to insist 
upon nothing, but simply to transmit a memorial^ stating their 
case to tlie French king, and referring themselves wholly to his 
wisdom, in the depth of which he could not fail to judge most 
properly of their wants; and besides, it was reasoned, that he 
behoved to be deeply afliected with so great a confidence in his 
goodness.* Still, however, there were dilBculties to overcome. 
Some gentlemen scrupled to sign the memorial, preferring the 
original design of a treaty, and it was necessary so to manage 
matters, that if all were not pleased, no one might be reason- 
ably offended. The greater part, indeed, were perfectly man- 
ageable, but there were a few, on whose behalf lord Kils3rth was 
particularly active, who would do nothing without the duke of 
Hamilton, which occasioned a renewal of their discussions, and 
some angry recrimination between Hooke and lord Kilsyth, on 
the part of that noble duke. All that accrued from their 
lengthened deliberations, however, was only, the hmnbly sug- 
gesting to his most Christian majesty, one or two things, wliich 
yet were lefl entirely to his discretion, that his grace the duke 
of Hamilton might not be able to say, that he had been alto- 
gether neglected. Tlie memorialists, indeed, seem to have had 
a particular jealousy and distrust of the duke, which seems to 
have arisen, in a great measure, in the present instance at least, 
from his unwillingness to engage in the business without a 
reasonable prospect of success, to ensure which, he supposed 
a supply of arms, money and ammunition, with ten thousand 
well appointed troops, together with the adoption of measures 
to sati^ the people in general, as to the security of their 
religion and ci\'il rights, to be necessary. The latter part of 
bis conditions, being papists, they were anxious to avoid, and, 
confident in their own powers, the friendly intentions of his 
most Christian majesty, and the concurrence of the people in 
genera], they hoped by themselves to establish the king, with 

apprehension and concern ; that their recruits have been always as much es^ 
teeiiMd as thar old soldiers, and," most consolatory, ** that they are rubnst, 
liTe hard, and that they would destroy an English army without fighting, 
merely by fatiguiiig it! !" Hooka's Secret Negotiations, pp. 49, S2. 

♦ Hookc*6 Secret Negotiations, p. 54, 


whom they would, of oouise, share the power, die honour, aml^ 
more especially, the emoluments naturally accruing £rom such 
an illustrious undertaking. 

Conceiving themselves to have been insulted by Hooke, the 
duke <^ Hamilton, the earl Marischal, Viscount Kilsyth, Coch- 
ran of Kilmaronock, Lockhart of Camwath, Maule of Kelly, 
and captain Straiten, declined to correspond with the dievalier 
de St. George, or, as they called him, the king of KngUnH^ 
through him, choosing rather to do so through the earl of 
Middleton, upon which Hooke << sent them more than once or 
twice, impertinent and threatening letters," and they were 
treated by their Jacobite bretluren, who were in the interest of 
Hooke, with no little rancour, though there is too much evi- 
dence, that they were very hearty in the cause ; and had their 
advice been followed, the issue of the invasion might have been 
very different from what it was.* It is evident, however, if 
tliere be any credit due to the Narrative of Hooke, that the 
duke of Hamilton did not abandon liim without great reluc- 
tance, and not till he found that personally he had no particu- 
lar benefits to expect at his hand.f We also find his letter, 
given to Hooke along with those of the memorialists, though 
he took care to write it in cyphers, and had the meanness to 
send it neither signed nor directed.^: 

After travelling backwards and forwards, holding many con- 
sultations, and discussing a variety of opinions and plans, 
Hooke finished his n^otiations, by receiving for his master, 
tlie king of France, the following memorial from the Scotish 

* Lockhart Papers, vol. L p. 232. 

f* He [the duke of Hamilton,] desires me to send him word whether I was 
Dot ordered to o£fer him some personal advantages, either in money or other- 
wise, and what those advantages were. He asks what the king (Louis) will do 
for him, in case he be obliged to fly to France^ to avoid the persecutions of the 
Ei^lish. He adds, that lord Portland had demanded, at Ryswick, the resti- 
tution of the dutchy of Chatelerault to the house of Hamilton, and thereupon 
desires roe to give him my opinion, whether he ought to demand that dutchy 
by the ambassadors of England, at the first treaty of peace.*" Hooke's Secret 
Negotiations, p. 73. 

X Hooked Secret Negotiations, p. 102. 


lords, which* whether we ooDsider ite want of patriotisiDt its 
want of policy, or its want of truth, is alike remarkable^ 

*^ His Most Christian Majesty having been pleased to offer 
his protection to the kingdom of Scotland, in order to restore 
its lawfid k-*-, and to secure to his nation its liberty, privileges^ 
and independence; and his majesty having sent the honourable 
colonel Hooke, who, besides his past services, has now again 
given fresh and signal proofi of his capacity, zeal, and fidelity 
ibr the service of the Most Christian kin^ and of his Britannic 
Majes^, to confer with the peers and other nobility of this 
nation, touching the measures that may be most conducive to 
90 just and glorious an end* 

*^ We, the underwritten Peers and Lords, having seen the 
full power given by his most Christian Majesty to the said 
colonel, do, in our own names, and in the name of the greatest 
part of this nation, whose dispositions are well known to us, 
accept the protection and assistance of his most Cluristian 
Majesty with the utmost gratitude ; and we take the liberty, 
most humbly to lay before his said Majesty, the following re- 
presentation of the present state of this nation, and of the 
things we stand in need of. 

<^ The greatest part of Scotland has always been well dispos- 
ed for the service of its lawful k — ^ ever since the revolution, 
OS his most Christian Majesty has often been informed by some 
among u& But this good disposition is now become universal. 
The shires in the west, which iised to be the most disaffected, 
are now very zealous for the service of their lawful k — . We 
have desired colonel Hooke, to inform his most Christian 
Majesty of the motives of this happy change. 

" To reap the benefit of so favourable a disposition, and of 
so happy a conjuncture, the presence of the k — , our sovereign, 
will be absolutely necessary; the people being unwilling to 
take arms, without being sure of having him at their head. 
We have desired colonel Hooke to represent to Us M^esty 
the reasons of this demand. 

" The whole nation will rise upon the arrival of its k — . He 
will become master of Scotland without any op{K)sition, and 
the present government will be entirely abolished. 

" Out of this great number of men, we will draw 25,000 


foot, and 6,000 horse and dragoons ; and with this army we 
will march straight into England. We, and the other Peers 
and Cldefe, will aoemble all omr men, each in hta respective 

** The general rendezvous of die troops on Uie north side of 
the river Tay, shall be at Perth. Those of the western shiiw 
shall (ussemble at Stirling; and those of the aouth and east at 
Damfiries, and at Dunse. 

<< Thoae that shall be nearest the place where the k — of 
England shall land, shall repair to him. 

^ We have computed the number of men which will be 
furnished by each of the shires that we are best i^uainted 
with; and we have desired colonel Hooke to inform his Maj- 
esQp tiiereof. 

^ For the subsistence of these troops^ there will be foond in 
our granaries die harvests of two years ; so that a crown will 
purchase as much flour as will keep a man two months* There 
will be commissaries in each shire to lay up the com in the 
magastnes, in such places as shall be thought most proper; 
and commissaries general, who will take care to lllpply the 
army with provisions wfaerev^ it shall march, 

<< The sane cammianuries will fiimish it with meat, beer, and 
brandy, of which there is great plenty eU over the kingdom. 

'^ There is woollen cloth enough in the country to clothe a 
greater number of troops, and the Peers and other Lords will 
take care to furnish it 

^ There is great quandty of linen, shoei^ and bonnets, for 
the soldiers. They will be furnished in the same manner as 
the woollen cloths. Of hats there are but few. 

^< The same coounissaries will fimiish carriages for the pro- 
visions, the country abounding therein. 

^ The inclinations of aU these shires^^-excepting those of 
the west— for the k— of England have been so well knowi^ 
and ao public since the revcdution, that the government ba^ 
taken care to disarm them frequendy ; so that we are in greai 
want of arms aad ammunition. 

<< The Highlands are pretty well armed gfter their manner. 
< The shires of the west are pretty well armed. 

^ The Peers and tlie Notttlity have some arms. 


<< There is no great plenty of belts and pouches, but there 
are materials enough to make them. 

<' The few cannons, mortars, bombs, grenades, &c that are 
in the kingdom, are in the hands of the government. 

<^ No great plenty will be found of hatchets, pickaxes, and 
other instruments for throwing up the earth; but there are 
materials for making them. 

<^ Commissaries will be appointed to fomish cattle for the 
conveyance of the provisions, artillery, and carriages; the 
country being plentifully provided therewith. 

^ lliere are some experienced officers, but their number is 
not great. 

** With respect to money, the state of this nation is veiy 
deplorable. Besides that, the English have employed all sorts 
of artifices to draw it out of the kingdom ; the expedition of 
Darien has cost large sums; our merchants have exported a 
great deal ; we have had five years of fitmine, during which we 
were obliged to send our money into England and to Ireland, 
to purchase provisions; and the constant residence of our 
Peers and Nobility at London, has drained us of all the rest. 
What our nation can contribute towards the war, is therefore 
reduced to these two heads; llie public revenue, which amounts 
to one hundred thousand five hundred pounds sterling a-year ; 
and what the nobility will fiimish in provisions, clothes, gcc 
the proportions of which will be settled upon the arrival of the 
k — of England. Having thus set forth the state of the nation, 
we most humbly represent to his most Christian Majesty as 
follows : — 

*' That it may please his most Christian Majesty, to cause 
the k — our sovereign, to be accompanied by such a number 
of troops as sliaU be judged sufficient to secure his person 
against any sudden attempts of the troops now on foot in Scot- 
land, being about two thousand men, which may be joined by 
three or four English regiments now quartered upon our 

^* It would be presumption in us to specify the number; but 
we most humbly represent to his Majesty, that the number 
ought to be regulated according to the place where the k — of 
England shall land. If his Majesty lands north of the river 


lay, a small number will. soflSoe for his security, because he 
will be joined in a few days by considerable numbers of his 
subjects; he will be covert by the river Tay and the frith 
of Forth, and aU the shires behind him are £uthful to hia 

^ But if, cm the contrary, his Majesty lands upon the south- 
west or south-east, he will want a lai^ body of troops, on 
account of the proximity of the forces of the English, and 
of their r^ukr troops. We believe that eight thousand* men 
will be sufficient. 

' << But with respect to the number of the troops, we readily 
agree to whatever shall be settled between the two kings; being 
persuaded that the tenderness of the mo6t Christian King for 
the person of our sovereign, faUs no way short of that of his 
faithful subjects. 

^ We also beseech his Majesty to honour this nation with a 
general, to command in chief under our Sovereign, of distin- 
guished rank, that the first men of Sootkmd may be obliged to 
obey him without difficulty; and to cause him to be accom- 
panied by such General Officers as the two Slings shall judge 

*< Hie Peers and other Lords, with their friends, desire to 
command the troops they shall raise, in the quality of colonels, 
lieutenant-colonels, captains, and ensigns ; but we want majors, 
lieutenants, and sergeants, to discipline them. 

^ And if our enemies withdraw their troops firom foreign 
countries, to employ them against us, we hope that his most 
Christian Majesty will send some of his to our assistance. 

<< The great scarcity of money in this country obliges us to 
beseech his most Christian Majesty to assist us with an hun- 
dred thousand pistoles,f to enable us to march' straight into 
England. We stand also in need of a regular monthly sub- 
sidy during the war; but we submit, in that article, to whatever 
shall be agreed upon by the two kings. 

* This demand of SOOO mea^oMU added, merely to please the duke of 
HamUton. AU the others had demanded but 5000. Hooke. 

f This demand of an hundred thousand pistoles was added, to pleaia the 
duke of Hamilton. Ibid. 

26 HltTOmV OF 8C01XAN0. 

<« We likewise beseech his most Christiaii Majes^ to send 
with the k — our soverdgm arms for twenty^five thoufiand foot, 
and five thousand hone or dragoons^ to ann our troops» and 
to be kept in reserve* together with powder and balls in pro- 
portion, and also some pieces of artillexyy bombs, grenades, &c» 
with i^eers of artillery, engineers and cannoneers. We sub- 
mit also in this, to whatever shall be setded between the twa 

** We have desured colonel Hooke to represent to his most 
Christian Majesty, the time we judge most proper, for this 
expedition, as also the several places of landing, and those for 
erecting magazines, with our reasons for each; and we moat 
humbly beseech his Majesty to chooae that which he shall like 

*> And whereas, several of this nation, and a great number 
tS the English, have forgot their duty towards their Sovere^n^ 
we take the liberty to acquaint his most Christian Majesty^ 
that we have represented to our k — , what we think his Mq- 
esty should do to pacify the minds of his people, and to oblige 
the most obstinate to return to their duty, with respect to the 
Protestant religion and other things, which it will be necessary 
fbr him to grant to the Protestants. We most humbly thank 
his most Christian Majesty, for hopes he has given us by oot- 
onel Hooke, of our having our privileges restored in France^ 
and of seeing our k — and this nation included in the future 
peace; and we beseech his Majesty to settle this afikir widi the 
k — our sovereign. 

^' We have folly informed colonel Hooke of several thingsf, 
which we have desired him to represent to his most Christian 

*' And in the pursuit of this great design, we are resolved 
mutually to bind ourselves by the strictest and most sacred 
ties, to assist one another in this common cause, to forget aU 
family differences, and to concur sincerely, and with all our 
hearts, without jealousy or distrust, like men of honour, in so 
just and glorious an enterprise. ^In testimony whereof, we 
have signed these presents, the seventh day of the month of 
May, q( the year one thousand seven hundred and seven." — 
Signed — Errol, Pammure, Stormont, Kinnaird^ Jambb 


Ogtltie, N. Moray, N« Keith, Drummoki), Thomas 
FoTHsaiN(}HAM, Alvxakdbr Innes.* 

Hie last dauae of the above Memorial was added by the 
duke of Athole, who ordered the lord Stormont to sign it for 
famuf The dnke of Athole also proposed sending Ogilvie of 
Boyn into France, along with Hooke^ in his own name, and 
that of the other chie& Hooke^ however, declined to take 
QgOvie under his protection, and the duke, thinking it neoes^ 
8B17 he should go^ if it was eoly to bring beck the answer of 
Us most dujstian Majes^ to their Memorial, resolved to send 
him over in a neutral vessel* 

Besides signing the Memorial lor the duke of Athole, lord 
Stormont, according to Hooke, signed it for the earb of Nitbs- 
dale, Traqpiair, Gtalloway, and Home, and the lords Kenmure, 
Naim, jSnclair, Semple^ and Oliphant. Lord Drummond 
signed it in '^< name of the others, that is to say, of all the 
chieftains of the Highlands of the West of Scotkuid.":^ Hie 
laird of Albercanie,§ chief of the family df Murray, signed for 
htmseli^ and for the lords Fintry attd Newton* Lord Braidal- 
bine refosed to sign, but promised to appear among the first, 
as soon as the chevalier had made good his landing* The earl 
of Strathmore signed for himself, and for the earls of Wigton 
and Linlithgow. Lyon of Auchterhouse signed for himself 
and for Lockhart of Camwath; Fotheringhame €l Powrie for 
himself, and for the whole shire of Angus, delivering into the 
hands of Hooke, a list of all its nobility, of whom, he said, he 
was certain* The duke of Gordon refused to sign, because it 
required the personal presence of the chevalier de St* George^ 
snd he could not think of exposing him to the dangers of war* 
Sir Alexander Innes of Coxtoun, signed for himself and for 
the earl of Murray, and for Grant of Grant* The earl of 
Errol signed for himself, for the earls of Caithness, Eglinton, 
Aberdeen, and Buchan, for lord Saltoun, and for the shires of 
Aberdeen and Meams. The great Marshall, being taken ill 
at Edinburgh, commissioned the laird c^ Keith to sign for him, 

• Hooke*! Secret NegoCistionfy pp. 85—91* f ^^ P* ^^« 
t Ibid. p. 95, § Probtbly Murray of Abereumy. 


and to promise twenty-eight field pieces, and two battering 
cannon, from his castle of Dmiolgo,* on the east of Scotland-f 
The time, and the proper places for landing, forming maga- 
zines, &c. were also careinllj considered, and the colonel 
charged to make their sentiments on these heads known to his 
most Christian Majesty. The month of August or September, 
was pointed out as the most proper time, suiting best the con- 
venience of his most Christian Majesty, and most likely to 
ensure the safety of the succours^ that he might be pleased to 
send,' from the circumstances of the campaign on the continent 
being, by that time, likely to be drawing to a dose, wliile tlie 
enem/s fleets would, in all probability, be upon the distant 
coasts of Spain and Portugal. Three places were proposed 
for landing, Edinburgh, Kirkcudbright, and Mohtrose. Tlie 
first was especially recommended by its port, Leith, ^ere the 
ships of his most Christian Majesty might ride in perfect safety, 
while the chevalier made himself master of the capital, of all 
the higher courts, of the sources of money and of tiiule, and 
at the same instant, disperse the functionaries of the present 
government The feelings and temper of the inhabitants, who 
were supposed to be very generally in the interests of the 
chevalier, were also urged, as recommending this place to hi& 
particular attention, while the glory of the enterprise, the terror 
it would strike into his enanies, the abundant supplies of every 
description, in the midst of which he would be placed, and the 
facility with which he could thence march into Elngland, wero 
all severally brought forward, to induce him to make his first 
attempt upon the capital of his ancient kingdom of Scotland. 
Kirkcudbright was reconunended, as in the midst of the Pres- 
byterians, and in the neighbourhood of those shires capable ot 
furnishing the greatest number of horses, within reach of their 
firiends in the north of England, and not far. distant from Ire- 
land, whence they might reasonably expect very material as- 
astanoe. The passage too, it was added, from Brest to this 
place, was short and easy, and the landing here would be 
peculiarly gratifying to the Presbyterians. The chevalier's 

* Dunnottar, now the roost majestic ruin io Scotland* 
f Hooke'i Secret Negotiations, pp. 65 — €9. 


principal friends, however, did not think it advinble fix* him 
to pot himself into their hands. Montrose had also its advo* 
cates, particularly, as a phice capable of being fortified, being 
strong by its nabural situation, standing in the midst of the 
dievali^s best friends, and having all the shires behind it 
staunch to his interest At the same time, they left it entirriy 
to his own judgment and convenience, which of the three he 
might adopt.* 

It was further given in diarge to Hooke, to request the 
chevalier to say nothing on the subject of religion, further 
than to promise, to be directed by his first parliament. It was 
hoped also, that he would grant a general amnesty, without 
any exceptions, and that he would promise to set at liberty, all 
the vassab of such as should oppose him, that such vassals 
might be induced to take arms in his behalf. The colonel was 
also directed, to represent to his most Christian Majes^, ^* that 
the French people were as much loved in Scotland, as they 
wtfe hated in England — ^that the Sootish people still retain a 
pleasing remeinbrance of their ancient alliances, and preserve 
several French idioms, and terms of expression in their lan^ 
guage, which are not used in England; that France is there- 
fore always dear to them ; and that they promise themselves 
the deliverance of their country, and the restoration of their 
king, under his Majesty's protection."f 

Having thus visited the principal families in Scotland, par- 
ticularly in the north, and north-east parts, of the country, and 
taken their bond to appear for James and France, with all the 
means of men and money they could command, Hooke re- 
turned to France, by a ship that waited for him upon the 
north coast, sometime in the end of May, carrying with him 
letters from the principal of them to the chevalier de St. 
George^ who» he assured them, would be in Scotland, to receive 
their grateful homage, by the month of August.]: 

Hooke appears all along, to have considered his mission as 
one of high honour, and of great importance, and on his return 
to France, he triumphed not a little over the earl of Middle- 

• iIooie*t Secnt N^BOtistioiis, pp. 79—75. f Ibid. pp. 79, so. 
i Lockhart Papen, vol. L p. 858. 


ton, whose friendi in Soodond, he scrupled not to accuse with 
a want of aeal for the honour and interests of him, whom th^ 
were pleased to dignify with the appellation of their king.* 
lEs reception among the Scotish nobility, at that time pro- 
▼eibial for pride, was certainly such as might have encouraged 
confidence in a mind less subject to the inspirations of yanity 
than that of colonel Hooke; but advantage had been taken df 
his sanguine disposition, to flatter, rather than to infiorm him; 
and, in not a few instances, he certainly was grossly imposed 
npon. This was particularly the case with regard to the re- 
presentations of the dutchess of Gordon, and Ker of Ker&- 
land, respecting the Presbyterians^ whom they reported to be 
perfectly in the interest of the pretender, and ready to aid 
him at ell hazards, with thirteen thousand men. The dutchess 
was very hearty in the cause herself and no doubt wished the 
Presbyterians to be so too, and may therefore be supposed to 
have believed what she stated to be matter of &ct; but Ker 
of Kersland was a spy, in the pay of government, and pur* 
posely misrepresented the Presbyterians, in order to come, by 
that means, at the secrets of Hooke, which he certainly did, 
and as certainly communicated them to the British govemmentf 

• Lockhart Fnpen, vol L p. S52. It was the cooiinon sayiog of Lock- 
half i children, ^ truly our king lives in France." Memoirs of North Britain, 
p. 26. 

f Ker^s name was originally Crawford* but, on marrying the heiress of 
Kersland, he assumed the name of Ker, and along with it, pretended to as* 
same the principles by which the Kers had been long and hoooorably di^ 
doguished. In consequence of these pretensions, he was admitted to sooie 
meetings of the Old Dissenters, though it does not appear that he ever suc- 
ceeded in gaining much of their confidence. He certainly, however, had 
more of it than he deserved, as his purpose was only to betray them to the 
government, whose spy, at the solidtations of the duke of Queensbeny, he 
had become. He also pretended to be a lealous partisan for the pretender, 
and seems to have perfectly succeeded in deceiving the Jacdbites, who com- 
nunicated with him generally without reserve. He obtuned from queen 
Anne, after having communicated to her government, the whole of Hooke's 
negotiations, a patent for his roguery in the following words. 

** Whereas, we are fully sensible of the fidelity and loyalty of John Ker of 
Kersland, Esq., and of the services he hath performed to us and our govern- 
ment: We therefore grant him this, our Rc^al Leave and Licence, to keep 


All parties faoweyer, appear to haw been prstif troll satUSed^ 
Hooke tridi hiinsd^ die chevalier de Sc George iridi the Tain 
hopes of a orown, his most Christian Majestf with the prospeet 
of a division in his &vonr8, on the part of Scotland, and the 
poor dehuled Scotnh Jacobites, with the visionary idea of 
F^psining national independence, and along with it the sove* 
reignty of England ! ! How miserably all were disappointedf 
we shall see in the sequel. 

In die meantime^ those who had been intmsted with tiit 
management of Scotish affimrs, having snooeeded in carrying 
into effect die measures suggested by die English ministry, with 
a facility, and to an extent iar beyond dieir most sai^uiiia 
expectations, hastened exultii^ly to court, where they were 
reoOTed with *every demonstradon of re^Kct Montrose and 
Roxburgh were bodi created dukes, and Queensbeny, whose 
life had been threatened, and who was execrated by the pcqm* 
laoe in his own country, was in England, every where welcom* 
ed widi c xpr os si oDs of gradtikle and joy. At Berwick, New- 
castle^ Durham, and the other great towns through which he 
passed, he was waited upon, and complimented by die magis* 

oompanyy and asBociate himself with such as are disaffected to us and our 
govemment, in such way or manner as he sHlall judge most for our senrtce. 
Given under our Rojal Hand, at our casde of Windior, the 7th of July, 
1707, and of oar reign the 6tfa year.** 

Thus fordfiad against any legal consequences that might accrue to him lor 
his conduct, and furnished with money to serre present exigences, he became 
a leading man in all the deliberations of the Jacobites, and was by tfaero 
thought to hare full power over the Presbyterian Sodetiet in the south and 
wert, wbo. as diey were known enemies to the unioii, were supposed ne eas 
avily to be in the interest of the pretender. Nothiag^ however, oodd be a 
feuUer calumny, and it does not appear that he bad any authority whatever 
from the Societies, which were composed of men far too strict in their morals, 
to haTO any thing particular to do with a man so profligate as Ker certainly 
was. He performed bis dirty work, however, with considerable ability, and, 
as is usual in such cases, was rewarded vndi neglect* After a bustling life 
of raacafly latrigne, which he has himself carefully dironided, he died la 
ipeal insery, a prisoaer for debt, in the King's bendi prison, London, July 
ath, 1786, aged £S. His Memoirs were published die preceding year, ai 
three parts, and dedicated to a very proper patron. Sir Robert Walpole. 
Vide Memoirs of John Ker of Kersland, in three parts, London, 1786; and 
Lockhart Papers, vt>L i. p. 507. 


tarates^ whik assembled multitttdes every where suirounding 
him, testified the de^ interest they fislt in what he had so 
happily aooomplished. At.Bamet^ Hig^igate, and other places 
near London, the queen's ministers, and the members of both 
houses of parliamoit, waited upon him in their cxMches, and 
the metropolis had never seen so great and so jq^ a con- 
course of people, since the entry of James VI. at the union of 
the two crowns« A pension of £3,000 per annum, out c^ the 
post office^ was settled upon his grace, the whole patronage <^ 
Scotland was vested in his hands, and he was created a British 
peer, by the title of duke of Dover, marquis of Beverly, and 
earl of Rippon, ^nd took his seat as such in the house of lords, 
in the month of November following.* 

^ The first British parliament was convoked by prodamaliony 
on the 23d of October, 1707, and, after taking into considerar 
tion the affairs of the United Kingdom generally, turned its 
attention to the political situation, and internal government of 
Scotland, for improving which, and rendering the late treaty 
of union more completely effective, they passed a number of 
most important rc^gulations. In the true spirit of kindness and 
conciliation, they addressed the queen, to discharge the infor- 
mations that were still hanging over a number of merchants, 
for goods imported into Scotland before the 1st of May. They 
repealed the famous Act of Security, and the Act anent peace 
and war, both of which were indeed abrogated by the unions 
but, as they had been the means of inflaming the Scotish, and 
alarming the English nation, in no ordinary degree, to allay 
every uneasy apprehension, their formal and literal reversion 
was judged necessary. The militia of Scotland they voted to 
be placed upon the same footing with that of England. They 
restored the office of justices of the peace, which had been laid 
aside since the revolution, with the same powers as those of 
England ; and, for the better and more speedy administration 
of justice, they appointed the lords of justiciary to travel their 
circuits twice in the year. Writs for electing members of 
parliament, they ordered to be issued, and the returns made in 
the same manner as in England, and they determined, that 

• Douglas' Pserage of Scotland, toI ii. p. SSI. 


after the Ist of May, 1T06» the Scotisfa privy council should be 
finally dissolved, thus annihiktihg the last vestige of the nation- 
al government. These enactments did not pass either house 
without violent opposition, eqpeciaUy the last, which was car* 
ried in the house of lords, by a majority of only five voices; 
and, though the council in question was a most odious 
tribunal, and one which, had it been continued, would e£kcU 
ually have prevented any benefit arising from the union, its 
extinction tended to exasperate that irritable and gloomy 
feeeling, whidi at this tune unhappily characteriaed the Sootiflh 

MHiile the friends of their country were thus employii^ 
themselves to promote its best interests, the Jacobites were 
doing their utmost to counteract diem, by restoring the exiled 
fiimilyi and breaking up the union, whidi they considered as 
giving, i£ it ever came to be &irly established, the death blow 
to their projects. The month of Ai^ust was ardently looked 
for, as the happy period that was to bring them the accomphsb- 
ment of all their wishes ; but when it did arrive, it brou|^ 
only a notice, that his most Christian majesty, at that time^ 
could do nothing; and thb notice was repeated from time to 
time, till the hopes of the most s^mguine were nearly extinguish- 
ed. From the freedoin of speech tod o( acti<m too, in which 
many of them had ihdnlged, femurs were entertained, that they 
might be proceeded against by the existing government, and^ 
withdut reaping any of its advantages, suffer all the pains of 
treason. Under this impression, they became ail at once ap* 
parendy deeply interested in the management of puUic affiun^ 
and, as it was certain the jparliament behoved to be dissolved at 
the end of the session^ they began to canvass for seats in the 
new parliament, for the double purpose of laying asleep the 

• ** Id the records of the Privy Counc3 of Scotland, after th6 junedoo of 
the crownis we meet with more ft^oent ezaoiplei of the grois abuse of 
delegated power, than ootur perhaps in the history of any nation possessor 
a regular atad established government. The functions and proceedings of the 
ordinary judicatories were oflen suspended, and their decisions overawed and 
controlled, by the indefinite prerogatives of a tribunal, which was a standing 
engine of regal and aristocratic oppression*' Somerville*s History of OresS 
BHtani, Ac* 

1. ' X 

34 iiisraRY OF vcotlakd. 

▼igilance of the government, and, if their friends were brought 
into trouble, that they might be in a situation more effect- 
ually to befriend than. This, to be sure, involved them 
m the guilt of deep dissimulation, and, if they succeeded, in 
the still deeper guilt of perjury; but politicians have very 
generally supposed the means to be sanctified by the end, even 
when less sacred objects were in view than divine, indefeasible, 
hereditary right, and where neither works of supererogation 
were provided, nor dispensing power claimed for their relie£ 

With all this diligence at home, the Jacobites did not fail, 
to hasten, by every means in their power, that assistance fix>m 
abroad upon which they so much depended. Mr. Hall, of 
whom we have already made mention, writes thus, by orders of 
his grace the duke of Hamilton, to M. de Chamlllart, the 
French minister, August 2d, 1707. ^* The duke of Hamilton 
will not go to England, till he shall have seen the king^s 
determination, with respect to the aflfairs of Scotland; and 
it is hoped here, that Sir James C^vie of Boyn will 
bring it soon. The duke of Hamilton has informed him- 
self more fiilly concerning the dispositions of the west; and 
this is what he orders me to tell you. All the Presbyterians 
are resolved to oppose the union ; and if the k — of England 
comes to Scotland with six or eight thousand men, he will 
have more people for him than he will know how to em- 
ploy. It will be necessary that he give the command of 
them to the peers and the nobiUtyf and the duke ofHamStUm will 
set others the example. We have arms in these parts, and some 
shires have already officers upon half pay. All that the Pres- 
byterians demand of the k — of England is, to declare against 
the union, and to maintain the parliament, and the independ- 
ence of the nation. They submit to military discipline, and 
will not disturb his majesty on account of his religion, only 
desiring, that he will be content to exercise it without much 
show. They conjure him only to promise the safety of the 
Protestant religion in general, and to refer all the rest to his 
first parliament. All the tones are zealous for his interests, 
but it will be necessary that he come soon, otherwise the op- 
portunity will be lost." This is secdnded by the duke of 
Gordon, August 9th, ** We are in great consternation here at 

HIS^ronT OF 90DTLAHII. 85 

not hearing from you, and are therefinre obliged to be uigent 
to know what we may hope for. Secrecy is necessary in great 
affairs, but too much mystery spoils alL May we know at 
least, whether we shall be assisted or not? The duke of Ham- 
ilton b^ns to eq>ouse our interests heartily. There are 
people here who innnuate, that you do not intend to assist us. 
If you do intend it, the opportuni^ is favourable, and never 
will be found again." The duke of Gordon is followed by 
Ker of Kersland, August 16th and 20th. << All is ready here^ 
but if the succours do not come soon, or at least, if we are not 
sure of being assisted within a limited time, all will go to con- 
fusion. The people complain, that they have oRen been made 
to hope, without any effect. I will stiU answer for keeping 
every thing ready for some time longer, provided I am sure of 
'the succours; but it would not be just, that I should lose my 
fortune for my goodwill. Long delays will ruin us all. We 
are all convinced, that the only way to save Scotland, is to 
restore our k — . The opportunity is excellent; it never was 
so good, and if you lose it, it never will be found again. The 
union is so universally detested, that it has changed the hearts 
of the greatest enemies of the k — of iaigland. I should not 
wonder, if this change should not be easily believed in France, 
for I am surprised at it myself, and yet it is true. The at- 
tachment which the chiefs of the Cameronians have always had 
for my family, enables me to answer for them; and I will 
readily venture myself on this occasion, provided I am sure of 
not being forsaken ; for the English will not spare me. Do 
not give credit to all the intelligence that may be sent from 
these shires, [the five shires of Ae south-west,] by any other 
channel than mine ; for I am informed, that others make use 
of my name without my knowledge. We are ready to give 
every security that shall be desired, for the performance of our 
promises. Once more, do not lose time ; for if you do^ you 
lose every thing." This incendiary is followed by the dutchess 
of Gordon, August 20th and 2Sd, with still greater vehemency. 
^ For God's sake ! what are you thinking of? Is it possible, 
that after having ventured all to show our zeal, we have neither 
assistance nor answer ! All is lost for want of knowing what 
measures ought to be taken. Several of the greatest partisans 

36 jiwraiiir OF scx)ti.ano. 

of the union acknowledge their error, and fiome oyer to us. 
If we are left in the uncertainty we are now in, t)ie people will 
grow cool. The chieftains wiU fear for themselves, when they 
find that they are despised, and will make their peace, not to 
have an halter always about their necks. Give me but a 
positive promise, and all will go well. The chieftains will then 
find no difficulty in keeping every thing ready against the 
arrival of the succours ; but our hearts are sunk by this con- 
tinual uncertainty. Come when you please, and to what part 
you please, you will be well received; but if you do not come 
soon, or if you do not send us speedily an assurance of ^ssist^ 
ance, the party will be broken, and it will be too late."* 

Whether these letters, produced tlie desired effect, or whether 
the circumstances of the time became of a more imperious 
nature, it might be difficult to determine, but the French court 
at length began, apparently, to think of doing something in 
earnest, and preparations upon an extensive scale, commenced 
with the utmost secrecy and activi^. A fleet, of five sail of the 
line, twen^-two frigates, and two transports, with five thousand 
troops, were assembled at Dunkirk, and, with the chevalier de 
St George, ready for sea, almost before a whisper of the design 
had reached the British government. The command of the fleet 
was conferred on the chevalier de Forbin, one of the most active 
naval officers in the French service. The land forces were 
confided to monsieur de Gace, who, on the occasion, was^ 
through the medium of the chevalier de St. George, created a 
marshal of France, by the title of marshal de Madgnon. 
Hiere were also furnished by his most Christian Majesty,*^ for 
the use of the Scodsh Jacobites^ one thousand pair of pistols, 
duree thousand muskets, twenty thousand pounds of powder, 
six pieces of cannon, two twenty-four pounders, and four eight 
pounders, with one thousand balls for each; two eight inch 
mortars, six hundred bombs, and a train in proportion.f 

Louis, on this occasion, manifested the highest degree of in- 
terest in, and friendship for the chevalier de St George, whom 
he now hoped to see openly and proudly acknowledged as James 
VIIL, the undoubted and established king of England. Every 

• Hooke's Seact Ncgotiatioos, pp. 1 1 1—1 16. f Ibid. p. 127. 

HifiTony OF ttOf>ruLi<p* 87 

tbiog neceBsaiy tor the voyage of tbp cbev^ftr, had been 
famished with the utmost precision. £[is tepts were sua^tii- 
OU8, his liveries for his life guards gorgeously ridi, and bis 
services of gold and silver plate^ such as becapie th^ splendour 
of a king* His most Christian majesty, on parting with him, 
|xesented him with a valuable diamond sword, repeating what 
he had before said to his fether, James VII. <* he hoped he 
would never see him again.'' His holine^^ the pop^ also con- 
tributed liberally to the expedition, and, in particular, accom- 
modated James with a variety of inscriptions, which were, by 
the fiiir hands of loyal and pious women, devoutly wrought 
into his colours, as certain pledges of an honourable progrcfs* 
and finally, of full success. Public prayers of forty hours for 
his success, were also appointed by his holiness, in the Eng- 
lish, Irish, and Scotish churclies, and indulgences granted 
to all such as would chari.tably and devoutly join in putting 
them up.* 

While these preparations were thus rapidly approaching 
their completion, the British government appeared to slumber 
in a state of perfect security. There were not in Scotland 
above two thousand five hundred men in arms, and of these^ 
more than a fiill half were supposed to be in the interest of 
the dievalier. The casde of Edinburgh was without anununi- 
tion, without a garrison, and, though it contained a great part 
of the equivalent, not yet disposed o^ in such a miserable state 
of preparation, that it could scarcely have failed to surrender 
upon the first summons. How the ministry sujBfered them- 
selves to be thus caught asleep, as they must have known, 
the general discontent of the Scotish people, and the views of 
the French court, is what, at this distance of time, cannot be 
satisfactorily accounted for. That they were unaware of the 
plot that had been so generally talked of, and the execution 
of which had been the subject of such ardent desire among the 
Jacobites for a twelv^nonth before, it is impossible to believe. 
That they knew it, and wished it success, is still more incredi- 
ble; and yet, had the Jacobites themselves been in power, it 
was scarcely possibly to have placed the whole system of things 

• SmgJlet's Hutory of Great Britain. Bennet's Memorial. &c 6cc. 


in circumstanoes more favourable for forwarding their designs. 
The probability is, that the English ministry, knowing the mer- 
cenary spirit of the Scotish nobility, and their deep poverty f 
disregarded dieir promises to his most Christian majesty, as 
empty bravadoes, which, without that pecuniary stimulus which 
they supposed him at the time incapable of affording, could 
never be fulfilled. Be this as it may, the news of so for- 
midable an expedition being ready, aroused them to the utmost 
activity in every department, particularly the naval, and, in 
the short space of fourteen days, to the astonishment of all 
Europe, and to the dismay of France, a fleet of for^ sail was 
fully equipped, and before the port of Dunkirk. Ten bat- 
talions of British troops were brought over from Ostend, to 
the mouth of the Tyne, to be disposed of as circumstances 
should require. Several r^ments of foot, with some squad- 
rons of horse, were, at the same time, ordered for Scotland, 
and the earl of Leven, commander-in-chief of the forces there, 
and governor of the castle of Exlinburgh, hastened to put that 
fortress in a proper state of defence, and to make the necessary 
dispositions for receiving the enemy. Both houses of parlia- 
ment concurred in an address to her majesty, assuring her, that 
their lives and fortunes were at her service, to defend her 
against all her enemies, whether domestic or foreign. They, 
at the same time, declared the chevalier and all his adherents, 
traitors and rebels, and bills were passed, suspending the ha- 
beas corpus act till the month of October, and discharging 
the clans from all vassalage to those chiefs who should be found 
in arms for the chevalier. The oath of abjuration was, also^ 
ordered to be tendered to all parties, and whoever refused it, 
was to be held in the condition of a convicted recusant.* 
; While the court of London was thus exerting the utmost 
diligence to avert the effects of an evidently culpable negli- 
gence, the court of St Germains was equally eager to profit 
by the favourable circumstances, that at last seemed to thicken 
around it Mr. Charles Fleming, brother to the earl, of Wig- 
ton, who had performed several such joumies before, was de- 
spatched, by the chevalier, upon a special message to Scotland, 

* Saiollet's History of Great Britain. Burnet's History of his own times, &c. 


wkh instnicdons to his adherents there, stating the particidar 
services he expected from each of them in this important crisis. 
Fleming landed at Slains castle, whidi had been the general 
rendezvous of sttch emissaries for several years past, on the 
iSth day of March, where he was received with the most lively 
demonstrations of joy. The earl of EjtoI instantly despatched 
a messenger to Mr. Malcolm of Grange, with orders to have 
a boat and pilots in readiness to go on board the first vessel 
that should give the signal agreed on. The same express, by 
the earl's orders, was carried along the coasts of Fife and 
Jiothian, to give notice to the well aflPected, to have boats and 
plots every where in waitings that there mi^t be neither di& 
ficulty nor delay incurred, at whatever place chance or choice 
should direct the expedition to land* The earl Marischal sent 
o£P notice to his friends the same evening, and early next mon^ 
ing, set out in person to raise the district of Marr, where he 
was hereditary bailiff. Mr. Niookon, the Catholic bishop of 
Scotland, was next informed of the joyfiil tidinga, that he 
might have the Catholics in the north, in immediate readiness. 
The dutchess of Gordon lost no time in apprizing her son^ 
the marquis of Huntly, that he might exert himself in the 
counties of Ross and Inverness, where he had great interest 
Innes of Coxtoun, was also fevoured with a special notice; 
and, after seeing some less conspicuous dharacters, Fleming 
left Slains castle on the 14th, and arrived on the 16th, at the 
seat of lord Strathmore, who was in a transp<»rt of joy to see 
the a£Surs of the chevalier in such forwardness, and instantly 
gave orders to the chief persons in his neighbourhood, to take 
the necessary measures for a crins of such vast importance. 
Hie same evening, Mr. Fleming proceeded to lord Nairn's,* 
who introduced him to his brodier, the duke of Athole, 
whose vassals had been, for five months, in readiness to take 

* This lord Nairn, was lord William Murraj, fourth son of John, fint 
marquis of Athole, and brother to John, second marquis of Athole^ who^ 
previously to this, had been created a duke. The duke, whate?er might be 
his feelings at this time, 'never actually joined the Jacobites. He was a 
xealous Presbyterian, and always preserved his interest with the minuters of 
that pertoaflon, which induced many of the tories to doubt his sinceriqr* 
Douglas* Peerage of Scodand, 9d ed. vol. i. p. 150. vol. u. p. sso. 


arms at the first news of die chevalier's arrival. From the 
duke of Athole, he proceeded to lord Braidalbin, who read 
ttie instructioDs sent him l^ the dievalier <' with great joy/' 
and promised not only to join him with his vassals, but to 
overawe die men of Ai^le, who were known to be ill afiected 
toward him, so as diat diey should not dare to give him any 
disturbance. From Braidalbin he went to casde Drummond, 
Where he found die marquis of DrUmmond and his brother, 
sons of the duke of Perth, who sent nodoe on the instant to 
teveral of the clans, who were in their Confidence, and also 
took measures to inform die chle6 in that part of the country. 
He went next day to Sdrlihgshire^ td the seat df lord Kil* 
^rth, but tound that he was then in Edinburgh, as was also 
the eiEurl of Wigton. The people of Sdrlingshire, he found, 
howevel*, to bei unanimous tor the service of tKe chevalier, 
aiid ready to range themselves under the command of the earl 
of Linlithgow. ' On the 21^d, he repaired to the house of 
Cochrto of Kilniaronock, in Dunbarton^iire, where he re- 
mained for several d&3rs, in the utmost impadence for news of 
the chevalier's arrival, who, he knew, according to the 
measures taken, should have sailed from Dunkirk on the 11th 
of the month.* 

While Fleming was thus in waidng, rumour gave to die 
chevalier a safe landing in the north, #hi6h induced him to 
set out widi all speed for diat quarter. On the road he fell in 
with several others going on the same errand, among whom 
wiere Seton of Touch, the SdrKngs of Keir, and Cardon, Bcc 
with whom he travelled for two days, at the end of which, 
finding themselves led astray by an idle rumour, they found 
It necessary to separate, and to shid each for himself in die 
best manner he could. Fleming continued his journey till 
he fell in with lord Nairn, who had been at Hamilton, where 
he found only the dutchess dowager, the duke having prudendy 
retired to Eiigland, on pretence of necessary business, where 
he could amuse his Jacobite friends with professions, till die 
practical results of their measures should enable him to declare 
himself widi safety. The dutchess professed to be zealous for 

« Hooke*8 Secret Negotiations, pp. 119 — }$3. 


the dbevaliar; but, aldumgh lord Naira gained over the miiH 
ister of H«inilton» who» as an aigan of the Fte$b]^teriaii8, 
had great influence over her» she would do nothing in die 
absence of her son. 

Mr. Flemii^ now learned to his infinite mortification, that 
notwithstanding so many fitvourable appearances, his expecta^ 
tions were vain, the expedition under Forbin having totally 
fiuled, though, as yet, die Jacobites could not believe it. 
Should the French fiul in Fife or Lothian, they made sure of 
them hmding in Cromarty, or fiuling in Cromarty, they 
bdieved th^ would go round to the Frith of Clyde, where 
they could land without opposition. Yea, so great was their 
infiituation, that they believed the orders of the French king 
were peremptory to Forbin, to join his seamen to the land 
fivces, run the ships on shore, and abandon them rather 
than lose the opportunity of making a descent, which was to 
aooomplish such important results. This enthusiasm attributed 
to the French in the cause of James, by the Scotish Jacobite% 
wa% however, altogether visionary. So very diflferent was the 
real state of the case, that fi'om the time the English fleet 
sppeared befinre Dunkirk, die sdieme was considered, by those 
idio were to conduct it, as hopeless.* The embarkation <^ 
the troops was immediately suspended, and Forbin lost no 
time in representing to the minister at Paris, the great 
danger of the attempt, and the little probability of its being 
ultimately suooessfid. But Louis had already conunitted 
himself, and, probably only to save appearances, Forbin 
was ordered to put to sea, the moment the blockading 
squadron should be blown o£P its station. In the mean time 
the dievalier was seized with the measles, and the troops were 
disembarked for a few days.t On the fourteenth of March^ a 
violent tempest drove the British fleet back to the Downs, and « 
on the seventeenth, at six o'clock in the evenings the French 
put to sea from the roads of Dunkirk, having ordered as many 
dups fit)m the harbour to fill their place through the night, in 

• Smollett's Hiftorj of Engkncl. Burnet's History of his own Timet. 

f Lockharc F^pen, toI. L p. S4i. 
1. » 


order u> conceal tbnr nikiiig firom tbo Bckuh cniiaersy akovld 
imy of thera hafipen to lock into diQ roadft in Ae mooming. 
The weslher, honflever^ b«caiBic otimj md tkqrwen ok^^ to 
come to anchor off Newport pits. Here they weee detained 
by contrary winds, till the evening of the nineteenths During 
these two days, three of the frigates hamg exhihited signals 
of distress, returned to Donkirk* As these firigates had on 
board eight hundred men, with a great quantity of arms and 
provisions, a council of war was held in the apartment of the 
eharalier, to determine whether they should proceed direct 
for Scotland, or wait till they should be r^dned by ihm 
frigates. Through the influence of the chevalier hioBselfy it 
was decided that they diould proceed immediately, marshal 
Jdatignon entreating admirsl Forbin, to give orders for these 
fr^;ates to join the squadron, as soon as they had Aimished 
themselves with what they wanted. Another council of war 
beoame necessary to settle the place of landing. Hooke pro- 
posed the north of Scotland, as the place every way besi 
suited for their purpose. Middleton preferred the Frith of 
Forth, and it was determined to make the harbour of 
Bnmtisland, whence they oould send a detaohnMsnt to seiae 
iqpon Stirling, and thus secure that important pass, the only 
direct communication between the southern and the northern 
parts of the kingdom. 

Something, which might have been considered ominous, 
Jbowever, still attended than. They sailed, as we have stated, 
on the 19th, at ten P. M., and by six o^dook next morning* 
it became necessary for the ships hi the van to lie to, for 
those who had fallen behind through the nig^t. The re- 
mainder of that day and all night, the fleet proceeded with a 
brisk gale, and the chevalier was exceedingly sea sick. The 
voyage was continued the two following days, but on the 
night of the S2d, fearing to pass the Frith, it was judged 
prudent again to lie to. On the 2Sd, they were in sight of die 
desired Scotish coast; but they had mistaken their reckoning, 
steered too far north, and in order to gain the Frith, had to 
retmm towards the south. They now despatched a fUgste up 
the Frith, bearing English colours, to fire the signal agreed 

HtfltoHY OF SCOttJlNlR. 43 

i^Klli wkh colonel Hodke, tWMty cumoiit aad in the mean- 
time ca^ mdior behind the isle of May.* 

Thus far every tiong was pro^eroas, aad the sucoeas of the 
expedition, mi^t have been oonaidered as no longer doubtfuL 
The tonntiy without troops, and every where previously pre- 
pared to give them a friendly welcome, the Frnich had but to 
step on shore, which a few honrs more would have enabled 
them to do^ and their worli was done. The ct^ital with its 
fbitress, the strcHigest in the kingdom, and still containing the 
greater part of the equivalent, wovkL in all j^obability have 
yielded to them on the first Sttmmons, and a nnmber of Dutch 
flinps, loaded wliii cannon, small aims, ammunitioi^ and a 
kige snm of money, being at the same time driven on shore 
in the shire of Angus, must of necessity, have fallen into their 
lomds. Their good fortane^ however, was apparent not 
re^ llie Britidi fleet bang so opportunely driv^i back 
to the Downs, was a farttonaie circumstance they might not 
have felt themsdves warranted to calculate upon, but the 
benefit of it was entirely lost by their being driven into 
Kewport pits, wbsM) during tke.two days they remained, they 
were distinctly seed from die steeqples of Ostend, and a vessel 
was ^despatched to advertise Sk George Byng of the &cu Sir 
George, on the receipt of this iiiMiligence» sailed direct for the 
Ptith of fV>rth^ where he had the good fortune to arrive while 
Fotf)iii, embarrasKd and indecisive, was sdll lingering behind 
the isknd of May. 

Forbin now found tfiHt all his fears had ccme upon him. 
Hi$ signal ship had isSiitd «p the F<»th aeaNrding to agreement, 
tihA had fired her twenty eannon^ hut had recmved no answers 
and though Malcolm of Orange caaie on board with the most 
flattering account of th* fliends of the chevalier, there was no 
demonstration mftAe from Ihe shovei that could direct or assist 
Us t^ty admkal in the pr«Mnit enheigeBcy. Mr. George, a 
ddpper of Aberdeen, who fadi been sent by the earl of Errol 
to be his pilot, having crassed over to lbe Edinburgh side to 
give nodce to Mr. Lodchart of Car^w^ and aiffbain Straiton, 
of the approboh of Ae It&sHt was so dated with hb commission 

* HodkeVSemt Niidtiaii«u^{iv M4. 


and the vast prospects opening before him, that he fidl to 
<< carousing with his friends," nor knew till the alarm was 
given, and he found it impossible to repass the Frith.* The 
appearance of the British fleet, however, while it brought the 
deliberations of the enemy to a speedy conclusion, rendered 
pilots unavailing, and a smart land breese springing up, they 
cut their cables and put to sea, in the utmost trepidation, 
with all the sail they could carry. The British gave chase, 
and the Salisbury, one of their line of battle ships, was 
speedily boarded and taken. During the night the French 
admiral altered his course, and by daylight was out of sight of 
the English squadron. Sir George Byng returned immediately 
to the Frith, where he was received with every mark of respect, 
and was presented with the freedom of the city of Edinburgh, 
in a gold box, as a testimony of the gratitude of its citiaeuv 
for having so opportunely dispelled their fears, and averted the 
dangers with which they were threatened. 

Monsieur Andrezel, in his journal of the proceedings of the 
French fleet, states, that when the action commenced with the 
English, the Chevalier de St George entreated the admiral, 
Forbin, to put him on shore, declaring that he was resolved to 
remain in Scotland, although none were to follow him but his 
domestics, which, Forbin, <* after representing to him that it was 
very improper,*' refused to agree to. From the same document, 
we learn, that, when they were no longer pursued by the enemy, 
the marshal de Matignon, and the admiral count Forbin, 
proposed to the chevalier to attempt a landing at Inverness, 
which ]ie agreed to ; but as there was no pilot on board, who 
knew that coast, Ogilvie of Boyn was desired to go in search 
of one at Buchanness, when a strong wind arising, rendered it 
hnpossible for them to continue their course to the north. 
Being also under apprehensions of wanting provisions, thqr 
steered their course towards Dunkirk, where, after being tossed 
about, in very tempestuous weather, nearly a month, thqr 
arrived on the seventh of April, having lost the Salisbury, 
fallen into the hands of the enemy, and nearly all the land 
troops by disease, owing to the crowded state of the ships, 

• Lockbart Papers, toL i. p. 941. 


Andrezel adds, that though the landing had taken place, the 
success of the expedition would have been, nevertheless, very 
doubtful, by reason of the uncertainty both of a fit place fof 
landing, and of the succours that they were to escpect to join 
them, and he seems to think it was no small d^ee of good 
fortune that carried them back to Dunkirk, after running so 
great hazard.* 

Thus ended the first attempt of the Chevalier de St. George, 
which certainly did not advance either his interest or his 
reputation. It demonstrated to all who were not blinded by 
prejudice, that, in common with too many of his predeces* 
sors, he was infatuated with the superstitions of Popery, and 
intoxicated with the dream of inviolable prerogative, which 
must have detached from his interest, all who held enlight- 
ened views of the nature of society, and the legitimate ends 
of government, while it strengthened that mortal aversion, 
which the whole body of Presbyterians felt towards his family. 
Instead of resting solely upon his long line of ancestry, and 
assurances of assistance fi'pm the French government, as- 
surances, which, it is highly probable, they never intended 
to make good^ any further, than as they might operate in 
favour of their schemes of continental aggrandizement, had 
he cast himself upon the nation, admitted the Claim of 
Right, and, acting upon the principles of common sense, sat- 
isfied the Presbyterians, who^ situated as they now were, and 
feeling as they now did, would certainly have been easier satr 
isfied, than on some former occasions, he might almost by 
a mere volition, have placed himself upon that throne, from 
which, through mere folly and imbecility, his father had 
been gected, and have left it a peaceable possession to his 
children. But he had strongly impressed upon him all those 
marks of special reprobation, which had long characterized his 
unfortunate family, and among others, that wayward obstinacy, 
idiich no prospect of advantage could bend, nor the most . 
awful visitations subdue. Fortunately for the house of 
Hanover, he supposed he had no friends in Britain but 
Papists and high churchmen, who had been the plagues of the 

* Hooke*8 Secret Negotiations, p. 156. 


country feor two centxiriei) aad were fiuured and hated by tbe 
great body of de people. Tbb cirouttistaiioe^ much more 
dum the vigilance of the go^en u nent, rendered hie atiempts 
not only abortive for the pnaeent, but gave to all hig after 
^ortB, a chantet^ of hopdess despair.* 

Such a misen^le failure, where so maoh had been eiqiected, 
threw a sad damp over the Jacobites, who^ for several days, 
previous to the expected landing, had carried themselves with 
great insolency toward fhenr opponents, and the immediate 
imprisoiunent of their principal kaders, completed their con- 
fusion. The castks of Stirling and Edinburgh, with the 
prisons of the latter, scarcely sufficed to contain the multitudes 
of those, who, from the jealousy or the policy of the govern-^ 
ment, were thus treated. The circmnstance waS| indeed, ot 
angular service to the ministry, with regard to the a]q>roadiing 
elections, as it afforded them a fair pretext for imprisoning, 
or threatening to imprison, all from whom they [feared any 
thing like effectual opposition, and by this means they carried 
them, generally speaking, entirely to dieir own mindB. Tbe 

* James hifliietfy it appean, cUd not as yet admit any such desponding ideas, 
nor had he learned to distrust either his faithless allies, or tiie weakness of 
hu own judgment ; for he had scarcely returned to Bt. Gennains, when be 
despatched Charles Farquharson, with the following faistnictionst to his fHendi 
ih Scotland. 

« James R. You are to show these instmctiaiis to such as we have order- 
ed yoti» and whose names, for their security, we will not here insert. 

** h You are to assure them of the concern and trouble we ore in, on their 
account, as well as on our own, that this last enterprise has finled, eccMioned 
by our sickness, the mistake of the pilots, and otber unforeiein acddenls^ 
which gave the enemy the opportanily of prerenting oar londbg in the fiith ; 
whHe, on the other side, violent contrary winds, tbe diipersiqg of the fleet, 
the ignoranoe we were in of tbe coasts and want of provisionst hindered our 
landMg in any other place. II. You are to assure them of the concern and 
pain we are in for diem, to know their present condition, fearing they may 
have been brought into trouble after this ett Ufl r piise has fbil^. III. You are 
to assure them, that fkr from bemg diseouraged with what bos happened, we 
§tt resolved to move heaven and earth, and to leave no stone unturned, to 
fttttoers^cialidtfaem; and to that end, we pra|K>se to come ouraelves into 
tbe Highlands, with money, arms, and ammunition, and to put ourselves at 
the head of our good subjects, if they rise in arms for us, and if not, we do 
exhort them to rise, with all convenient speed, upon the expectation of our 


prisoners, after aome time» were divided into three daates, and 
IB separate divisions carried up to LcHidon, where diey were 
all thrust into close confinement* The duke of Hamilton, 
who, upon the approach oi the French fleet, had been taken 
into custody, at his seat in the north of England, was brought 
up to London at the same time, and, taking advantage of the 
stn^le which the whigs were at that time making to obtain 
the direction of the government, prevailed upon them to ob- 
tain his liberation, and that of all lus fellow prisoners, upon 
condition of their throwing all their influence into the scale of 
the whigs, at the approaching election of the Scotish peers. 
" This certainly,'' says one, who was himself pretty deeply 
implicated in the business, '< was one of the nicest steps the 
duke of Hamilton ever made, and had he not hit upon this 
favourable juncture, and managed it with great address, I am 
afraid some heads had paid for it, at least, they had undergone 
a long confinement; so that to his grace alone, the thanks for 
that deliverance were owing.*** 
The same author asserts, that ^ no doubt the government 

wntnH, which we ioteod shall be as soon as possible, after we have had an 
to this, by this our messenger, who is entirely tnisted by us ; and 
! we are to desirous of venturing of our person, we hope they will follow 
our example, this being a critical time which ought not to be neglected. IV. 
IW most Christian King has likewise promised to support this undertaking 
with a sufficient number of troops, as soon as they can be transported with 
security. In the meantime we will stay in the Highlands, unless we be in- 
ntad and encouraged by our friends in the Lowlands, to go to them. V. Wc 
denre they would consider this project, and, with all diligence send back this 
bearer, well informed of their opinion concerning it; as also, with an account 
of the state of the nation, of what troops are in it, of what country and how 
iodined, and what number of men th^ can briqg Into the field for us. VI. 
And in case they approve this our project, and promise to stand by us, we 
derire that all means may be used to get possession of the fort of Inverlochy, 
and that they would inform us of the fittest place in the Highlands for our 
landing, and send along with the bearer, two or more able pilots, who know 
these places, and can conduct us into tbem. Vil. And, in case they prove 
iiMliumentii to our realeiiitfon« by doing wkat if here prq>osed to them, we 
pronte to give them particular and essential marks of our kindness, and of 
the sense we have of all they have done and suffered on our accounts. J. R * 
Stuart Papers. 

* Lockhart Papers, vol. i. pp. S48, S49. 


expected to have had proof enough to have brought several of 
them, [the leading Jacobites,] to punishment, and he blesses 
God, that they fiuled in this," iqpparently without much foun* 
dation. So much publicity had been given to their transactions 
with the French court, and with that of St Grermains, and so 
much zeal manifested for forwarding the interests of these 
courts,—- not to speak of the certain fact, that almost every 
member of the government had, either directly or indirectly, 
communicated with St. Germains, and so must have per^ 
sonally been acquainted with the greater part of its intentions 
— that to suppose there could have been any difficulty in 
finding proof to condemn almost every man among them, 
especially the tergiversating, irresolute duke of Hamilton, would 
leave a heavy stain upon the character of the then administra- 
tion, as either grossly deficient in diligence, or in talents. The 
probability is, that they were not so bloodthirsty as this author 
has represented them, and that^ being not altogether £ree 
themselves, they rather wished to wink at Scotish delinquency, 
than to punish it with severity, seeing it had been so feebly 
seconded, and foreseeing, as they must have done, that it could 
scarcely, firom the circumstances of the country, be more vigor- 
ously followed out at any fixture period. They had probably 
sagacity enough to perceive, that the French court never had 
any serious intention, even though it had possessed the power, 
of placing James upon the throne of Britain. The Scotish 
Jacobites, blinded by ambition and pride, were such poor 
politicians, as to think, the king of Scotland being king of 
England, that Scotishmen and Scotish measures, should be 
predominant over both kingdoms, and thb, after the experience 
of three reigns had demonstrated such things to be impossi* 
bilities. The French knew better, and aware, that whether a 
prince of Orange, an elector of Hanover, or a royal Stuart, 
filled the throne of Britain, the policy of his court, and the 
measures of his government behoved to be English, were at 
no great pains about the matter, fiurther than by it to create 
a diversion in fiivour of themselves; and this, so long as they 
kept the Stuarts in their own hands, they supposed could be 
done at pleasure. On no other principle is it possible to ac- 
count for tlieir conduct on this occasion. By the extreme can- 


Hxm thej observed^ hammver^ tbcy did not derive all the ad* 
vantages they mig^t, at the time, liave reaped from the project 
Bishop Bomet has very justly remarked^ ^ If they had landed, 
it might have had an ill eflhct upon our ailaira, chiefly wkh 
regard to all paper credit, and, iC by thb, the i^raittances to 
Piedmont, Catalonia, and Portugal, bad been steqiped in so 
critical a season, that might have had fatal oonsequences 
abroad; ftv, if we had been pot mto such a disordear at hoaoo, 
thai foreign powers could no mote reckon upon our assistance, 
they might have been disposed to hearken to the propositioiia 
that the king of Fhmce would probably have made to them; 
so that the total defeating of their design, without its having 
the least ill eflRact i^ion our affiuurs, or our losing a angle man 
in the little engagement we had with the enemy, is always to 
be reckoned as one of those happy providences for which we 
have much to answer/"* 

The parliament was (Htirogued on the 17th of April, 1708^ 
and shortly after dissolved. Writs were immediately issued 
lor new elections, and a proclamation, commanding the at^ 
tendance of all the peers of North Britain, at Holyroodhouae^ 
on the ITtb of June, to elect sixteen peers to represent tbom 
in the ensning parliament. In these elections, several of the 
most staunrii Jeoobites exerted themsdvea to the utmost, and 
in some instanons were sueoeseful, perticularly in the county of 
Edinburgh, where the famous Greorge Lockbart, ef Cam- 
wath, was elected, in opposition both to the court and the 
Presbyterians, and which county he continued to represent, tiU 
the death of Queen Anne. In the main, however, the tones 
and the squadrone,f though they were ignited, did not: succeed 
according to their expectations. Several of the tory lords, who 
had escaped being carried up to London, such as the eari of 
Aberdeen, the lords Saltoun, Balmerinoch, &c., under the in- 
fluence of fear, going over to tlie side of the court, enabled 
the ministsy, wiA a very few exceptions, to have the peers all 
of their own party. Among the commons too, many were 

* Hutory of his own timet, 
f A party in ScotUad, headad by the marquis of Tweflddttle-^they vert 
csIM the rrga^iioaf FaAis^ fir^m thair prateodiiv to aat by tbemMlf ei» and 
to cant the balanea of tba contending parUet in parliamaau 
1. O 

50 msTORV or scotlakd. 

glad to lie by for the time, lest prosecutioiis should be raised 
against diem, for their behaviour on occasicm of the late inva- 
sion, in consequence of which, the whigs were in many places, 
elected with very little opposition.* 

The new parliament, in i^ch, notwithstanding all the pains 
that had been taken to prevent it, the whig interest was still 
predominant, was assembled on the 16di of November, 1708» 
when there arose long and violent debates respecting the 
Scotish elections, in which several of the eldest sons of Scotidi 
peers had been elected to serve for counties, which, as it was 
repugnant to the Scotish laws of representation, occasioned 
numerous petitions and representations. This was a privilege 
the Scotish peers were anxious to possess, and the ministry 
were perfectly willing to concede, as by managing the father, 
they supposed they might at the same time, manage the son, 
and so increase their influence in both houses of parliament at 
the same time. Aware of this, and greatly exasperated against 
them, on account of the part they had performed in the treaty 
of union, the Scotish commoners exerted themselves with 
unanimity and vigour, and by the assistance of the Eng^lish 
tories, and some old acts of the Scotish parliament, confinned 
the incapacity of the oldest sons of peers, in consequence of 
which, the lords Haddo, Strathnaver, and Johnston, and the 
master of Ross, were expelled, and writs ordered to be issued, 
for electing others in their room.f Petitions were also pre- 

* Lockhart Papers, vol. i. p. 294. 

f ** Hie Scots oommoDs, to make good the incapacity of the peers' eldest 
fons, did prove by acts of parliainent, that none of the three <;8tatet could 
incroach, or be incorporated with one another; and for proving^ that the 
eldest sons of peers were reckoned a part of the same estate with the peers 
themselTes, produced an Act of ParUament, regulating the apparell of the 
several estates and ranks of persons in Scotland, in which the peers and therr 
eldest sons are expressly declared to be one and the same state. Lastly, they 
produced two extracts from the records of the Scots PMUament, by one of 
which it appeared, that the lord Livingston, chosen and returned for the towa 
of Lithgow, was, on a petition against him, declared incapable to be elected ; 
and by another, that a wryt for electing a new member was issued, in the 
room of Mr. M^Kenzie, whose fether, since his being elected to serve for 
some of the northern countys, had been created Lord Viscoant of Tarbai.'' 
Lockhart Papers, vol. i. p. 999. 


aented to the house of lords, on behalf of some peers, com- 
plaimog of undue returns, in consequence of the duke of 
Queensberry, who had been created a British peer, having 
assumed two votes in the election of the sixteen Scolash peers, 
a drcmnstance, it was contended, inconsistent with the privilege 
(^ peers, who are supposed to be equals. After a keen debate, 
the votes of the duke of Queensberry were set aside, though he 
was supported by the whole weight of the government. It 
was, at the same time, determined, that the noblemen confined 
in the castle of Edinburgh, on suspicion of being Jacobites^ 
had a ri^t to sign proxies, after taking the oaths to the gov- 

The Scotish members, peers and commoners, it may here 
be noticed, were divided into two factions, one headed by the 
duke of Queensberry, the other by the dukes of Hamiltim, 
Montrose, and Roxburgh, who were supported by the earl of 
Sunderland and lord Somers. Queensberry was in great credit 
with the queen, and his influence in elections was so great, 
that <dl offices in Scotland were bestowed according to his 

An inquiry into the state of the nation, suggested by the 
late attempt at invading Scotland, was such an obvious and 
easy mode of harassing the ministry, that it could not have 
been overlooked, even by a more feeble opposition, than that 
which was now growing up in the British parliament. This 
inquiry, besides tending to criminate the ministry, enabled the 
tories to make a vast parade about their own loyalty, and their 
great seal for the interests of her majesty, whidi her ministers, 
they contended, had most shamefully neglected, by being ut- 
terly unprepared for such a formidable attack, thougli, as they 
attempted to demonstrate, perfectly aware that it was to be 
made. They also clamoured violently against the severity 
exercised, in apprehending persons of quality, upon pretended 
suspicions of high treason, while the real modve had only, been, 
by confining these persons, to remove the possibility of their 

* Somerville's History of Great Britun, during the rdgD of Queen Ann^ 
p. 3ts. Macpherwn's Hiatary of Great Britain, ¥oL ii. pp. 870, S7 1 . Smol- 
iet't Hlttory. Burnet's History of bis own times, &c 


opposition in ihm electiote Umt were ju&t thfen comii^ on. 
Here, howeveri the Scotub tories, though extremely wiiling to 
forward the views of their wmthem brethren, were under the 
necessity of acting with great caution, knowings that they were 
•till liable to proseeutioni fin* the part they had acted in that 
affair, and, however eloqaently theie charges were niade> or, 
however plaiisibly suf^rted* the house was so little dispos- 
ed to find fault, that the iniiuiry ended in ah address to the 
qtieen^ containing resdiutiDnfi^ that timely and effectual care 
had been taken to disappouit her majesty's enemies, both at 
home and abroad. 

Considerable wrangling was also occasioned, by an applica- 
tion from the Sootish merchants, for the drawback upon some 
salted provisions exported, which had been refused by tlie 
CQSton^ouse officers, on the plea that the salt had been puiv 
ehased before the union, and, of course, tliat thc>' could not be 
entitled to the drawback. Though this argument was very 
easily refuted, the drawback was not obtained without great 
difficulty; and from this circumstance it was inferred by Scot- 
ishmeii, that England had no intention to further the trade of 
Scotland, except in m) far as she could not possibly avoid it.* 

Towards the end of the session also, a bill originated in the 
house of lords, intituled, An Act for improving the union of 
the two kingdoms, which occasioned much altercation. It 
related to trials for high treason in Scotland, which, by this 
act^ were regulated according to the manner of proceedii^ iu 
snch cases in England. The Scotish members, especially the 
tories, who knew tliat it was intended for them, in case of 
another invasion by the pretender, contended, that it was an 
encroachment upon the forms of their law, and a manifest 
breach of the union, an encroachment which might occasion 
much inconvenience, and manifold hardships to many innocent 
individuals. It was, however, triumphantly carried, and re- 
ceived the royal assent; but, to palliate it in some degree, it 
was followed, shortly after, with an act of grace, by which all 
treasons were pardoned, those excepted, which had been com- 
mitted upon the high seas, which exception was levelled against 

* Lockbart Papers^ vol. i. p. SOO. 


dio9S who nad embarked in the immediato train c^ the dbe* 

The union might now be said to be in a considerable degree 
consolidated, and Scotland, it was evident, had sunk into corn*- 
parativ^ly political insignifioanoe. She was now, indeed, bu& 
ferii^ many, if not all the inconvenienoes that had been pre*- 
dieted would most certainly flow from that measure, while as 
yet she was reaping none of the promised iienefits. Trade was 
not only at a low ebb, but, in many instances, annihilatedf 
Agriculture languished, and Ihe great body of the people were 
pining in extreme wretchedness. The nobility, still devoid of 
patriotinai or pubUc spirit^ steeped in poverty, and devoured 
with pride, were, one part of them, in diaracteristic meannessi 
courting, for the sake of places and pensions, the smiles of the 
English ministiy, and anodaer, who reckoned themselves 
patriots of the highest order, still more basely cringing to 
the French king, through the medium of the chevalier de 
St. Geoige, and the few papists, with which, under \h€ 
mock name of a court, he was surrounded, and with whom 
there was still carried on a most active cort^espondence.f One 
part of her constitution, however, the ecclesiastic, she had re- 
served entire, and by an article, imbodied in the treaty of 
unicm, it was declared, unalterable. From the nature of this 
constitution, the parity of its ministers, the popularity of its 
forms, and the hold which it had upon the aiFections of the 
people, it could not fail to elicit consequences deeply affecting 
the interests of society. 

A long train of advei*se events too, had previously placed 
the Scotish church in circumstances of peculiar difficulty. For 
a period of twency-eight years, she had not only been in the 
fiery furnace of relentless persecution, but had been, at the 
same time, assailed by all the arts of courtly duplicity and Jesu-* 
itical cunning. Ensnaring indulgences, craftily framed for the 
purpose of dividing and entrapping her members, and under- 
mining her principles, had been "in a variety of forms pressed 
upon her, in consequence of which, many had fallen from their 

* Lockhirt PapeK, vo). i. p. 501. 
t Hookc's Secret Ncgotiatiooi, pp. 190— f03. Stanrt Papen, &c. &«. 


Steadfastness, the lamentable consequences of whicli weie se- 
verely felt. Nor at the time her constitution was settled bjr 
the Revolution parliament, did she succeed in fully recovering 
her lost liberties. A powerful, violent, Jacobitical faction,* 
aided by all the influence of the church of England, exerted 
itself to the utmost, to thwart every movement that was made in 
her favour, while her advocates, selfish, timid, and timeserving, 
shrunk from the contest, and, by a tame compromise, attempt- 
ed to blunt the edge of that ojj^iosition, which, for the want of 
stem int^rity, they feared openly to encounter. The settle- 
ment, of course, embraced all the indulged without exception. 
Many of the curates, and even some who had had an active 
hand in the infamous prosecutions of the preceding period, 
were, without either public repentance or public censure, 
allowed to sit down as her accredited teachers, and leaders in 
her public judicatories-f 

In consequence of the above state of matters, a considerable 
body of the people, refused to join in her communion, and a 
great many more, though they did join in communion with 
her, did it only, with what they termed the faithful party, who 
were sensible of the situation in which they were placed, and 
labouring to have the most glaring parts of her administration 
corrected. The former of these, had been united in corre* 

* Through the 'diligence of this faction, the London press teemed with 
sophistical and scurrilous pamphlets for several years, which were circulated 
all over Scotland with great industry* and are yet frequently to be met with, 
such as, ^ Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence," <' The Case of the Afflicted Cleiigy 
in Scotland,'* Account of the late Establishment of Presbyterian Government 
in Scotland," &c. &c., mostly penned by Dr. John Sage, and A Vindication 
of the Government in Scotland, duriog the reign of Charles IT. by Sir George 
Mackenzie, late Lord Advocate. See Dr. M'Crie's Lives of Veitch and 
Bryson. Collection of Pamphlets, in the library oi the late Lord Hyndford, 
&c. &c. 

t Plain Reasons for Presbyterians dissenting from the Revolution Church. 
A Solemn Warning by the Associate Synod, &c. &c. See also a Letter from 
King William to the Commission of the General Assembly, dated February 
13th, 16 JO, wherein, by his royal authority, he enjoins the receiving into 
ministerial communion, such as had served under the late Episcopacy, pro* 
vided their characters are as by him described ; and till this is done, forbids 
them to proceed in any other business. 


Spending societies, from about the year 1680, at, or a little 
before which they separated themselves entirely, under Messrs. 
CargQl and Cameron, from their brethren, who approved, or 
had taken the benefit of the Indulgence, who, in return, 
bestowed upon them the nickname of Cameronians, and at the 
same time gave to the world such distorted views of their prin- 
ciples and feelings, that the lapse of one hundred and forty- 
five years has failed to correct ^< In England, and other 
places whe^ our Scots aflhirs are very little known,'' says 
Wbdrow, ^ the Cameronians and Presbjrterians are takeh 
for the same. Every thing these people did, without any 
distinction, is charged upon Presbjrterians, and even what they 
did, is very much aggravated and misrepresented. The pre- 
ladsts among ourselves help on this mistake, and are very 
willing to confound the two kinds of sufferers in this period, 
though they cannot but know, how much the two parties might 
have been differenced. And 'tis certain it fared much worse 
with the whole of the nonconformists from prelacy; for the 
lengths these people ran to at some junctures, and the prelates, 
who lay at catch for a handle to instigate the government 
against Presbyterians, improved what fell out this year ex- 
tremely.'' Wodrow was partial to the indulged ministers, and 
had, it is evident, no very high opinion of such as stood out 
against them, yet he owns *^ there were among these people 
a good many of a healing temper, though many times they 
were over driven, and many excellent persons of eminent piety 
and seriousness, whose zeal brought them to be carried into 
the measures of some others, who had not their piety and 
religion ; and a great many, by reason of the common danger, 
and a wandering lot, were obliged to be with them, who did 
neither approve of their extremities, nor countenance them; 
and vast numbers of the more common sort knew nothing of 
their heights, but were with them, and owned some of dieir 
principles, out of a sincere regard to] the Reformation rights, 
and solemn covenants of this church, without being capable 
of knowing the consequents. In short, all of them, as &r as 
ever I could find, were nnoere Protestants, and firm in their 
opposition to Popery as well as Prelacy, and upon that score 
came under the greatest hardships, under the reign of a Papist; 


lherefore» I saw no reason to pass thdir suftSsrings, though in 
some things I cannot agree with them as to the cause upon 
which they stated them."* 

Richard Guneron being cut off at Airsmoss, in the month 
of July, 168 J, and Mr. Cargiil fhlling into the hands of the 
government, in die year following, these- society people, as 
they were called, continued to strengthen one another^s bands, 
by jHrivate meetings for prayer and conference^ without any 
public dispensation of ordinances, till the month of September, 
168S, that Mr. James Renwick, who had been by them sent 
out to finish his education, and obtain ordination in Holland, 
lifted up the standard of the gospel among them, in the moss 
of Darmead, and upon his ministrations, at the hazard of his 
and their own lives, they attended, in the most sequestered 
wilds and festnesses of the country, till the beginning of 1688, 
that he too fell into the hands of the persecutors, and was the 
last that suliered unto death for the cause of religion in 
Scotland. On the death of Mr. Renwick, they were again 
left without an ordained minister, but the famous Alexander 
Shields, who previously had adjoined himself to their number, 
being then a probaticmer, continued to preach in the fields as 
opportunity offered, notwithstanding die unabated rage of the 
persecutors, till he was relieved by Mr. Thomas Linning, who 
had been maintained by the societies for a considerable time at 
his studies abroad, and at this juncture returned with testi- 
monials of his ordination to the work of the ministry by the 
classes at Embden. Mr. William Boyd, anodfier of their 
students, returned at the same time, and furnished in the same 
manner, from Holland, and the arrival of the prince of 
Orange, and the consequent flight of James, having freed them 
from external molestation, they, in conjunction renewed the 
covenants, and dispensed the sacrament to a vast multitude, at 
Borland hill, Lesmahago, in the month of March, 1689. All 
the three continued their ministrations in the work of the gospel 
with the same people for some time ; but upon the meeting of 
the first General Assembly of the church after the RevohitioR, 
which convened at Edinburgh, October the sixteenth, 160(^ 

• Wodrow, fafio ed. vt^l. ii. p. 133. 


they gave in )m>posals for remoTiiig obstnicdoiis that lay in 
the y^y of comfortable fellowship with that church, and finally 
submitted to the decision of the assemUy, in consequence of 
whicht the societies were once more left without public in- 

In this state they continued*— fer the representations of 
Mr. Linning, closed upon them the doors of the foreign 
universities^ whither in like cases tbey had been accustomed 
to resort — till the month of October, 1706, when the general 
meeting at Crawford Johja, ^ier much deliberation and many 
lengthened discussions, carried on at various meetings during 
several of the preceding yeak^ presented a call to the Rev. 
John MackmiUan, minister of Balmaghie, which he accepted, 
though lie did not eater upon ministerial labour among 
them till the month of December following.* Mr. Mack- 
miUan had been regularly inducted into the pastoral charge 
of the parish of Balmaghie, ^ early as the year 1701, and 
being zealously attached to the severer principles of the Scotish 
church, he^ in conjunction with Mr. William Tod, minister at 
Buitle, and Mr. John Reid, minister of Carsphaim, presented^ 
in the month of July, 1703, a paper of grievances to the 
jpresbyteiy of Kircudbright, praying, that measures might be 
adopted for redressing them; but so far was the presbytery 
from beixig disposed to listen to the prayer of the petition, that 
the petitioners were dealt with, immediately to withdraw 
their paper, and retract their statements, which when Mr. 
MackmiUan declared he had no freedom to do, he was libelled, 
suspended, and deposed in a manner altogether Unprecedented 
in Presbyterian churches.f To this sentence of the presby- 
tery, he could not in conscience submit, and his parishioners, 
convinced that he had taught nothing but what were gen- 
eraUy at that time received as the imdoubted doctrines of the 

* ConcLusioDs of the General Correspondence tor 1706. MS. in the pot- 
iesfion of the Reformed Presbyterian Synod. Account of the last lirords of 
Mr. John MackmDUn. Letter from Mr. John MackmiUad» Sandhills, 1 775, 
printed along with Mr. Thorburn's Vindiciae Magistratus. , 

f Plain Reasons for Presbyterians Dissentiqg from the Revolution Church, 
priated at Sdiabmifi, 1795, pp. 151, 15S. Letter from Mr. MackmiUan of 
Sandbilli^ Ac. 

I. H 


Reformation, stood by him as one man, refused U> break up 
their relation to him as a spiritual overseer, and, in defiance 
of the authorities, ecclesiastic and civil, kept him in possession 
of the church and the manse, till, in deference to the pre- 
judices of a number of the people with whom he had connected 
himself, he relinquished them of his own accord, after the 
lapse of many years. The presbytery,- in conjimction with the 
patron, lost no time in fording another incumbent upon the 
parish; but a bam was more than sufficient to contain his 
hearers, and he was under the necesat^ of hiring a house for 
his own accommodation.* 

Though the accession of Mr. Mackmillan was of considerable 
consequence to the societies, inasmuch, as by his means, they 
enjoyed partially — ^for they were too numerous, and too widely 

* '* Religiout controveray is st present little known here. Toward the 
beginning of the present century, this was by no means the case. Several 
ministers in the neighbourhood had adopted the tenets of the Cameroniani. 
To these Mr. John Mackmillan of this parish adhered with such inflexible 
firmness, that the presbytery of Kirkcudbright found cause to depose him 
from his office. Such, however, was his influence, and the spirit of the times, 
that the people retained their attachment to him, and resisted every attempt 
to eject him from the manse and church. Mr. William Mackie, though 
legally inducted to the charge, was obliged to hire a house for himself, and to 
officiate in a barn to those who were willing to acknowledge, and attend his 
ministry. When some of his adherents went to plough the glebe for hb 
benefit, those of his adherents rose up against them, cut the reins in pieces, 
turned the horses adrift, and threw the ploughshare into the adjoining lake. 
Some threatened violence to the minister's person. An infuriated female 
actually attempted the execution of it, and would probably have effected her 
purpose, had he not interposed his hand between his throat aad a reaping 
sickle, with which she was armed. His fingers were cut to the bone. The 
gtcve which he wore was carefully preserved, as a memorial of the providen- 
tial escape he had made. Another woman who was present, exclaimed, shed 
m> blood, and her advice was followed. It was remarked by the country 
people, that the intended assassin never prospered afterward, and that by her 
own hand she terminated a life which she was unable to endure. At length, 
after the struggle in the parish bad continued twelve years, Mr. Mackmillan 
retired voluntarily, and became an itinerant preacher, and founder of the sect 
of the Mackmillanites, or modem Cameronians, who asEuroe the designation 
ef the Reformed Presbytery." Account of the Parish of Balmaghie. 
Btatisticat Account of Scotland, vol. xiii. pp. 648, 649. 

There is a want of accuracy in this statement, as there is In too many eC 
the statements regarding religion, in that celebrated work. Mr. MadmHlMi 


Kparated, to be often convened in one ecseoibly — ^tbe preaching 
of the word* and the administration of the sacraments, it does 
not appear to have added materially, either to their numbers 
or their political inflnence. Wanting a coadjutor in the min- 
istry, he could form no higher court of judicature than a 
s e ss io n, which, besides that it possessed not the powers of 
ordination, in consequence of which, he could neither have an 
assistant nor a successor in the ordinary way, was utterly in- 
competent for determining the controversies, that in a body so 
extensive, so speculative, and so peculiarly Gircumstanced, 
could not fail to be frequently agitated. Questions, scmietimea 
frivolous, not to say foolish, as well as those of deeper im« 
portanoe, for the want of a proper tribunal, before which they 
might be tried and disposed o^ were laid over, and behoved to 

WIS not In any sense of the term the founder of a sect. Instead of modifying 
the views of those with whom he associated after beitig irregularly deposed 
by the presbytery of Kirkcudbright, which is surely the very least that can be 
required of the founder of any professing body, those with whom he associated 
appear in no small degree to have modified his ; and it was not till after meny 
ccMkvenationsy and much deliberation, that he at length acceded to the pro- 
posals which had on their part been made to him. Of the legal induction of 
Mr. Mackie to the parit>h of BaJmaghie, we have the following short account, 
torn the pen of Mr. John Mackmillan, junior, in his letter to Mr. Thorburn : 
* When the presbytery of Kirkcudbright found, that neither by crafty nor 
violent measures^ they could put Mr. Mackmillan out of Balroaghie, nor 
alienate the affections of the people from then* minister, they licensed Mr. 
M'Kee^ the patron's chaplain, and sent him to preach through different 
quarters of the parish, and try by that means to divide and break the congre- 
gation. That proving unsuccessful, they offered the parish their choice of 
any one that th^ pleased to fix upon, if they would give up their relation to 
Mr. Mackmillan ; but if they would not comply, threatened they should get 
none but Mr. M'Kee; and, accordingly, they proceeded, and ordained him at 
Balmaghie, when be had only nine persons beside the patron, in all the 
parish, to own him as their minister." It has, indeed, been long a practice, 
instead of inquidng into the grounds of difference among religious bodies, 
ami, by the light of Scripture and right reason, endeavouring to remove them, 
to bold tbeoi up to ignorant ridicule, by the most fiilse and calumnious states 
ments^ One instance shall suffice for lumdreds that could easily be collected. 
" These peculiarities,*' that of asking a blessing to a dram of braody, says a 
learned professor in his notes to the letters of captain Burt, printed at London, 
so late as the year ISlS, "are now rarely to be met with, except among 
Presbyterian Seceders, and not always among them, and among the remnant 
of Ulf coreoaoti called Cameronians. This last are mostly of the very lewcst 


h^ SO far, matter of forbearance, till a court dioald arise, tbey 
knew not when not where, before which they might be settled 
in due form. The societies were still continued, and their 
assembly of delegates, known by the name of the general cor* 
respondence, while it could not fail to be tlie source of influr 
ence, was also the centre around which was continually dus* 
tering all the peevishness and extravagancies belonging to the 
body, and these were often such, as Mr. Madcmillan, with all 
the influence that has been ascribed to him, was utterly un- 
able to control. He succeeded, however, in reconciling the E^k- 
dale correspondence to their brethren, after they had maintain- 
ed a state of separation for sev^*al years, on account of some 
things in the second declaration which they could not approve.* 
A proposal which had been made thirteen years before, fpr au 
agreement with Mr. Jolm Hepburn was also renewed, but did 
not succeed. During the discussions, however, Mr. John 
McNeil, a preacher in the national church, but who had been 

class ; but even tbeir vigour biggins to relax ; tbey have dbcontimied their 
annual pilgrimage to the Pcntland hills, to vent tbdr impatience and rage 
against tbeir Maker, for not avenging the blood of his saints upon the 
posterity of their persecutors : they condescend to preach- in houses when the 
weather, is bad ; and many of them have even used fanners to winnow their 
corn, although that wicked machine was long anathematized as a daring and 
impious invention, suggested by the devil for raisTng artificial wind, in con- 
tempt and defiance of Him, who made the wind to blow where it listeth."* 
Letters from a Gentleman in the North of Scotland, &c note, vol. L p. 176. 
It would be almost a relief to be able to believe, that such statements 
were made from ignorance, and-4iot from malignity, or the pitiful pleasure of 
uttering what might be thought a good joke. This last was probably all the 
above writer had in view ; but in this way he is excelled, by the statist of 
Hounam, who, in his account of that parish, states the number of ale houses 
to be two. " The eflfect they havo,*' he remarks, *• is rather unfavourable to 
the morality of the people ; who are, however^ in general piously disposed, 
and rational in their religious sentiments : which is perhaps somewhat the 
more remarkable, as Gateshaw is bordering on this parish, where there has 
been, firom the beginning of the Secession, a meeting house of the wildest 
kind of Seceders, the Antiburghers, who are zealous in disseminating their 
principles, not supposed very favourable to morals and true piety." Statist- 
ical Account of Scotland, vol. xxi. p. 19. 

• Conclusions of the General Correspondence, MS. in the possession of 
the Reformed Presbyterian Synod, p. S5. Informatory Vindication. &c. 


deprived of his license for standing in opposition to some parts 
of her public managements, deserted the par^ of Mr. Hep- 
bum, to which he had been supposed to be attached, and went 
over to tlie views of Mr. Mackmillan and his party,* which 
were, in a third Declaration, published at Sanquhar, on the 
22d day of October, 1707, declared to be not only directly 
opposed to the union, as those of the greater part of Presby- 
terians were, but, as those of the societies had for the most 
part, always been, in opposition to the existing order of things 
both in church and state. This paper is entitled, ^ Prot£8TA« 
HON and Testimony of the United Societies of the witnessing 
remnant of the Antipopish, Antiprelatic, Antierastian, 
Aktisectarian, true Presbyterian Church of Christ in Sco^ 
land, against the sinful incorporating Union with England 
and their British parliament, concluded and established, May, 
1707," and as it is not of great le^gth9 and still holds its place 
among the standards of that body, we shall give it without 
abridgment, in a note.f 

* CoDcIusioDs of the General Correspondence, MS. in the posieirion of the 
Reformed Presbyterian Synod, p. 56. 

f ^ It will no doubt be reported by many, rery unseasonable to protest at 
ditt time againit this Uman^ now so far advanced by their law established, but 
the consideration of the superabundant, palpable, and eminent sins, haaards, 
and destructions to religion, laws, and liberties that are in it, and naturally 
attend it, is such a pressing motive, that we can do no less for the ezoneradoD 
of our oonscienees, in showing our dislike of the same, before the sitting down 
of the British Parliament, lest our silence should be altogether interpreted 
rither a direct, or indirect owning of, or succnmbing to the same. And, 
thongfa having abundantly and plainly declared our prindples formerly, and 
particularly in our last Declaration, May SIst, 1705, s|:ainst die then intend^ 
ed Union, and waiting for more plain discovery with, and opposition unto, 
this abominable coarse, by those of better capacity, yet being herein so far 
disappointed in our expectations of such honourable and commendable ap- 
pearances for the laudable laws and ancient consUtution of this kingdom, 
both as to sacred and civil concerns, all these appearances, whether by ad* 
dresses or protestations, being so far kme and defective, as that the resolu* 
tions and purposes of such has never been fairly and freely remonstrate to the 
contrivers, promoters, and establishers of this Union. The considerations of 
which and the lamentable case and condition the land already is, and may be, 
b, by reason of the same truth, moved us after the example, and in fanitation 
of ^e cloud of witnesses, who have gone before us» to protest against the 
fame, as bong contrary to the word^of God, Lev. xxx. 93. S Chron. xx. 85. 


From thb pq)er, whatever may be thought of tbeir Idyalty 
to queen Anne, it is perfectly evident that they neither were^ 
nor could be^ Jacobites, as they have often been igncxvntly, 

^S| and repugnant to our fonaer uaion with England, in tamt of the Solemn 
League and Covenant. 

" And whereas, it bath been the good will and pleasure of Almighty God, 
to grant unto tbii nation a glorious and blessed Reformation of the true 
Christian religion, from the errors, idolatry, and superstitions of popery and 
prelacy, and therewithal! to Mesa us with the power and purity of heaveaij 
doctrine, worship, discipline, and govemnent in the church of God, according 
to his will revealed in the Holy Scriptures, and to let us have all this, accom- 
panied and attended with many great and singular blessings in the conversion 
and comfort of many thousands, and in reforming and purging the land from 
that gross ignorance, rudeness, and barbarity that once prevailed among us. 
Wherefore, our aealous and worthy forefathers, being convinced of the bene- 
fit and excellency of such incomparable and invahiable mercies, tboii^t it 
tJieir duty, not only by all means to endeavour the preservation of these, but 
also to transmit to posterity a fair deposilion and copy in purity and integrity, 
and as a fit expedient and mean to accomplish and perfect the same, they 
entered into the National Covenant — ^no rank nor degree of persons finom the 
highest to the lowest excepted — wherein they bound themselves to defend 
the ReformatioQ of religion in every part and point of the same, with their 
lives and fortunes, to the utmost of their power, as may be seen in the Nation* 
•1 Covenant of this church and Idngdom, which was five times solemnly 

" Like as the Lord was so'pleased to bless our land, and to beautify it witb 
his presence, that our neighbour nations of England and Ireland who behekl 
this, and were groaning under, and likewise aiming at, the removal and abolish- 
ing of pcp^ry and prdacy^ had sought aad obtaiaed assistance from this nap 
lion, to help them in their endeavour for that end, and had been owned of 
God with success. They likewise thought it fit to enter into a most solemn 
League and Covenant with this church and kingdom, for reformation and 
defence of religion wherein, with their hands lifted up to the most High God* 
they do bind and oblige themselves to maintain, preserve, and defend, what- 
ever measure and d^ee of Reformatioo they had attained unto, and mutually 
to concur, each with another, with tbeir lives and fortunes, in tbeir sever^ 
places and callings^ in opposition to all the enemies of the same, as may he 
seen at large, in the Solemn League and Covenant By means of which, 
these nations became, as it were, dedicated and devoted to God, in a peculiar 
and singular manner, above aU other people in the world, and that by vk 
indissolvable and indispensable obligation to perform, observe, and fulfil, tba 
duties sworn to, ond contained therdn, from which no power on earth caa 
absolve as. And so to carry on the ends of the same, and to evidence our 
firm adherence to it, with the utmost of our endeavours in opposition to 
f yery thing cenU'adictory of contrai^ ua^ or «M:lusiv« of theia qm iaorad 


perhaps sometimes midicioiisly, reprasented; and that such a 
paper could be pablkhed, and boldly adhoned to on all oc- 
casions, without incurring public punishment, sets the mild 

irows. We hate fh>tn time to time, for these tevetvl yesn bypait, emitted 
and published seterel declarations and pttblk testimonies against the breaches 
of the same, as is evident, not only from our declarations of late, bat also 
from an the wrestlings and contendings of the faithful in former times, all 
which vre here adhere to and promulgate, as the/ are founded upon the word 
of God, and are agreeable thereto. 

** And, in this juncture, to perpetuate and transmit to posterity the testi- 
mony of this church, and to acquit ourselves as faithful to God, and zealous 
for the concerns of religion and every thing that is dear to us as men and 
Christians. We here testify and protest against the prompters or establishers 
of, and against every thing that bath tended to the promoting, advanciQg, 
corroborating, or by law establishing, such a wicked and ruining Union, and 
hereby we also declare against the validity of the proceedings of the late 
parliament, with reference to the carrying on, and establishing the said Union, 
and that their acts shall not be looked upon as obligatory to ns, nor ought to 
be by posterity, or any way prejudicial to the cause of God, and the Coven* 
anted work of Reformation in this church, nor to the being, liberty, and 
freedom uf parliamenti, according to the laudable and ancient practique of 
this kingdom, the which we do not only for ourselves, but also in the name 
of all such as shall join or concur with us in this our protestation, and there- 
fore we protest. 

* In regard that the said Uni<m is a visible and plain subversion of the 
fundamental, antient constitutions, laws, and liberties of this kingdom, which 
we, as a free people, have enjoyed for the space of about two thousand yeaft, 
without ever being fully conquered, and we have had singular and remarkable 
steps of providence, preventing our utter sinking, and preserving us from such 
a deluge and overthrow, which some other nations more mighty and opulent 
than we have felt, and whose memory is ranch extinct. While, by this tfMor- 
poraUng Union wUh England m their sinfil terms, this nation Is debased and 
enslaved, its antient independency lost and gone, the parliamentary p<nter 
distolvedy which was the very strength, bulwark, and basis of all liberties and 
privileges of persons of all ranks, of all manner of courts and judicatories, 
corporations and societies within this kingdom, all which now mnst be at the 
disposal and discretion of the Briiuh pariiameni, (to which by this Unitm this 
nation must be brought to full subjection,) and furtheir, the number of peers, 
who have many times ventured their lives for the interest of their country, 
having reputation and success at home, and ware famous and formidable 
abroad, and the number of bartons and burrows, famoos sometimes for courage 
and zeal for the interest of their country, (and more especially in our reform- 
ing times,) all these reduced to such an ins^nifleant and small number in the 
BnHth parliMmenl, we say (as is also evident from the many pr^Mestationt 
given in to the late p»rSament agdntt thki unhn, how far it is contra r y to thd 


and liberal spirit of the Briiifih government in a more unposing 
point of view than any description; and, espedailj when con- 
trasted with the conduct of the Scotish government but a very 

honour, interest, fundamental laws, and constitutions of diit kingdom, and 
palpable surrender of the sovereignty, rights, and privileges of the nation, and 
bow by this surrender oi parliament and MQvereigniy^ the people are denuded 
of all security as to any thing that is agreed to by this Union, and all that is 
dear to them is daily tn danger to be encroached upon, altered, or subverted 
by the said BfiHih parliament, managed entirely by the EngRth, who seldom 
have consulted our welfare, but rather have sought opportunides to injure us, 
and are now put in greater capacity, with more ease to act to our prejudice, 
and poor people to be made liable to taxes, levies, and unsupportable burdens, 
and many other imminent hazards and impositions, all which we here protest 

*' As also that which is little considered, (though most lamentable,) how the 
fundamental constitutions should be altered, subverted, and overturned, not 
only renitente et reclamante populo, but also by such men who, if tlie righteous 
and standing laws of the nation were put in execution, are incapable of having 
any vote or suffrage in any judicatory, seeing the Covenants, National and 
Solemn League, which had the assent and concurrence of the three estates of 
parliament, and the sanction of the civil law, cordially and harmoniously 
assenting to, complying with, and corroborating the acts and canons of eccles* 
iastic courts in favour of their covenants, whereby they became the founda- 
tion, limitation, and constitution of the government, and succession to the 
crown of this realm, and the qualifications of all magistrates, supreme and 
subordinate, and of all offices in church, state or army, and likewise the ground 
and condition of the people's obedience and subjection, as may be seen in the 
acts, laws, and practices of these times^ witness the admission of Charles IL to 
the government, anno 1651. From all which it is evident how blind such 
men have been, who not only have enslaved the nation, but have rendered 
themselves infamous, by such an open and manifest violation of these solemn 
and sacred vows to the most High God, to the obligation of which they, as 
well as the rest of the land, are indispensably bound. 

" But ah, when we mention these covenants, how notorious and palpable is 
the breach thereof, and indignity done to these solemn vows by the sinful 
union, by means whereof they come to be buried in perpetual oblivion, and 
all means for prosecuting thdr ends are so blocked up by this incorporating 
union with England, as that whatever is, or may be done, or acted contrary 
thereunto, or in prejudice thereof, by any of the enemies of the same, cannot 
be reminded in. a due and spiritual exercise of church discipline, and execup 
tion of the kws of the land against such transgresaors, and if we would open 
our eyes, and consider a little with reference to the National Covenant, we 
may clearly see, that this incorporating union is directly contrary to this par- * 
ticular oath and vow made to God by us in thu kingdom, which we are 
obliged to fulfil and perform ui a national state and capacity, as we are a par* 


xhort time before its extinction, ought to have made erery wise, 
and erery honest man ashamed of the vulgar and viql^it in- 

ticalir nation by ourselves, distinct in tbe constitution of our goTerament and 
laws firom those of England and from all others. But now, when we cease to 
be a particular nation, we being no way distinct from that of England, (which 
is tbe very genuine and inevitable effect of tbe union,) how then can we keep 
our national tows to God, when we shall not be a particular nation, but only 
(by means of this incorporating union) made a part of another nation, whose 
goveniment is managed, as is very well known, in many things directly con- 
trary to what is contained in the National Covenant of this land, though we 
have charity to believe there shall multitudes be found in the land, who will 
graot and acknowledge themselves bound to the observation of that oath by 
an indispensible tye, which no power on earth can dissolve. 

" And what a palpable breach is this wicked union, of our Solemn Lei^e 
and Covenant, which was made and sworn with uplifted hands, to the most 
H^ God, for pulling and reforming his house in these three nations, firom 
error, heresy, superstition, and profaneness, and whatever is contrary to sound 
and pare doctrine, worship, discipline, and government in the same. And so 
it involves this nation in most fearful perjury before God, being contrary to 
the very first article of the Covenant, wherein we swear to contribute our 
utmost endeavours in our several places and callings, to reform England in 
doctrine, worship, discipline, and government ; but by this union, both we and 
tfacy are bound up for ever, from all endeavours and attempts of this nature^ 
and hatve put ourselves out of a capacity to give any help or assistance that 
way, bat on the contrary, they come to be hardened in their impious and 
saperstitiotts courses. And how far contrary to the second article, where we 
solemnly abjure prelaqr for ever, when by this union> prelacy comes to be 
established, and placed on the surest and strongest foundation imaginable, as 
is evident from the ratification of the articles in the EngUth parUament^ with 
the exemplification of the same in the Scoii parliament, where the prelatic 
g i wernm e ni in England is made a foundamental article of the union, so it is 
alio impossible for us to fulfil the other part of that article, where we forswear 
sdnsm with a legal toleration of errors, which a legal toleration of errors will 
infer and fix among us as the native result, and inevitable consequence of this 
onion. And how far this is contrary to the word of God, Deut. xiii. 6 — 19. 
and to oar covenants any considering person may discern. As to the third 
article, any may see how far it is impossible for us to preserve the rights, 
liberties, and privileges of parliament and kingdom, when divested both of our 
parliaments and liberties in a distinct national way, or yet according to the 
same article, where we are obliged to mamtun and defend the king his maj- 
esty't person and government, in defence and preservation of the true religion 
how can it be supposed that we answer our oUigntion part of the covenant, 
when a corrupt religion is established, as is by this union already done, when 
prelaiie government it made a foundamental artide thereof And it is a dear 
breach of the fonrth article of the Bolemn League and Covenant, u^here wn 


vectives m^ wfaioh, even in its earlier caoeer, it vm too gener- 
ally BflBailed* 

jtwcar to oppoie ail malignanis and hinderers of Beformation and reUgUm, and 
3net by this uoioo, the prelates, who themsd^es are the very malignants and 
encpues to all further Reformation in religion, are hereby settled and secured 
in all their places of power and dignity, without the least appearance, or 
ground of expectation of any alteration for ever. 

How o&nsive and displeasing to God this accursed Union is, may be 
&rtber evident by Us involving this land in a sinful conjunction and assoei" 
ation mth prelatic malignants, and many other enemies to God and godUnecs, 
Iffid stated adversaries to our Rrformation of religion, and sworn to prht- 
npks t» ovT Covenants, National and Solemn League. And particularly, as 
this Union embodies and unites us in this land in the strictest conjunction 
and assodatiosn with England^ a land so deeply already involved in the 
breach of covenant, and pestered with so many sectaries, errors, and abomin- 
able practices, and joins us in issue and interest,^with those that are tolerators, 
paintainers, and defenders of these errors, which the word of God prohibits^ 
S Chron. xix. 2. Isa. viii. 18, &c, and our sacred Covenants plainly and 
expressly abjures. And farther, how far and deeply it engages this land ta a 
confederacy and association with Go<Ps enemies at home and abroad^ in their 
expeditions and councils, a course so often prohibited by God in his word, and 
jVisibly plagued in many remarkable instances of providence, as may be seen 
both in sacred and historical records, and the unlawfulness thereof, on just 
and Scriptural grounds, demonstrate by many famous divines even of our 0|wn 
church and nation, and set down as a cause of God's wrath against this church 
and kiqgdom. And how detestable must such an Union be, whose native 
tendency leads to wear off from the dissenting party in England, all si^t, 
tense, consideration, and belief of the indispensibtUty of the Solemn League, and 
hardening enemies in their opposition to it, and those of all ranks in the hahUwd 
breach of it. Yea, also, how shamefully it leads to the obliteration and ex- 
dnguuhing all the acts of parliament and assemblies made in favour of this 
Covenant and Reformation, especially between 16S8 and 1649, inclusive. 
And not only so, but to a trampling on all the blood of martyrs, during the late 
tyrannical reigns, and a plain burying of all the testimonies of the steering and 
contending party in this land, in the Jirm, faithful, and constant adherence to the 
Covenanted work of Reformation, and their declarations, protestations, and 
wrestlings agmnst all the indignities done unto, and usurpations made upon, the 
royal crown and prerogative of the Mediator, and all the privileges and intrinsic 
rights of his church. We say, not only burying these in perpetual oblivion, 
by this copestone of the land's sins and defections, but also opposing and con- 
demning these as matters of the least concern, and trivial, as not b^ng worthy 
of the concern and suffering for, whereby those who ventured their lives and 
Aeir all, may be reported to have died as fools, and suffered justly. 

" We cannot omit also to declare and testify against the constitution of 
the British parliament, not only upon the consideration of the foresaid 


But Mr. MHckmilliin and Mr. MacneiJ^ it qppearsy did not 
tfiink tile above paper^ bold and specific as fixe language 

■lieiioik, bdt'iko wpan Oe meeetaU of the m^ muin^ mid im- 
iawfml admmon pf buhopt and churchmen^ to have m ^iare m the iegidaiwe 
p»mr,'ot m pldee ofenH coartg or q^atrj, mnd there to met or ifoteforeimaaUy 
m eifrit mMteri, a tidng ejpreufy forhUUen md dkekarged h^ Ckrut, dte otdif 
head md Ldtd ef kk ouni houte^ mhote kngdom m Mediator^ unat qf this 
m irU , M pttn^y epMtmd, and eo the ofieere in kk home, mad be spiritual; 
to tkm Ae diMpower of ekar^mem, ie i tkmg mcbrntuieni and iadoUipatiUe 
mdlk thai eaerid md epiritud fimcAm^ Upon i^hkh eontideratioii, bow 
ptSpsMe a dn will it be, to safaject to, or accept of any oaththat may be im* 
posfed by tbe Aid Aitish pariiament, fbr the maioteaance and BUppofft of such 
an Uirioii, or for recognDseiog, owning, and aeknowledgiiig tbe authority of 
tbe «dd parBaifaeiit ? And that beeau^ of obr swcariiig, and promittDg tubt- 
jtetion to the said partiamekfi^ we do'Cbcreby bomoKigate the foreiaid sbftd 
eonstttotion, and twear and proniar subjection to tbe biihops of England^ 
wLo are a conslAen(bte part of that poifiMient, and so wii ahaU be bound and 
oblieed to ntabitaili andttpfabid them in didr places, digiutiet and offices^ 
which lis contrary to the ^n^ 6f God, and oar Coveaabts, white the very 
first article of tbe MeoMi' League, obliges at to eadeaooar tht Reformatioa tf 
retigjum m the kingdom of Sagtimdf in doetrtaef worship^ dMplhe aadgooem* 
meiii,aecordkigtoiheworddfGodimi$eUdsia Seo t la M L And it is ver^f well 
hanon, thai the go tft^ nrnta t of bkkop$.h not aceordmg to the word cf God, but 
coHinuy to 4t, l' FeL t. 8. Mab. xx. 9^ 96. and, likewise oootrary to the 
second artide of <ho Solemn Les^e, wheieby we are obl%ed to the extirpo" 
Ubk tfprdaey, thai it, charoh gooertmeai, by a rc h bit hoptt tfa^pt, ^c. which 
We wOl be ob^gjed by ^ch aa oaifa^ to naintiin aad defend; beside^ from 
tbe consideratkm of tha panoa, that by the palr6ns and aspibtiidKii of this 
Union, and by tli« second article of the IMob itself, is nominatedand design- 
ad to sncceed, after the decease of tbo|Apesdnl qaeto Anae, in the gQvermneDt 
of tbeMa ahilons, yh, the' ^rinee'of Hbnoser, who has been bred and brought 
ap hi the LotheM religion; iHiich b not only difeakit Irons, but in many 
Oiags contrary nato that pdrity ia doetriae^ Reformatioa and' religion, we 
al tfMaa iMtioas, had attasnedoato, as ia fesy weU known* Now the admi^ 
ting inch a perKNi to f&gd over as, ii not only coatiavy to our Solema 
Leagiia and C^ovenaat, but tb thev^ wdtd of God itwdf, I>aut. xvit. rv^atr- 
ikg md MiaamM img oaeJrM awMig tkeir AMknss^ and not a ttraager, who it 
liW dP broth&r, tob^ tet ooer Aeot^ whenri)y Undoabtadly is understood, not 
4fthy mdt who were of coasaagdiniiy with tbe people of Ibe laad^ but eren 
sach ai seNOd and Worrtiippdd tite Oodfof Itrad^ and not any other, and 
tbat ik the true and perfect wa)f of wsoashippingi and serring bun« which he 
bbnself hath appointed, as they tbea dkl; tb whibh' ihia latended succession is 
qnfee i^ootraiy. And bewUs tU^ baUto be'mdemd^ aaga^ and twwn to 
mepretatii of Enfidad, to aat^uii, paotabt, an«l defend them in all their 


thereof was, sufficient for their exoneration, and accordingly 
next year, the case of Mr. Macneil having been, along with 

dignitiei, and revenuei, to the preventing and ezduding all Refonnation out 
of these nations for ever. 

And upon the like and other we^hly reaaont and contideradon»— «s popUi 
education, converBation, &c — we protest againsty and disown the pretended 
prince of Waieg, from having any just right to rule or govern these f w t^ ffi f^ 
or to be admitted to the government thereof, and when — as is reported — we 
are malicioosly aspersed, by those who profess themselves of the Presbyterian 
persuasion, espedally the Laodicean preachen, that we should be accessory to 
the advancement of him whom they call the pretended prince of Wales, to 
the throne of Britain. Therefore, to let all concerned be fully assured of the 
contrary. We protest and testify against all such so principled to rule in thir 
lands, because we look upon all such to be standing b a stated opposition to 
GOD and our Covenanted Reformatbn. Not that we contemn, deny, or 
reject civil government and governors — ^aa our former declared principles to 
the world make evtdent*-but are wilfing to maintam, own, defend, and sok>- 
ject to all such governors as shall be admitted according to our Covenants 
and laws of the nation, and act m defence of our Covenanted work of Refor- 
nution, and in defence of the nation's ancient liberties and privileges^ accord- 
ing to the laudable laws and practique of thb kingdom. 

And further, we cannot but detest, abominate, and abhor, and likewise 
protest against the vast, unlimited toleration of error in sectaries, which, as « 
necessary and native consequence of this Union, will inevitably follow there- 
upon, and whidi will certainly have a bad influence upon aU the parts, pieces^ 
and branches of the Reformation, both in doctrine^ worship, discipline^ and 
government, yea, even upon the most momentous and foundamental artidea 
of the C^ruUan faUh, for hereby Anabaptists, £raiitians,.Socinians, Arminians, 
Quakers, Tbetsts, Atheists, and libertines of all kinds, with many othen— 
which abound and swarm in that land — will come crowding and thronging m 
among us, venting and vomiting up thdr damnable and hellish tenets and 
errors, to the debtruction of souls, and great dishonour of God in many re- 
spects, and that without any check or controul by civil authority, as is evident 
fVotn the present practice of England, as having gotten full and free liber^ 
for all this, by means of this accursed Union. How then ought not every one 
to be afraid, when incorporating themselves with such a people, so eaposed 
to the fearful and tremendous judgments of GOD, because of such gross im- 
pieties and immoralities, not that our land is free of such heinous wickodneas 
as may draw down a judgment, but there these evils are to a d^gree^ for what 
unparalleled universal national perjury is that land guilty of, both toward God 
and man, though there were no more, by the breach of the Solemn League 
and Covenant that they made vrtth this nation, for the defence and Reformar 
tion of religion, but also what abominable lasciviousness, lioentiousnesa, 
luxury, arrogancy, impiety, pride and insolence, together with the vilest of 
whoredoms, avowed breach of the Sabbath, and most dreadful blasphemies. 


that of a Mr. James Farquhar, referred to the oooiinisuoii hy 
die General Assembly that met in the month of April, that 

yea» the contempt of all that is sacred and holy, gets liberty to predomioate 
without check or challenge, so that joining with such people, cannot but ex- 
pow us as wdl as them to the just judgment of God, while continuing ia 

And here we cannot pass by the unfatthfuhiess of the present nunister»-^ 
not that we judge all of them cast in the balance — ^who at the first bcginnint 
of tUs work le e m ed to be so zealously set against it, and both in their speeches 
scnnons, and discourses — ^which was duty — ^but yet in a very little after^ 
finched from, and became generally so dumb, silent, indiflRurent, or ambiguoui^ 
to the admiration of many, so that people knew not what to construct 

But from what cause or motive they were so influenced, they know best 
thcDselvei. Sore their duty both to God and man, was to show and declare 
how shameliil, hurtful, and highly sinftil this course was so circumsUntiate, 
And if numsterB* frithfijlness, and leal to the concerns of Christ had led them 
to audi freedom and plainness, as was duty in such a matter, and had discov- 
ered how contrary this Union was to the foundamental laws and swore [sworn] 
prindpies, by all probability thqr might have had such influence as to stop 
soch an unhallowed, unhappy project. But it seems dieir policy hath out^ 
witted their pie^, their plnsiog of man in conniving at, if not complying with 
their des^ that was carried on, hath weighed more with them than the 
pleasing of God, in the witnessing and testifying against it. 

Bot to say no more^ by the negligence of ministers on the one hand, and 
the politics of statemen on the other hand, this wicked and haughty bunness 
has been carried on had accomplished, to the provoking of God, enslaving 
the nation, and bringing the same under manifest perjury and breach of 
Covenant. But how to evite the judgments pronounced s^nst such we know 
not, bot by returning to their first love^ taking up their first ground, and 
f^nfiing to sworn Covenants solemnly unto God, and adhering to the cause 
of God and the fidthlul Testimonies of this church, and seeking back unto 
the old path, abandoning and shaking off, and forsaking all these God-provok- 
in|^ and land-ruining courses, we say we know, and are persuaded there can 
be no mean to retrieve us in this land, but by unfeigned repentance, and 
returning unto him from whom we have so deeply revolted. And among the 
politics of this i^ it could not but be reckoned the wisdom of the nation, if 
ever they get themselves recovered.out of the snare, to animadvert upon such 
as have had any hand in the contriving and managing it, as beiqg enemies 
both to God and their country, which course, if it had been taken in former 
tones with such who were enemies to religion and liberty, it would have de- 
terred such from being so active in this fatal stroke. 

Upon these and many more weighty considerations^ plain and demonstrable 
erib in this complex mass of tin and misery, all the true lovers of Zian, who 
desire to be found faithful to God, to their vows and sworn principles, and 
who seek to be found £uthful in their generation and duty of the day, and all 


he might be dealt widi for achismaticat courses Mr. Mack- 
iaillan aiid Mr. Macneil gave in to that court, which m^t at 
Edinburgh the 29th day of September, 1708, a paper, which 
they entitled, Protestation, Deetinatnre, and Appeal, ftc Sue* 

8Qch who desire, lore, and respect, the honoun, indepeadcncji liberty, and 
privilege of their native country, especially in such a juncture, wfaen' long 
threatened judgments are so imminent, sfnd religion ao^ liberty, as it were; in 
fti&r last breathing, will easily find it Co be their bound duQr— ds they woidd 
not conspire with adversaries to rdigion and liberty'-^lo show no ftvoor or 
respect, and give no encouragement or assistance that may tend to the v^ 
holding or supporting this Union, but that it is their duty and conoemmci*-— 
as well as ours — to testify and declare agamst the same, and to concur witk 
thdr utmost endeavours to stop and hinder the same, and to deny tfaeir ac- 
cession to, connivance at, or compliance with any thing that nuiy tend to die 
continuing such an insoppo^^ble yoke upon themsehes or their posteri^. 

And now, to draw this our Protestation to a conclunon, we ihaH heartily 
and in the bowels of on^ Lord Jesus Christ, invite alt ia the bodi na- 
tions, who tender the glory of God, the removing the causes of hit wrath, 
indignation, and imminent judgments upon us, sold who desire the coottno- 
ance of his tabernacle, gospel orcKnances, and gracious i^esenoe among «» 
and seek and contend for the faith once delivered to the sdnts» and laboor 
to follow the footsteps of those who, through faith and patience, inherit the 
promise, the noble cloud of witnesses Mrho have gone befot*e us. We say, we 
heartily invite, and entreat such to consider their ways, and tome and join in 
a harmonious, zealous, and fiuthful withstanding all and every thing that may 
be like a heightening or copestone of our defections, and particularly to join 
with us — according to our Reformation, Covenant, Confession of Faith, and 
testimonies of our chiirch, as agreeable to the sacred and unerring rale of 
faith and manners, the Holy Scriptures — in this our Protestation and l^estt^ 
mony. And for these efforts, we desire, that this our Pirotestation may be a 
standing testimony to present and succeeding ages, againat the sinfulioes^ of 
this land-ruining, God-provoking, soul-deitroying, and posterity-enslaving mxtd 
ensnaring Union, and this ad faturam ret memoriam. And to evite the brattdf 
and odium of passing the bounds of our station, and thst this our Protestation 
may be brought to the view of the world, we have thought fit to publiith, and 
leave a copy of the same at Sanquhar, by a part of our number, having tl^ 
unanimous consent of the whole so to do. Given at ■ the 8d dby of 

October, i707. loformatory Vin^cation, pp. 855— »77. 

^ « We, Mr. John Macknalhm, present naaisterof theGdspel atBsdni^ie^ 
and Mr. John Macneil, preacher of the Gospel, being most odiously and h^ 
vidtously represented to the world, as schismatics, separatislii, and i^idiera of 
unsound and divisive doctrines, tending to the detriment of Chorcb and State; 
and espeeialty by ministers with whom we were toibocBed while there r^ 
raained a^y hope of getting grievances redttmdr^iheuSon, that both unA' 


dms completiag a direct and fennal V(iittDciati<m of the coa- 
slitated aathorides of the nadon, civil and ecdesiasdc. Hub 
paper was probably jtfae sole compositioD.of the subscribers, and 
is of inferior merit to that of the previous year, which, it may 

vtat and people mnj know the aMcooimtableneii of sach asseitioiM, let it 
be cofuidered, diet this beoksHdrng church— ^when we with oCh«n ndgtit have 
been big inth expectetkm of advancenieiit in fUformation— continued in their 
defedioos from time to time, ttiU, as occasion was given, evidencing their 
fraiBnfw to complj with every new baduiiding course, instance that of the 
Oath of Alienee and Bond of Assunmce to the present qneen; which ai^ 
dtiooal step to die former, gave occasion and rise to ournnhappjr contentions 
and^viuoDs. And now at this time, for the gloiy of Ood, the vmdicatbn of 
Truth and of ourselves— as conscience and reason obligetfa us— 4o make erl* 
dent to the worid the groundlessness of these aspersions and calumnies, as 
tenters and dividers, and particularly in the oemmisnon*s late odious and 
maiicioas libd, wfaerem are contained many gross falsehoods, such as swearing 
persons not to pay cess, and travelling through the country with scsndalona 
penons in arms, which, as they are odious cahimnies in themselves, so they 
Ml never be proven by witnesses. And as to our judgment anent the ooss^ 
ve rttkoD it (faity in the people of God to deny and withhold all support, 
soocour, md, or assistance, that may contribute to the upholding or strengtln 
ening tiie man of sin, or any of the adversaries of truth— «s the word of God 
iostmcteth us — or for supporting any in such a way, as lending to the esta)^ 
lisbing the kingdom of Satan, and bringing down the kingdom of the Son of 
God, in a coone tending this way, how deeply these nations are engi g ed- 
oontrar to the word of God, and our indispensible oaths and covenants, 
wberdiy these lands were solemnly devoted to God— is too palpable and phdn, 
especially m die infidel terms of tiic late God-provoking, religbn-destroylng, 
and land-ruining Union. We judge it most necessary to give to the world a 
brief and short account of our principles, in what we own or disown — ^refc*^ 
ring for larger and more ample information, to several protestations and 
testimonies, given by some of the godly heretofore, at different times and 
places— And hereby, tiiat trtitii may be vmdicated, and our consciences e*- 
onored, we declare to the world our hearty desire to embrace and adhere to 
the written word of God, contained in Uie Holy Scriptures of tiie Old and 
New Testaments, as the only and complete rule, and adequate umpire of 
fidtfa and manners— and whatever is founded thereupon, and agreeable there- 
unto, such as our Confession of Faith, Larger and Shorter Catechisms, Dir- 
ectory for Worship, Covenants, National and Solemn League, The Aduiow- 
ledgement of Sins, and Engagement to Duties, Causes of God's wrath, and 
'tiie ordinary and perpetual officers of Christ's appointment, as Pastors, Doe- 
tors, Elders, and Deacons, and the form of church government, commonly 
called Presbyterian. 

* * Next, we declare our firm adherence to all the fmOiiul contending, 
whetiier of old or of late, by ministers and professors, and gainst whatever 


be presumed, was the prodaclian erf* the leadars of the sooietiei^ 
rather than of the ministers, and these leaders^ though they 
wanted the polish of polite scholarship, were certainly, many 
of them, men d great natural shrewdness, improved by ma<^ 

nnful conrsc8» whether more refined or more groM, and particularly the pfe- 
latic Resolotiom, Cromwell's usurpations^ the toleration of Sectarians and 
heresies in his time» and i^inst the sacrilegious usurpations and tyranny of 
Charles 11., the unfaithfulness of ministers and professors, m complyiqg with 
him, and accepting hu indulgence first and last, and in a word, to etery thing 
agreeable to the matter of this our testimony, as it is declared in pages 25 and 
86 of the Informatory Vindication, printed anno 1687. 

" Likewise, we declare our adherence unto the testimony against the abom- 
inable toleration granted by the duke of York, given into the ministers at 
Edinbuigfa, by that faithful minister, and now glorified mar^, Mr. James 
Renwick, January, 1688, and to whatever things or contendings have bee.* 
made, or testimonies given against the endeavours of any in their subtile and 
sedulous striving to insinuate or engage us in a sinful confederaqr with a 
malignant interest and cause, contrary to the word of God, our Solemn Les^oe 
and Covenant, and testimony of this church. 

" NesXf we bear testimony against persons being vested with royal power 
and authority in thir Covenanted lands, without a declaration of their hearty 
compliance with, and approbation of the National Solemn Leegue and Cov* 
enants, and engagement to prosecute the ends thereof, by consenting to, and 
ratifying all acts and laws made in defence of these Covenants, agreeable to 
the word of God and laudable acts and practice of this kirk and kingdom in 
our best times. 

'^ Moreover, we bear testimony against all confederadet with Popish prates 
and malignants, contrary to the word of God and our solemn engagementt^ 
the magistrateai' adjourning and dissolving of assemblies, and not allowing 
them time to consider and exped their affairs — ^their appointing them dyets 
and causes of fests, particularly that in January the fourteenth, and the 
thanksgiving, August the twentieth, anno 1708, which is a manifest encroach- 
ment upon, and destructive to, the privileges of this church— thdr protecting 
of curates in the peaceable exercise of their ministry, some in kirks, others in 
meeting-houses, yea, even in the principal city of the kingdom, if qualified 
according to law, by swearing the oath of allegiance— their not bringing unto 
eondign punishment, enemies to the Covenant and cause of God, but advan- 
dng sudi to places of power and trust, all which we here bear testimony 

" Next, we bear testimony against lukewarmness and unfaithfulness in min* 
isters, anent tiie corruptions and defections the church was guilty of in the 
late times, not yet purged and removed by censures and otherwise, as was 
duty— and their not leaving faithful and joint testimonies against all the en- 
croachments made upon the church by the civil powers, since the year 1690. 
And we bear testimony against the settling the constitution of this church. 

HfSVOMT OP soonnuAND; f 8 

nadiftg and deep reflection; and, though it ahoald be gmntedy 
tlttt th^ sometinies pushed conclusions somewhat fiuther than 
t)i^ premises could fiurly warrant, it cannot be doubted but 
that they were men of Gkxl, honoured wkb much of his' 

Moordiag M it was citabliAgJ in the year ISM, sod' the mhnstm aot teiti> 
fyiog «gsi]Mt this deed, seems to impart a disowning all that refonpatloii 
attained to betwixt 163S and 1649 inclusive^ at least, eowaidice in not 
daring to aronch the saaM^ or their being ashamed to own it, because 
many fiMOons and ftithfol aou of assemblies, espedaily about the year 164S, 
wonld have made them liable to censored eirea to the length of silendng mid 
dqtosition for their defection and uafaithfulness during the late times of the 
land's apostacy, particularly the weakening the hands and discouraging the 
hearu of the Lord's suffering people, by their bitter expressions and aspersions 
east upon tiwm for their seal end tenderness, which would not allow them 
te eoniply with a wicked, arbittery, and bloody conncil, as many of them did 
-r-their not renewing the covenants, buried for upwards of fifty years by the 
graatest part of the land, ecmtrary to the ibrmer practiee of this churchy 
dpeciaUy after some grosser steps of defection-— their receiving of perjured 
curates into ministerial communion without covenant ties and obligations, 
and without evident signs of their repentance, contrary to the pracdae of 
thb church ■ their receiving some lax, tested men, and carates' dders into 
kirk offices, without some apparent signs et least, of their repentance in a 
public appearance, coatcary to the former pracdce of this church in such 
Rke cases, evident by the acts of assemblies-^eir not protesting formally^ 
frithliilly, and explicitly, against the magistrates' adjourning and dissolving 
of assemUies, and recording the tame, contrary to the former practice of thb 
eburch in our reforming times. We are not eoocemed to notice the prote^ 
lation of some few persons at partiailar times, sedng their predpitency and 
amhness in this matter (as they accounted it) was afterwards apolopaed for; 
and that it was not the deed of the assembly — their not asserting, in anf 
expydt and formal act, the divine right of presbjrtery, and the intrinsio 
power of the church, though often desired by private christians, and lome 
several members^their not confirming and ratifying the acts of assemblies 
that were made m our best times, for strengthening and advancing the work 
of reformation, contrary to the former practice of this church*'-their ad-* 
mitting, in many places, ignorant and scandalous persons to the Lord's table, 
contrary to the acts of former assemblies— their not protesting against the 
present sinful confederacy with papists, mdignants, and other eneanes of re- 
l^n and godliness, contrary to the Word of God, and former practice of tUi 
church— their ofleosive partiality in their respective judicatories as to some 
particular members, whereby the more lax and scandalous are overlooked 
and passed by, and the more faithful and tealous are severely dealt with, and 
handled oontnr the rule of equity and former practice of this church^thdr 
refusing and shifUng to receive and redress the peoples just and great 
grievances, and the little regard bad to prevent the ^vtag offeace to thi 
u k 


pteseuce, and zealous to promote among men the knowledge 
of hk will. Cold, indeed, must that heart be, and, whatever 
it may pretend, dead to the nobler sentiments of oar nature, 
which does not sympathize even witli scruples apparently so 

L6rd*t people^ and unall endeavoon to have theM thingi remored that are 
stumbling and oifensive to them, contrar to the Apostle's rule and practSce, 
who became all things to all men, that by all ineans he night save some— 
their not declaring AuthfoUy and freely against the sins of the land, former 
and latter, without any respect of persons, oontrar the espreis precept, 
* Set the trumpet to thy mouth, and show my people their transgressions. 
Mid the house of Jacob their sins*' 

' ** Lastly, we bear testimony against mioistersT sinful and shameful silence 
when called to speak and act, by preaching and protesting against this un- 
hallowed Union ; which, as it is already the stain, so we fear it will prove 
the ruin of this poor nation, though some of them, we grant, signified their 
cfislike thereof before, and about the time it was concluded, yet there was 
no plain and eipress protestation faithfully and freely g^ven in to the parlia- 
ment, showing the sinfulness and danger of this cursed Union, being contrar, 
not only the honour, interest, and fundamental laws and constitutions of the 
kingdom, pind a palpable surrender of the sovereignty, rights, and privileges 
of the nation; but also a manifest breach of our solemn leagoe and cove- 
nant, which was made and sworn with uplifted hands to the Most High God, 
for puiging and reforming the three nations from error, heresy, superstition, 
and profaneness, an^ whatever is contrar to sound doctrine^ the power of 
godliness, and the purity of worship, discipline, and government In the same; 
mid so it involves this nation in a most fearful perjury before God, being eon-> 
tnury to the first article of the covenant, wherein we swear, to contribute 
with our utmost. endeavours, in our several places and callings, to reform 
Xagland in doctrine, worship, discipline, and government; but by this Union 
we are bound np for ever from all endeavours and attempts of that nature, 
and have put ourselves out of all capacity to give any help or assistance that 
way, as ye may see more folly in the late protestation against the Union^ 
published at Sanquhar October 88d, 1707. 

'^ Let none say that what we have now done flows from amlntion to exalt 
•nrselves above others, for as we have great cause, so we desire grace from 
the Lord to be sensible of what acces^n we have with others in the land 
to the provoking of his Spirit, in not walking as becomes the gospel, according 
to our solemn engagements— neither proceeds it from irritation or inclination 
(by choice or pleasure) to discover our mothers nakedness, or that we love to 
be of a contentious spirit, for our witness is in heaven, (whatever the worid 
taay say) that it would be the joy of our hearts, and as it were a restoration 
from the dead, to have these grievances redressed and removed, and our back* 
didings and breaches quickly and happily healed-^but it is to exoner our con- 
sciences, by protesting against the defections of the land, especially of ministers, 
▲nd seeing we can neither with safety to our persons, nor fhsedom in out 

nraTORY OF sciyrLAKD. TS 

consciemioasly fprmed^ and execrate tbe individuids who, fifom 
the pride of power* or tbe paltry hope 6f a little court favour^ 
instead of eradicating these scruples by soothing peisnasives 
and kindly forbearance, converted them, by harsh and pr^ 
cipitant censures, into fixed principles, and inveterate pre!- 

conadeocet, compear before their jadicstories, while these defections are not 
•cKnowtedgad apd removed* so we must so long decline them, as unfeithfiil 
judges in such matters-^m regard they have in so great a measure yielded up 
the privileges of the church into the hands and will of her enemies, and 
carried on a course of defection contrar to the scriptures, our covenant, and 
the acts and constitutions of this our church. And hereby we further protest 
and testify against whatever they may conclude or determine in their ecdv- 
liastic ceurts, by acts, ratifications, sentences, censures, &c &c. that have 
been or shall be made or given out by them, and protest, that the same may 
be made void and null, and not interpreted as binding to us or any who desire 
firmly to adhere to the covenanted work of reformation. 

" But let none look upon what we have here said to be a vilipending o# 
rejecting qf the firee, lawAil, and rightly constitute courts of -Christ, for we 
do acknowledge such to have been among the first most effectual means ap* 
pointed of God for preserving the purity, and advancing tbe power of refor* 
roation in the church of Christ ; the sweet firuits and blessed effects whereof 
this church bath sometimes enjoyed, and which we have been endeavouring 
and seeking after, and are this day longing for. 

^ We detest and abhor that principle of castiqg off the ministry* wherewith 
we are odiously and maliciously reproached, by those who labour to fastep 
upon us the hateful names of schismalicks, separatbts, despisers of the gospel 
---but herein as they do bewray their enmity to the cause we own, so, till they 
Ixing in their own principles and practices, and oars also, and try them by 
tbe law and the testimony, die measofing line of the sanctoaiy, tbe Wotd of 
God» and the practice of this church* when the Lord keeped hoaaa with* 
and rejoiced over her as a bridegroom over bis bride, they can never prove 
us schismaticks^ or separatists from the kirk of Sdotland, upon the account of 
our noncommunion with the backslidden multitude, ministers, and others.. 

" Finally, that we may not be judged by any as persons of an infallible 
s(Mrit, and our actions above the cognizance of the judicatories of Christ's 
appouitment, we appeal to the first free, faithful* and rightly constituted as- 
sembly in this church, to whose decision and sentence in the things libelled 
%vnst us we willingly refer ourselves, and crave liberty to extend and en*> 
iaige this our Protestation, Declinature, and Appeal, as need requures." 

The above was dated at the Manse of Bahns^hie, September the twenty- 
fourth, 1708, subscribed by Messrs. John Mackmillan and John Macneil, en- 
closed under cover, directed to Nicol Spence, one of the clerks of assembly^ 
and by him delivered in to the commbuon, September the twentyHnuth^ 


Y6 HltocmY OF SCOTLAF9. 

jndices,' ivhich truth has not hitherto be^ able wholly t(» 
correct, nor charity altogether to overcome. 

Bat ther^ was, as we have saidf another party, not so weU 
^tefined, nor having its olyect so specifically one, as that wife 
have just been tracing, but far more numerous in its members, 
more moderate in its views, having its stcttus in the church, 
and destined, after a while, to produce afar more important 
revolution, to which it will also be necessary a little to at- 
tend. At the head of this party was Mr. John Hepburn^ 
who had been ordained to the work of the ministry, pri- 
vately, in London, some time previous to the year 1680, in 
which year, he received a call from the parish of Urr, in 
Galloway, where he continued preaching, as circumstances 
would permit, till 1686, when the same people gave him another 
call, but more generally subscribed; and again in 1689, when 
the revolution had set the country free from the oppression of 
the- Stuarts, they gave him a third cidl, with all the legal foi> 
malities, which he accepted, before there was any formal pres^ 
bytery of ministers at Dumfries.* Being thoroughly pre»- 
byterian in his principles, and, of course, like many excellent 
ministers of that day, not at all satisfied with the settlement 
which the church obtained imder William and Maiy, he, with 
his adherents, presented a paper to the General Assembly, 1690, 
entitled, " The Complaint and Humble Petition of many Pres- 
byterian People, living in the several Shires of Scotland,''! whichi 
though not treated with the same severity as that given in by 
Messrs. Linning, Shields, and Boyd, was passed over, witb- 

* Humble Pleadings for the good old way, &c. pp. 241, 949. 

f Tbis is a roost interesting paper, and* whiie it exhibits distinctly tb^ 
various public evils which lay heavy upon the minds of the pethioners, 
breathes much of a humble and pious spirit. We cannot refrain from quoting 
the concluding paragraph :— " To conclude. Right Rererend, we expect and 
entreat, that ye will not be offended at our freedom, in what we here repre- 
sent ; but our meaning and end to have differences satisfyingly removed, will 
move you to put a favourable construction upon that which a critical dispo* 
sition might be ready to censure for rashness and ignorance, and meddling ip 
matters wherein we are not concerned. But though we should be condemned 
and censured with the greatest severity, and be counted yet more vfle, we 
must seek, we must cry for the removing of these stumbling blocks, and con- 
demning these courses^ which have done our Lord Jesus Christ so much 

HlftTOBT Of BOOTLANli. 77 

hot any thing like a distinct reply** A paper of giievancefi, 
was aisOf by bim and another commissioner, given in, in the 
name of his peqple, to king William, at London, in th6 
beginning of the year 1698, to which, after waiting for some 
considerable time^ it does not appear that he receired any 
answer. He was summoned before the synod of Dumiries iil 
the month of October, the same year, to whom he delivered a 
paper of grievances, which the synod transmitted to the General 
Asembly, and, in the mean time^ laid him under some restric- 
tions with regard to the exercise of his ministry, which he de- 
termined not to observe ; and, lest they should have proceeded 
rashly to censure him, he took an appeal << to the next free 
and lawfoUy oonvocat, and rightly constitute assembly." He 
was accordingly summoned to answer, at the instance of the 
sjmod of Dumfries, before the assembly, to meet at Edinburgh 
December the sixth, the same year; but the assembly being 
adjourned by royal proclamation to the month of March follow- 
ing^ Mr. Hepburn took a formal protest, that he should not be 
obliged to answer without a new citation. 

When the assembly met in March 1694, his case was referred 
to the commission, before which, being previously summoned, he; 
appeared in the month of September following, where, besides 
the people who went with him as his adherents, the llev. George 

wrong, and his children so much burt» in the standing in the way of their 
comfortable and edifying communion with the church. Let the famishiog 
and starring case of our souls, through want of the blessed gospel, and our 
hungering to bear it preacbed by you, prevail with you to consider our com- 
plaintt, and let the wounds of our bleeding mother, panting to be healed by 
the hand of the tender-hearted Physician, have weight with you. not to slight 
or despise our desires. But if ye shall shut your eyes and ears at them, tbea 
we know, at the time, no remedy left us but to complain and protest unto 
judicatories, and cry, sigh, and groan to the Father of Mercies, who is tender 
of all his little ones, and is the hearer of pn^er, that be may see to it, and 
heal oor backslidings and breaches in his own tfane and way, and not lay it t6 
year diai^ge that ye have had so little regard to the stumbling and saddening 
of so many of hu poor, broken, bruised, and scattered sheep; and that ye 
laive not had greater care to strengthen the diseased, and to heal that which 
was sick, and to bind up that which was broken, and to bring again that which 
was driven away, and to seek that which was lost.'* Humble Pleadings, p. 1 5 1. 
• Ibid, p. 154. Plain reasons for presbyterians dissenting from the revohi- 
tioDcliarcht p. ISK 


Mairy minister at Airth, who6e case had also been referred to 
the commission, joined him in a concerted paper, which they 
called their Demurr, in which they neither fully own, nor fiurly 
deny the authority of the commission. The comminion ap* 
pointed a committee to confer with them, which, after sevorai 
conferences, made an overture respecting Mr. Hepburn, to the 
following effect : — ^^ That till the next quarterly meeting -of the 
commission, he exercise his ministry at the kirk of Urr, where 
once he had some settlement, and that he preach not without 
the bounds of the said parish, without he have the call of some 
synod or presbytery, and that he be not questioned for not 
attending on the presbytery of Dumfries during that time."* 
To this he replied, ^* Though I cannot recede from the contents 
of the paper given in to this commission, nor yet can come 
under any positive engagement restricting me in the exercise 
of my ministry, wheresoever in providence I may be clearly 
called, yet I am willing to declare, my so far desiring the satist 
faction of Reverend Brethren, (the scope of whose desire I 
judge to be, the preventing of schism, to which I look on 
myself as many ways bound,) as to endeavour the same, wherein- 
soever I may find it consistent with the faithful dischai^e of 
my duty to God, and with the peace of my own conscience.'* 
A member of court, the famous Mr. William Veitch, wat 
deputed to converse with Mr. Hepburn in -private ; but after 
much reasoning, he adhered to the above as his final answer. 

Under these circumstances, Mr. Hepburn seems to have been 
allowed to exercise his ministry till the next assembly, which 
met in December 1695, by which he was, on the fourth day of 
January, 1696, suspended from the exercise of the ministry. 
To thb sentence, passed upon him in his absence, and upon 
gi ounds which he did not consider valid, Mr. Hepburn paid 
no regard, nor were the aflections of his people in the least 
alienated from him thereby. On the contrary, the number of 
bis adherents was increased, and so sensible were many of the 
ministers of the injustice of his suspension, that they refused 
to read the act of assembly from their pulpits, though specially 
required by the act itself so to do. 

* Humble Pleadings for the good old way, pp. ISS, U7f 

lllStbRy OP SCOTLAND. 4^9 

Among the unprinted acts of this same assembly, session 
aeYenteenth, we find a recommendation to his majesty's solicitor, 
to prosecute such ministers who, aftef the censures of the 
church, continue in their irregularities, which, from the sequel, 
appears to have been passed with a view to the further harassing 
this already long and bitterly persecuted individuaL In the 
mean time, his brethren of the presbytery of Dumfries seem 
not to have been wanting in tlieir efforts to bring him into 
contempt with the people, for upon the twenty-fifth of June^ 
this year, keeping a fast at Kirkgunzean, after the congregation 
had assembled, << and he going forth of his house to the public 
worship of God,'' three members of presbytery, Messrs. 
William Veitch, R. Paton, and James Guthrie, accompanied by 
anumber of followers, suddenly interrupted him, and, after some 
conversation, hastened pre'cipitantly to the place where th6 
congregation was assembled, and, to prevent him fi'om preach- 
ing, Mr. Veitch, who, himself having suffered a long course 
of severe persecution, might have learned a little more modera- 
tion, rushed into the tent, gave forth a psalm, and began to 
discourse to the people. Mr. Hepburn quietly withdrew to 
another place, and forbidding his friends in any way to molest 
his brethren, began the public worship of God, and was 
immediately followed by the whole multitude. The three 
brethren, left to themselves, soon followed, and Mr. Veitch^ 
as the mouth of the three, in the name of the church of 
Scotland, discharged Mr. Hepburn to preach. Mr. Hepburn 
replied, he ** did, and would preach, hi the name of his Lord 
and Master, Jesus Christ, from whom he had received his com- 
mission ; and the t>eople greatly offended, rising up in some 
disorder, though they did violence to no one, the brethren of 
the presbytery departed in great anger."* 

Mr. Hepburn, it is probable, finished the services of the day 
at his leisure, but, in the course of a month, was summoned 
before the privy council, to answer to a libel, at the instance 
of his majesty's advocate, and this through the instigation of 
Myme ministers, as he learned firom several members of the 
council afterwards. In consequence of this, Mr. Hepburn 

• Httmbte Fletdliigiy pp. 101, IM. 

60 .aiSTORY OF 8COTl4AH0< 

repaired immediately to Edinburgh, and, after conferring with 
several statesmen, prepaj?ed the following answers to the libel, 
the nature of which the reader must be content to gather 
from these answers, as the compiler of this has not been 
fortunate enough to fall in with a copy. 

<^ Whereas he [Mr. John Hepburn] is accused of exercising 
his ministry, and intruding himself into churches, particularly 
of Urr and Kirkgunzean, within the stewartry of Kircud- 
bright, and of Durrisdeer, in the sheriffdom of Nithsdaie, and 
that without taking the oaths of allegiance, and subscribing 
the assurance. . He answers, Imo, That he humbly conceiveth 
bis loyalty to k. William (whose right he nothing doubts, 
more than his possession,) is so generally known, and hath 
been so many ways manifested, as that he bopeft it is not 
doubted by any to whom himself is known, unless they either 
be greatly prejudged, or^ sadly misinformed, he being at all 
times, and in all dutiful ways, most willing to declare and 
evidence the same. 2do, As to the exercise of his ministry 
at Urr and Kirkgunzean, he entered unto the exercise of hia 
ministry in these parishes by the people's call, l^efore the 
act of parliament establishing presbytery; and as this fixeth a 
relation betwixt a minister and people, so as he with a good 
conscience may exercise his ministry among them, so like- 
wise, by the foresaid act of parliament, a presbyterian minister's 
entering by the call of the people is authorized as a sufficient 
legal right, for the exercise of the ministry , and enjoyment of 
the benefice and stipend ; and accordingly, the defender's call 
was sustained by the lords of the session, as a legal title to the 
parish of Urr ; so that his preaching in Urr or Kirkgunzean 
cannot be called. an intrusion, he having both divine and legal 
right so to do, the people of both parishes concurring in his 
call at first, and no other minister being established in any of 
the foresaid parishes as yet. Stio, As to the defender's 
preaching in Durrisdeer, it is answered, the said parish is also 
vacant, and it is but now and then, and for the most part 
occasionally in his going to and returning from Edinburgh^ 
and that upon the most earnest call and invitation of the 
people, who are in a destitute condition for want of preachings 
being but rarely supplied by the presbytery of the bounds; 


and it is hard ibr a minister (caUed of God Co preach the 
gospel) to refose to hearlLen to the call of a necessitoua people. 
4. Whereas, the defender is charged for not swearing the 
oaih cf alieffkmoti and not subscribing the assmwice; it is 
answered, he doth most ingenuously declare, it is not from 
any disrespect to his majesty and his authority, but lieeause 
of some relative circumstances wherewith the same is clothed, 
and ehiefly that the said oaths taking and subscribing is 
made such a necessary qualification of a minister^ that be who 
hath not freedom to take them is declared (in the at^qfparlkt^ 
weatfixr 9Mxng the qmei of the church) to be no minister of this 
church, which, as he conceives, tendeth to bring the kingdom 
of Christ Jesus under a most sad bondage, in granting to the 
civil magistrate a power to inflict ecclesiastical censures, and 
to enjoin qualifications of the ministry, which the Ixtrd Jesus 
(the churcVs alone head and lawgiver) doth not require. 
For this, and many other weighty reasons, (which if their 
lordships require he is ready to adduce) the said defender 
cannot take the foresaid oaths. 

^ Asto what is Ubelled, that the defender stands suspended 
by a sentence of the church — it is answered, he is really sorry 
that matters should be at such a pass betwixt the ministry of 
this church and him, and is not willing before this court to 
adduce his exceptions against the said sentence, nor his grounds 
why he cannot submit to it Only their lordships would be 
informed that the sentence merely was in absence, and that it 
CDukl not be reputed contumacy, in as far as he had attended 
the commission of the kirk once and again ; as also^ two other 
diets when the assembly should have met, and knew not but 
he might have met with the like disappointment at the time 
the assembly did sit; withal, had the assembly continued sit- 
ting as long as former assemblies had usually done, he came 
to Edinburgh in such time as he could have attended them ; 
but they were up, which he did not expect. 

<< As to what is libelled anent his not keeping Jiu^ and 
ihankspiving daps^ and his inveighing against them; and his 
presuming to keep Jbsts and thanksgicing days of his own 
devising — it is answered as to the first, there are no particulars 

r. L 


mentioned; neither doch he know that any to whcmi the no^ 
ticing^ the nonobaervcaUs of these days is recommended, have 
brought any accusation against him on that head* And seeing 
he hath completely vindicated himself from all imputation oft 
disloyalty, it is hoped their lordships will not sustain the libel 
in that part 

^' As to his appointing days of his own devising — it is an- 
swered, he doth it no where but in Urr and Kirkgtmzeanf 
where he ordinarily preacheth ; which is what Christ's faithful 
servants always have done, and at this day by some of the 
present ministry, upon very good grounds is practised, having 
the call of God*s Word, and the dispensations of the day for 
their warrant 

*^ As to the unlawful convocation of the king's lieges^ scan- 
dalous tumults, and riots libelled — ^he utterly denies the same^ 
except people's peaceable meeting to hear the Lord's Word be 
so interpreted, which he is confident their lordships will not do* 
As for the particular instance of that disturbance Mr« Retd 
met with at the church of Urr, the defender is most wrongously 
chai^d therewith, being at that time some scores of miles 
distant from the place ; as also, it will be found, on search, 
that the matter of fact is misrepresented, and that the persons 
mentioned in the libel are much injured by those who informed 
the government against them, they being all peaceable men> 
and well affected to his majesty. 

<* LasUy^ As to the charge of casting off the fear of God 
and regard to the laws of the land — it is answered, it is truly 
to be regretted that God is not feared at this day by the gener- 
ality of all ranks, and as for the defender^ he acknowledgeth^ 
he is indeed before the Lord chargeable that he feareth him so 
little, yet can declare that he desiretb and endeavoureth through 
grace, in the whole of his conversation and ministry, to demean 
iiimself so as to show forth the Lord's fear and due regard 
to authority ; and is bold to say, there are few in his station 
who have endeavoured to pay more respect to the king and 
government, consistent with that obedience he owes to the King 
of kingsj and that neither for temporal reward nor fear of 
punishment, but purely for conscience' sake, than the defender. 


in consideratioii of the premises, he humbly craves of thair 
brdships that he may be discharged from this libel/'* 

Having requested to see the above answers of Mr. Hepburn 
before they were presented to the council, the lord advocate 
kept possession of them till Mr. Hepburn himself was sisted 
before it. Here the advocate questioned him if he would have 
his answers read, assuring him that there was treason in chemlf 
To this Mr. Hepburn replied, they mi^t do as they thought 
fit; and being again asked if he had taken the oaths, he an* 
swered no; because he did not regard them as bestowing any 
ministerial qualification. On this he was immediately ordered 
out, and the lords of his majesty's privy council agreed in 
sentencing him '* to be confined to the town of Brechin, and 
two miles round the same, ordaining him instantly to find 
caution that he should repair straight to the place of his coU'; 
finement betwixt and Tuesday the fourth of August next, 
and should keep within the same, and not go without the 
bounds thereof, under the penalty of three thousand merks 
Soots, in case he should transgress in any part of the premises. 
And in case he should not instantly find sufficient caution in 

* Humble Pleadings, &c. pp. 192, 197. 

f That the revolution church, as she had assumed into her communiofi 
many of those who had acted under the late prelacy, had also imbibed no 
small portion of the prdatic sjnrit; and that somewhat of the deadly venom 
of the Bilddletons, the Lauderdales, and the Perths, still breathed tbroqgfa 
the orgMBs of the executive government, would be proved bj the above to a 
demonstration^ although there was nothing else of a documentary kind re- 
maining. Nor b this at all to be wondered at, when we reflect that there 
were still among those who had the ear of the king, men who had beM the 
open advisers of James in those stretches of prerogative which led to l|is ab- 
dicattOD, and that the bloody and unprincipled Tarbat held at thia very time 
the office of clerk register. From the advocate, however. Sir Jamea Stuart, 
one of the authors of Naphtali, something superior to the refined barbarity 
and disingenuous shuffling of Sir George Mackenzie might have been reason- 
ably expected ; but, unfortunately for his reputation, he copied* in this in- 
stance, e3uu^ly after that unprincipled predecessor. Of the imposition with 
regard to these oaths, practised upon the nntuspecting part of the niinistiy 
at this time^ the truculency of ecclesiastical managers^ and the ill^l violence 
of this same lord advocate, the reader will find some striking examples in 
Memoirs of the Public Life of Mr. James Hogg, written by himself, and pub- 
lished by the late Professor Bruce of Whitburn, a work but little known, but 
of inestimable value to all who take an interest in the history of that period 


manner foresaid, tbey ordained him to be canied prisoner to 
the tolbooth of Edinburgh nntil he should find security as 
said is.'' 

In consequence of this sentence, Mr. Hepburn was im* 
prisoned in the tolbooth of Edinburgh from the twenty-eighth 
of July [16963 to the twenty-second of August, during which 
time he preached every Lord's day from a window of the 
prison to the crowd who waited without, the magistrates, with 
the advice d some of the ministers, forbidding any to be ad* 
mitted within to hear him. They even went the length of 
ordering the prisoners to be locked up who had showed a 
desire to listen to his discourses. A number of his hearers, 
the people of Galloway, were put to trouble, by being sum- 
moned in to Edinburgh, about the same time^ though nothing 
criminal could be proved against them. On the twenty-second 
he was removed from Edinburgh, and it being Saturday, he was 
that night and next day detained at Linlithgow, where he 
again preached from the windows of his prison. On the 
twenty-fourth, he was lodged in the castle of Stirling, where 
his accommodations were better than they bad been before^ 
but his liberty of preaching was greatly restrained, few or 
none being admitted to hear him. After the lapse of some 
months he was liberated from prison, but it was three years 
before he was allowed to return to his people in Galloway, who 
did not fail to sympatliiae with him in his affliction, and to 
assist and encourage him by every means in their power. 

This attachment on the part of his people defeated the in- 
trigues of the presbytCTy of Dumfries, the members of which, 
though Mr. Hepburn had only been suspended, not deposed, 
laboured hard to have his parish declared vacant, and another 
minister put in his place. In this tbey did not succeed ; but, 
by some means or other, he was deprived of his stipend for 
these three years.* His enemies, indeed, during all that time 
appear to have been doing their utmost to have a higher 
censure passed against him, though, by what means it does not 
now appear, they were baffled in the attempt once and again. 

Among the unprinted acts of the General Assembly for the 

• Hinnble Plcadingi, &c. pp. 197, SOS. 


vean 1697 and 1698, we ikid the processes against Mr. Mair 
and Mr. Hepburn referred to the commission, and among the 
unprinted acts for the year 1699, we find an act taking the sus- 
pension off Mr. John Hepburn, on his humble and earnest 
desire, and professed deference and respect to the judicatorier 
of this church, and the peace thereof, which was granted by the 
General Assembly, with certification. Sec, and it appears that 
he exerrised his ministry without further molestation till the 
year 1703, when his refusal to take the oath of allegiance to 
queen Anne occasioned new complaints against him from 
the synods of Wigton and Dumfries. In consequence of these 
complaints, we find him next year, 1704, joined with Mr* John 
Mackmillan, and both their cases referred to the commission of 
assembly, by *' an act against schism and disorder," dated at 
Edinburgh, March the thirtieth, 1704. The same assembly 
appmnted a committee for " considering a process against Mr. 
John Mackmillan, who was deposed firom the ministry, and for 
considering the schism in the south and west." The result of 
all this was a summons to Mr. Hepburn before tlie commission, 
at the instance of Mr. John Blair, agent for the church, by whiA 
he was, on the eighth day of June, that same year, deposed 
from. the office of the holy ministry, and cited to appear before 
them on the eleventh of July, which citation was continoed to 
the twentieth, and firom that to the first Wednesday of Sep> 
tember. Mr. Hepburn gave in a long paper in reply to aU 
the charges contained in Mr. Blair's libel, and particularly in 
explanation of his conduct since the suspension was taken off 
him in the year 1699 ;* and the commission appointed a com- 
mittee to compare his answers with the libel, and to interrogate 
him further upon what the answers had not touched. This 
committee gave in their report, finding that he owns the 
things charged, in point of fact, and offers to justify himself by 
this only reason, viz. << that he is satisfied in his own consdenoe, 
and that being so, he is not to regard any deference or respect 
he may be obliged to pay to the authority and direction of the 
church f* and that, when interrogate if he would desbt finom 

* Hnmble Pleads, pp. 905, Si 6. 


these disorders, &c. he refused the same. Whereiqx>n the 
committee reported, that ihey find hun <^ self-convicted and self- 
willed, and refractory to the church, and to the deference and 
respect he ought to have to the same ; and that, therefore, he 
ought to be proceeded against as a disorderly person, self-con- 
victed and self*willed, and refusing to be reclaimed*"* 

Mr. Hepburn denied the justice of the above conclusions, 
and the commission appointed another committee, to which he 
gave in a paper, explanatory of his views upon the various 
propositions contained In these conclusions, and, after various 
conversations, this committee seems to have been inclined to 
deal tenderly rather than harshly both with Mr. Hepburn and 
the people adhering to him, though Messrs. Veitch and Paton 
gave in a representation against him on the part of the pres- 
bytery of Dumfries, and protested against the lenity that had 
already been shown to him. The commission, however, did 
put it to a vote, ^^ whether the libel, as confessed, was relevant 
to infer a censure?" which was carried in the affirmative; but, 
Mr. Hepburn having made some concessions, the commission 
delayed the process till the first Wednesday of September, 
This was at the meeting in July. 

Owing to family circumstances, Mr. Hepburn could not 
attend the commission in September, and they passed an act 
citing him anew to appear before them the first Wednesday of 
December, which he did, and gave in a paper requesting a 
committee of ministers and elders to come into Nithsdale, and 
confer with the people upon the matters in dispute. To this 
request the commission acceded, and a committee of ministers 
and elders met at Sanquhar in the banning of February, 1705, 
and spent a whole week with the leaders of the party so 
amicably, that both parties were led to hope that the evils of 
which they complained would be removed, and stn agreeable 
and comfortable communion restored. 

Encouraged by these favourable appearances, the people 
drew up shortly what would be entirely satisfactory, and restore 
them cordially to the bosom of the national church, 1st, 

* Humble Pleadings, p. 817. 


<< That the assembly would be pleased to take inio consider- 
ation the acknowledgment of sins made at the last renovadou 
of the covenants at Lesmahago anno 1689, and digest the 
same into an act for a national fast, or would imitate the 
former actii^ of this churdi inher purest times, with respect 
to the then compliances, which would greatly ease us as to 
several grievances. 2d, That the assembly would ratify these 
acts anent the magistrates, their being obliged to take our 
covenants before their instahnent in their respective oflSces and 
places; and would suitably testify their resentment of omissions 
in this point as to what is past. 3d, That the assembly would 
approve all the faithful witnessings and contendings of the 
Lord's people in our late times, in adhering to the covenanted' 
work of reformation, from Mr. James Guthrie to Mr. James 
Renwick inclusive. Aihf That the assembly would by an act 
assert the divine right of presbytery, with our Lord Jesu9 
Christ's alone headship in and over the church, and the 
church's intrinsic power flowing therefrom, containing in it a 
testimony against what usurpation hath formerly been made 
either on the one or the other. 5th, That all possible means 
be used by this church, for purging her of corrupt officers and 
members, by inflicting censures impartially, according to 
scripture and former practice of the church, especially upon 
abjured curates allowed by authority. 6th, That the binding 
obligation of our covenants be asserted by an act of assembly, 
and some methods laid for their renovation, so as may be most 
for God's glory, his church's good, and the satisfaction of his 
people. 7th, That christian methods be fallen on by the as- 
sembly for removing offence given by ministers swearing the 
allegiance and assurance. 8th, That the assembly judicially 
and practically approve, and doctrinaUy confirm, with relation 
to our present circumstances, what is written by Messrs. 
Gillespie and Binning against sinful associations. 9th, That 
the assembly take care to have all good acts for discipline put 
in practice, especially in the south and west of Scotland. lOth, 
That the commission be regulate so as there may be a just 
proportion of members from presbyteries, and so limited in 
their instructions as they may not be capable to prejudge the 
church, and that the most pious and serious be put upon it, &c. 


11th, Thai; the aasembly would rectify all the budable acts of 
this church betwixt 1688 and 1649 inclusive."* 

This paper the committee, after reading, refused to receive, 
as beyond their instructions, and ttie conference broke up, 
but in a very friendly manner, each of the parties apparently 
having made a favourable impression on the other. The 
conduct of the committee was also approved of by the com- 
mission, from which they were honoured with a vote of 
thanks, and on Mr. Hepburn's compearance, from the 
favourable statements of the committee, his sentence was 
delayed, and the whole affair referred to the assembly, which 
was to meet at Edinburgh in the month of April following. 
Unfortunately, however, when the assembly met, it was not 
animated with the same friendly and healing spirit The 
synods of Wigton and Dumfries bad sent up representations 
of the most violent character, and their commissioner threat- 
ened, if Mr. Hepburn was not deposed, to resort to other 
measures ^^ than had hitherto been taken, however unpleasant 
to themselves, and uneasy to the higher judicatures."f Mr. 
Hepburn had previously been suspended, imprisoned, and 
banished — what other measures the commissioners would have 
resorted to may be guessed at, but they were not called upon 
to declare, for, though he offered to sign the Westminster 
Confession of Faitb, as the confession of his faith j to 
confine himself, in the exercise of his ministerial functions, 
strictly to the parish of Urr ; and though, for the benefit 
of the poor people adhering to him, among whom the 
seeds of peace and union, it was fondly hoped, had been 
sown by the committee- that had met with them in the pre- 
ceding February, he begged the appointment of another com- 
mittee to perfect what had been so happily begun, and that 
they would in the mean time delay giving any sentence till the 
first quarterly meeting of the commission, they proceeded, 
on the ninth of April, 1705, to depose him from the office of 
the holy ministry, by an act, which certainly does not ex- 
tenuate any of the charges laid against him, though some of 
them he expressly denied, and no probation, farther than 

• Humble Pleadings, pp. 831, S33. f Ibid, pp. SSI, «S». 


his own confessions, was ever led. At the same time that 
the sentence of deposition was passed .upon, him, the queen s 
advocate craved the use of the process, which- was granted 
accordingly.* r 

Against this sentence Mr. Hepburn entered his protest, 
and immediately thereafter, the parishioners of Urr declared 
their firm and faithful adherence to him, in a paper bearing 
the highest testimony to his worth as a christian, and his 
faithfulness as a minister. The same people, in the beginning 
of May, prepared a long protestation on his behalf, and ap- 
pointed commissioners to give it in to the synod of Dumfries, 
which was expected to meet there upon the eighth' of that 
month. Protestations were also prepared by many individuals, 
read on his behalf in the audience of the congregations where 
they respectively resided, and afterwards affixed to the church 

Mr. Hepburn, in the mean time, returned to his parishj and 
exercised his ministry as if no such sentence had been passed 
upon him, and, as the Union was now upon the tapis, ac- 
quired additional popularity by pointing out the manifold 
mischiefs, particularly of a religious kind, with which he 
supposed it to be fraught. Nor did he coAtent himself with 
merely preaching against it* He also, with his adherents, 
addressed her majesty's commissioner and honourable estates 
of parliament on the subject, in language brief but specific, 
and such as, there cannot be a doubt, spoke at that time the 
real feelings of the nation.^ 

- This conduct could not fail to be highly offensive to the 
managers of church affairs, who, ' by their rooderbtion, were 
peculiarly anxious to recommend themselves to the English 
ministry, yet Mr. Hepburn, and the peopk adhering to him, 
seem to have been so serious, so much disposed to a peaceable 
accommodation of their differences, and, at the same time, so 
firm in maintaining what they held to be the public cause of 
truth and the rights of conscience, as to have commanded 
the respect, if not the approbation, of a very great proportion 

* Unprinted acts of the General Assembly, 1 705. 
t Humble Pleadings, &c, pp. 247, 248. t ^^^' &c- PP- 250-255. 



of the miDtsters, as well as the members of the church of 
Scotland. Accordingly, we find the commission of the as- 
sembly this year, though they cited him before them, putting 
off his case from time to time, and at last referring it back to 
the assembly, which again gave it in charge to their com- 
mission. Before that commission iVfr. Hepburn appeared, 
in the month of June, 1707, where, having expressed his 
opinion, that it would be for the edification of the church 
that he were reponed to his parish, as also his earnest desire 
to be so^ they, at an adjourned meeting, in the month of 
August, after some days' serious deliberatton, reponed him to 
his parish, which had also petitioned them to that effecL 
The commission seem to have acted^ with great caution, and 
to have had a sincere desire to promote the cause of truth 
and peace ; but when their transactions were brought under 
the review of next assembly, they were attested according 
to the 6th act of the assembly, 1706, with this remark, 
" That there are such irregularities in the commission's pro- 
cedure, in taking the sentence of deposition off Mr. John 
Hepburn, that the assembly do not approve the com- 
mission's taking off that sentence ; and enjoin. That in time 
coming, commissions strictly observe the acts of assembly, 
and not transgress the same upon any pretence whatsomever; 
and empower the commission of this assembly to inquire 
into what has been Mr. Hepburn's deportment since he was 
reponed, and to proceed as they shall see cause."* It does 
not appear that the commission felt themselves called upon 
to do any thing further in the matter, and Mr. Hepburn con- 
tinued in the exercise of his ministry, exerting himself strenu- 
ously against what he considered the prevailing evils and 
defections of the time, which, far from being lessened, either 
in number or degree, were, from the unhappy complexion of 
succeeding administrations, greatly augmented, as we shall 
have occasion to remark in the sequel. 

The above short retrospect brings us up to the first (jeneral 
Assembly after the Union, which, from the part presbyterians 
had acted with regard to the invasion, received this year, 

• Unprintcd acts of assembly, 1707. 


1708, fully more than iu usual share of civility. David, 

earl of Glasgow, a nobleman generally respected, as being 

favourable to the interests of the church, was appointed cocn* 

niissioner;* and the letter from the queen breathed nothing 

but kindness. *^ We cannot but acknowledge," says her 

majesty, ** our satisfaction with the zeal and afiection the 

fninisters have shown at this juncture to our person and 

government, upon the appearance of an invasion by our 

enemies ; and we doubt not of your being all in the same good 

disposition, and that ye will encourage the people in their 

loyalty to us, and in abhorrence of this design, which will 

subvert our religion and all that is dear to us. We again 

assure you of our firm resolution to maintain the government 

of the church of Scotland as it is by law established, and to 

protect yon in the free enjoyment of all the rights and privileges 

that by law you are possessed of. And not doubting but 

you will act in such a manner in this assembly, as that we 

shall have new reasons to be satisfied with you, we bid you 

heartily iarewell."f The assembly in return, after thanking the 

queen for the notice she had, with so much goodness, taken of 

the affection and loyalty of the ministers of the church, go on 

to say, '^ We find ourselves obliged, under the most sacred 

ties of duty and gratitude to your majesty, our only rightful 

sovereign, to encourage more and more the people under our 

care in their loyalty to your majesty, and firm adherence to 

the present happy establishment The renewed assurance 

your majesty is pleased to give, of your firm resolution to 

maintain the presbyterian government of this church, as by law 

established, and to protect us in the enjoyment of all our rights 

and privileges, is to us most acceptable, and shall ever be 

• ** All the presbyteriaot, and you in particular, have been very happy of 
having this opportunity to testify your zeal and loyalty to her majesty's person 
and government, and your fixed resolutions to withstand and oppose the 
popish pretender. This has rendered all the presbyterians very acceptable 
to her majesty, and has also secured to them many friends here. My 1. 
Glasgow is sent down to be the commissioner to the ensuing assembly, and 
the letter to it, and the iDstructions, will give satisfaction." Earl of Seafield 
to Mr. Carstares, March 17 th, 1708. State Papers, and Letters addressed 
to William Carstares, &c. p. 764. 

f Queen's letter to the assembly, 170S. 


obligiDg Upon us to manage ourselves so as to witness our 
sincere and deep resentment of this blessiug of your royal 
favour."* They add further, in an address to her majesty^ 
<' We have had so many marjLs of your royal favour, and are 
so happy in having such a sovereign, that we should be 
enemies to ourselves, and regardless of all that ought to be 
dear to us, as men and as christians, as well as unaccountably 
undutiful to your majesty, if we were not earnest in our 
prayers to God, for your majesty's preservation, and for the 
stability of your throne; and if we had not the utmost 
abhorrence of the late no less bold than mischievous 
attempt that was made by the French monarch to invade 
this kingdom with an armed force, on design to assist a popish 
pretender, in usurping the sovereignty of your majesty's 
kingdoms, which you govern by a most unquestionable title, 
a title that we, in our stations, and by all means proper for us; 
are resolved to maintain with a firm and unbiassed zeaL"f 
To mark still more strongly their feelings upon this point, the 
assembly, " Considering what a surprising . deliverance the 
gracious God hath been pleased in his infinite goodness to 
bestow upon us, in this land in particular, from a threatened 
invasion of cruel enemies, whereby, according to the un- 
changeable course of popery and tyranny, by which this in- 
vasion was managed, we were inevitably to lay our account, 
not only with the scattering of our families, and spoiling: of 
our goods, but also the violent invading of our persons and 
consciences, by methods of cruelty worse than fire or faggot, 
as the known massacres of Paris, in the year 1572, and of the 
protestants in Ireland, in the year 1641 ; and the continued 
cruelties used against the protestants in France, especially 
since the year 1685, can testify and witness to the world; and 
that God did thus graciously appear for us, when we were 
unworthy of the least kind regard from him, being a people 
laden with iniquity, &c. &c. appointed a day of thanksgiving 
to be observed in all the parishes within this national church.":]: 

• General Assembly's answer to the Queen's letter, 1708. 
t Printed acts of assembly, 1708. 

% Act concerning a solemn national thanksgiving, 1708. Mr. William 
Carstares, moderator, Mr. John Stirling and Mr. Robert BaiUte, ministers. 


This assembly passed an act against popery, and an act 
for suppressing schism and disorders in the church, directed 
particularly against Mr. James Farquhar, minister at Tyrie, 
who had been assisting to Mr. John Mackmillan, and Mr. 
John Hepburn, and Mr. John M^Neilie or Macneil, of whom 
we have already spoken, as going along with Mr. John 
Mackmillan* In their instructions to the commission, this 
assembly paid a most laudable attention to the erection of 
schools in every parish, and, with regard to the Highlands 
and Islands, that every thing might be done, tending to the 
advancement of religion and reformation, and " that all due 
assistance and encouragement be given to any proposals that 
may be made for propagating the knowledge of God, and our 
Lord Jesus Christ, in these and other foreign parts of the 
world.'' An act and recommendation was also passed by this 
assembly, concerning the ministerial visitation of families, 
which, if we may judge from the practice of many ministers, 
is now considered obsolete, but which contains so many ex- 
cellent and plain directions for that most important duty, that 
it were to be wished the assembly would revive it. * The 

with David, earl of Glasgow, ruling elder, were likewise coromissioned to 
wait upon the queen, and testify the assembly's firm loyalty to her majesty, 
and to congratulate her upon the merciful deliverance of her dominions from 
the late threatened invasion from France, and to thank her majesty for her 
gracious promise, to cause put in execution the laws against popery, pro- 
fanenen, and other disorders. Unprinted acts of assembly, 1708. 

* Act and Recommendation concerning Ministerial Visitation of 

At Edinburgh, April S7tta, 1708. Senioa 19tb, ct ult. 

The General Assembly finding that overtures concerning the ministerial 
visitation of families have been transmitted to the several presbyteries within 
this national church for their opinions thereanent ; and that the plurality of 
the presbyteries who returned their opinions about the same, have consented 
to the passing of these overtures in manner aftermcntioned : and the General 
Assembly judging that what is therein proposed may be of great use to the 
ramisters of the gospel, though not as binding rules, yet as an help to them 
when they go about that necessary work of family visitation ; therefore, this 
General Assembly did unanimously, and hereby do recommend the same as 
such, to the several ministers of this national church ; the tenor whereof 
follows : — 

Seeing, for tlie faithful discharge of minister's work, ihcy ought, beside 


due observation of the Sabbath* the licenaing of probationers, 
and the orderly calliag of ministersi came all under the con* 
sideration of this assembly, and were treated suitably to tlieir 
great importance. The scripture songs, with the remains 

wbat is incumbent to them in the public congregation, to take special care 
and inspection of the particular persons and families under their oversight 
and charge; in order to which, it hath been the laudable custom of this 
churdi, at least once a year, if the lai]geDess of the parish, bodiJj inability 
in the minitter, or other such like causesi do not hinder, for ministers to visit 
all the families in their parish, and oftener, if the parish be small, and they 
be able to set about it. 

For the more uniform and successful management of which work, although, 
in regard of the diffbrent drcumatances of some parishes, families, and per. 
ions, much of this work, and the maaageroent thereof, must be left to the 
discretion and prudence of miiibtert, in their respective oversi^ita; yet these 
following advices are offered and overtured as helps in the management 
thereof, that it may not be done in a slight and overly manner. 

1st, First of all, it seems needful that ere a minister set out to this work, 
he should labour to have his own heart in a suitable frame for it, by exciting 
in himsdf the low of God, and the de»ire of the salvation of his people's 
loals, and the sense of the weight of the charge given him to watch for aoula, 
as one who must give an account, and of the difficulty of this part of his 
work in particular; for, perhaps, it may be found no less difficult to apply to 
particular families and persons therein, teaching and warning every one, than 
it is to dispense the word in common in the public congregation. 

sd. That such a time in the year be chosen for such ministerial visitation as 
the families whom he visiu may be best at leisure to meet with him, when they 
maybe expected at home, and lea&t encumbered with affairs; and it were 
fit, that when a mioister designs to visit any part of his parish, intimation 
thereof should be made, either in public from the pulpit, or some other 
way, that they may order their affairs so that he may have opportunity to 
meet with them at home. 

3d, It's fit, when a minister designs to visit any part of the parish, that he 
be accompanied with the elder of the bounds; and that, before they go forth 
to the work, they may confer together concerning the state and condition of 
the persons and families of these bounds, that the minister may be able to 
speak the more suitably to their condition, and as may be most for edification. 

4th, When they enter a bouse or family, afler a short account of the de- 
sign of the visit, and expression of their wishes and desires for the blessing 
of God upon the family, and that above all their souls may prosper ; it were fit 
to take an account of the names of the family, parents, children, and servants, 
and to inquire for testificates from them who are lately come to the parish, 
and to mark them in their book or roll for catechising, and to take notice 
who can read, and of the age of children when capable to be catechised. 

5th, After the minister has got an account of the persons dwelling in the 
fiunily, he may speak to them all in general, of the necessity of regeneration. 


of presbyteries upon theiiiy were referred to the commission, 
which ^ was empowered to conclude and establish that ver- 
sion, and to publish and emit it for the public use of the 
charch, as was formerly done on the like occasion, and when 

and the advantages of serioiu religion and godlioeu, of piety towards God, 
and justice and charity towards man. 

6th, And next, more particularly, to the servants, of their duty to fear and 
serve Grod, and to be dutiful, faithfbl, and obedient servants, and of the pro* 
mises made to such, commendiDg to them the reading of the scriptnres as 
they can, and prayer in secret, and love and concord among themselves ; and> 
in particular, a holy care of sanctifying the Lord's day. 

7th, The minister may apply his discourse to the children, as they are cap- 
able, with affectionate seriousness, showing them the advantage of knowing, 
loving, seeking, and serving God, and remembering their Creator and Re- 
deemer ID the days of their youth, and honouring their parents; and to mind 
them how they were dedicate to Ood in baptism ; and when of age and fit, 
and after due instruction of the nature of the covenant of grace, and the 
seals thereof, to excite them to engage themselves personally to the Lord, and 
to desire, and prepare for, and take the first opportunity they can, of partaking 
of the Lord's Supper ; to be especially careful how they eommiinieate at first, 
much depending Uiereon ; (and such of the servants as ere young are to be 
exhorted hereto in like manner) exciting them also to daily reading of the 
scriptures, and to secret prayer, and sanctifying the Lrord's day. 

8th, After the minister has spoken to servants and children, he should 
speak privately to the master and mistress of the family, about their personal 
duty toward God, ancTthe care of their own soul's salvation, and their ob- 
ligation to promote religion and the worship of God in their famOy, and to 
restrain and punish vice, and encourage piety, and to be careful that they 
and their house serve the Lord, and sanctify the Lord's day, and after this, 
it may be fit to exhort masters to take care that God be worshipped daily in 
the family by prayer and praise, and reading of the scriptures. Secundo, 
Concerning the behaviour and conversation of the servants, and th«r duty 
towards God and man, and how they attend the worship of God in the family, 
how they attend the public worship on the Lord's day, and how they beliave 
after sermons; if any of them be piously inclined, if they make consdenee of 
secret prayer and reading the scripture. Tertio, If there be catechising and m- 
stnicting the ignorant and weak ; if due care be taken in educating the 
diildren, and particularly, if they be put timeously to school, and how they 
profit thereat, and how vhe Lord's day is spent after sermons in the family, 
and in secret ; in all which, the minister may mix in suitable directions, en- 
conrBgements, and admonitions, as he shall see cause, and most for edification. 

9tb, It may be useful to inquire who have bibles, and to encourage them 
who are able to get a bible of their own, and to make diligent and religious 
we thereof, and to commend to parents and masters of families, to have the 
Confession of Faith, catechisms, and other good books for instruction, in 
faith and manners. 


our version of the Psalms was published, in the year 1649. 
And seeing there are many copies of the said version lying 
on the author's hands, it is recommended to ministers and 
others to buy the same for private use in the mean time."* 
After appointing their next meeting to be holden at ]**idinburgh 
upon the second Thursday of April, 1709, the assembly, on 
the twenty-seventh of April, was dissolved with the usual 
formalities, having conducted themselves with so much pru- 
dence as to dissipate, in some degree, the fears of the wise, 
and to disappoint the expectations of the disloyal, who were 
still watching for a subject which they might improve for 
inflaming the public mind, and goading on the unthinking to 
deeds of violence and disorder. 

lOth, If any be tarnished with errors, or given to vice, they should be par- 
ticularly dealt with, and spoken to, either privately or before others, as may 
be most for edification, and all are to be exhorted that arc in the family to 
watch and edify one another, and to carry toward any that walk disorderly, 
according to the rule. Malth. xviii. 15. 

11th, As the minister is co exhort all in the family to peace and love among 
themselves and their neighbours, so if there be any difference or division 
either in the family, or with the neighbours, the minister should endeavour 
to remove the same, and to make peace, and to excite to follow it with all 
men, as far as possible. - '-. t-: 

1 8th, It may also be inquired at those who received tokensf to^communicate 
the last season for it, whether they have made use of them or not, and those 
who have communicate, may be inquired privately, how they have profited 
thereby, and excited to remember and pay their vows to the Lord. 

13th, If there be any in the parish who keep not church. communion with 
us, whatever their motives be, ministers ought to deal with God for them, and 
with themselves in such a way as may be most proper to gain them, and 
cxoner our own consciences before God and his people, waiting if God perad- 
venture will prevail with them ; Who can tell but our making them sensible 
of our tender love and affection to their persons, especially to their souls, 
giving all due respect, and doing them all the good we can, yet still discoun- 
tenancing their sin ; may, in the end, be blessed of God for their good ? Jude, 
S3, S3. 9 Timothy, ii. 24, 25. 

Seeing there is need for all this, of much prudence, zeal for God, and love 
to souls, and affectionate seriousness ; all this should be carried on with de- 
pendance on God, and fervent prayer to him, both before a minister set forth 
for such work, and with the visited, as there shall be access to, and opportunity 
for it. 

* Notwithstanding of this, these songs were not authorised for many years 
after this. 



Boor IL 

Imenoie and atHtnty tfJaeetnie aUtrmitii amemp the Ens^Uk T<iTie9.-^Vr, Sathe9er^ 
kit irud and w eft i t m e^^ B evclutim in the Briiitk Cabinet^Proeeedinge of the General 
^Aeeemkfy ef the SeotUh Ckmh^^Dteiffne ogtdnti her independeney^Mtetmg of 
ParHamtni Partg etmg gl e -JDuke of MarOmromgh^JOuhe of Arggle in Spain^ 
€femerol MQU-Ineffketual attempte to improve Scotieh eommeree— General Auembfy 
-.-mAHmpteinfaeoiir of Bpieeopaeg^^Mr. Greenehielde-^Jdedal of fAe CSbeolier— 
Refeetedbythe Paenty of Advocatee-^aeobitei oppfy to the king tf Pramee-^LeO^g 
Memorud-^ChevaHer'e letter to the Qmeen^Secret negotiatione wUhPrance The duhe 
ofJBamSton refuetd a eeat in Me homee oflarde^Twdoe new pte r e ^eahuty between 
the hrdt Mar and Bag^^-^Aet tolerating JBpueopaeg in Seokand, and iwyoiijij eiW 
aaik of abfuratio9^-^Jieetoring lag pain mage e J Reatoring hoHdag^ -Schiem biU r^ 
vhtedunder a new name^General AuaMg-^Queen'e letter to the AteetMg-^Ae^ 
eeaMg eoKdte a redreee ofgri eo an ee e Heenlie of the oath *if Algnraliein-^Sneeeeefml 
exegfiofne (tfihe Papitte andnonjwing JBpieeop aha ne ^ Cooenante renewed at Audken* 
eamgih hg the eodetiee of Old Dieeenter e M gUeriovs procedmre of theee eodetiee^ 
In vaim attempt to ereet a Preehgterg-^JBxidtation of the Jae Mte i P erplexitg of the 
Qmten BoUngbrolm eeni to Pario^Duhe of BamOton and hed Mohnn^Cakaraeier 
ef the dnhe of HamOton-^The dnhe of Shrewdmrg eeni to Ji aww De AmaptU 
arrivee in Engfand-~Peaee conehded^SeotiMh Add re e t ee ' A larm for the Phfteetani 
laflnvcf— v^d of AuemUg rttpeeting the oath of Ahjwration^^Mdi tax extended ta 
Seedand^-AUempt to dieeoke the Union-^Aet for eecuring ihe paritg ff QoMk 
eleetiani^'Pa rl ia ment arg Addreee reepeeting the reeidenee of the Pretender^^Actimtg 
ef the Jaeohitet in the Seotish Eleetione^The new ParUament-^Pgmpldeteer^^ 
iSffarte of ihe 8eoHeh''JaeMUt in the Houee of Commone^^^Dieeentiema among tXem 
^^ Queen offtre a reward for apprehending the Pretender^-I}{ffictdUeB if the Seotiek 
CXtcrcA— Whig commanden diemieeedfrom the armg^^Men enUetedfor the Pretender 
^•~8editioui meetinge m Sco t l an d— Hanover Gub—Dieumon in theCabinet-^oUng^ 
broke and Oxford, their tharaetero—'Remgnatien of IA« latter'^kaA wed dmaOet 
of the Queen, 

About this time the English tories, in conjunction with the 
papists and nonjuring episcopalians, began to exert themselves 
with more than ordinary vigour, to increase their numbers, 
and to manifest themselves to be violent Jacobites. In pur- 
suance of their seditious designs, clubs were formed in eveiy 
quarter of the kingdom, by means of which, they maintained 

I. M 


a close correspondence with one another, were enabled to 
propagate insidious surmises simultaneouslj over the whole 
kingdom, and to give fatal effect to the most wild and im- 
probable falsehoods.* 

The danger of the church had long been a fruitful topic of 
declamation with the demagogues of this faction, and now 
they asserted that the crisis had arrived, when, without the aid 
of all her friends and the special interposition of heaven, her 
fall behoved to be immediate, and her ruin irretrievable. 
That the real originators of this alarm knew it to be false, 
and wished only that it had been true, there cannot be a 
doubt, for they were, some of them at least, avowed enemies to 
the whole system of revealed religion; and that the rabble, the 
great and little vulgar of the English nation, cared not whether 
it was true or false, may be assumed as equally certain; but 
it served for a pretext to the ebulitions of discontent and envy, 
those unhappy inmates which impatience of authority has a 
natural tendency to generate in vulgar bosoms. It was like- 
wise a subject upon which ignorant fury could pass itself off as 
exalted and generous enthusiasm, and fanatic groanings could 
easily be mistaken for the breathings of piety. The party 
found also, most opportunely, a tool eminently qualified for 
their purposes in Dr. Henry Sacheveral, rector of St. Saviour's 
in Southwark, a man endowed with a very small portion of 
either learning or common sense, but possessed of fiery zeal, 
great pomposity, considerable plausibility of manner, and 
entirely devoted to what he supposed the interests of his 
order— -episcopal dignity, founded on the divine and illimit- 
able power of kings. Hating the dissenters, and affecting 
horror at the whigs, whose liberal maxims of government 
tended to moderate the rigour of high church tyranny, he 
seized every opportunity of vilifying both the one and the 
other. This liberty he particularly assumed in a sermon be- 
fore the assize at Derby, in the ' month of August this year, 
and in another preached in St Paul's, on the fifth of No* 
vember, the anniversary of the gunpowder treason, in both of 

• Rae's History of the RebellioD, pp. 4, 5. Sapplement to the History of 
the reign of queen Anne« p. 56. 


which, he declaimed against the dissenters, and la favour of 
nonresistance, with great intemperance, declaring all who 
favoured the one or opposed the other foist brethren, from 
whose hollow friendship the most fatal dangers were to be 

These hollow harangues, of which it would be difficult to 
determine whether imbecility or absurdity were the predomi- 
nating qualities, met with the entire approbation of the tories, 
and were with all convenient speed issued from the press, 
the first, under the title of I%e Communion of Sin, with a 
seditious dedication to Greorge Sacheveral, a relation of his 
own, and at the time high sheriff of Derbyshire, through 
whose influence he had obtained the honour of preaching 
it before the assize at Derby; the latter, under the title 
of 77^ Perils of False BreOiren, dedicated to Sir Samuel 
Grarrard, at that time lord mayor of London. Like many 
other trifles favoured by circumstances, they obtained, espe- 
cially the last, a prodigious circulation, upwards of forty 
thousand copies being called for in the space of a few; 
days, and, inane and foolish as they were, as if they bad 
contained the essence of theological and political wisdom, 
literally absorbed, for a time, the attention of the whole 
British nation* 

Though dignified with the appellation of sermons, these 
compositions were neither more nor less than paltry libels 
upon the constitution and the existing government of the 
country — ^were probably intended as such by their author, 
and, as such, were understood and patronised by their myriad 
host of admirers, and could not, perhaps, with propriety have 
been entirely overlooked by the guardians of the public tran- 
quillity — ^but the manner in which they were noticed was im- 
prudent and impolitic, tending to magnify that which folly and 
frenzy had already invested with extraordinary dimensions, 
and which, lefl to itself had speedily shrunk into its native in- 
significancy. They were unfortunately complained of in the 
house of commons, where they were declared to be scandalous 
and seditious libels, and the author ordered to be brought to 
the bar of the house. 

When brought before the house, the doctor boldly avowed 


himself author of the paUicadons comphiined of, without otBsring 
either apolc^ or recantation. He was immediately ordered 
into custody, and it was resolved to impeach him at the bar of 
the house of lords, in the name of the commons of England* 
This unlucky determination at once converted, in the estimation 
of the vulgar who were opposed to him, an ignorant, railing, 
fanatic — ^who, if noticed at all, ought to have been sent to St. 
Luke's, or for a few weeks to the house of correction — into an 
offender of the highest rank and character, whose crimes it re- 
quired the concentrated wisdom of the nation to appreciate, and 
idl its authority, put forth in the most imposing form, to punish ( 
but, in the estimation of his own party, which included papists and 
semipapists Jacobites, and tones of every description, it exalted 
him into a saint of the first magnitude, whose martyrdom, 
effected by this parade of authority without law, was to be only 
precursoty to the downfal of the church, and the subversion of 
all that had hitherto been accounted regular or legal authority, 
Sacheveral and the church became at once convertible terms, 
and prayers for the deliverance of the one, in public and in 
private, were unblushingly ofiered up, as including the pros* 
perity and the perpetuity of the other.* 

Many of the leading tories had sense enough secretly to 
despise this puerile species of blasphemy, for they knew the 
man, and his morals were not more exalted than his genius,f 
but they prompted it by every possible mean, expecting that 
in the issue the profit would be all their own, and for this 
purpose, the long interval that necessarily elapsed before his 
trial could be brought on afforded them peculiar facilities. 

The doctor was impeached and taken into custody on the 
fourteenth of December, and the Christmas holidays inter* 
vening, the articles of impeachment were postponed till the 
ninth of January following. The commons having voted that 
a committee of the whole house should attend the trial, a new 
delay became necessary till Westminster hall should be fitted 

• Sommenrillc's History of Great Britain during the reign of queen Anne. 

t That Sacheveral was held in great contempt by the tory ministers, not- 
withstanding the sendees he had done them, we learn from Swift's Journal. 
* He hates," says this caustic obsenrer, « the new ministers mortally, and they 
bate him, and pretend to despise him too." 


up far their reception, so that the trial did not coininefic« till 
the end of February 1710, and by that time the faction had 
so well employed their time, and so completely perverted 
public feeling, that it was perfectly evident no salutary effect 
could fidlow the trial, whatever way it might be determined. 
That gluttonous festivity, at all times characteristic of those days, 
whid, in England, by an abuse of language, are denominated 
bcdy, was on this occasion more than ordinarily conspicuous, and 
was artfully employed as fuel to the fires of faction and fanatic 
seal, the glare and heat of which had already blinded the under- 
standings and hardened the hearts of many who were oUierwise 
neither unreasonable nor unfeeling. It was at the tables of the 
great,** under the pretence of honouring him whose whole life on 
earth was one continued example of meekness, and patience, 
and kyve, where the zealots of superstition, amid the shameful 
spewing of riotous excess, were imboldened still farther to 
disgrace the sacred office with which they had been invested, 
and to degrade their pulpits, by continuing to be the almost 
undisguised advocates of lawless riot, of robbery, and murder. 
The doctor's answer to the charges of impeachment, sophis- 
tical and false, but at the same time subtile and insinuating 
evidently the work of much abler pens ^ than his own, were 
also banded about in manuscript, read and received in such a 
manner in all circles, long before the commencement of the 
trial, as scarcely to leave the issue doubtful. 

The preparations being at last completed, the trial com- 
menced on the twenty-seventh of February, and occupied no 
less than three weeks. The managers on the part of the pro- 
secution were Sir John Holland, comptroller of her majesty's 
household, Mr. Secretary Boyle, Mr. Smith, chancellor of the 
exchequer, Sir James Montague, attorney-general, Robert Eyre, 
solicitor-general, Robert Walpok, treasure of the navy. Sir 
Joseph Jekyl, Mr. Lechmore, Mr. Dolben, Sir Thomas Parker, 
Sir Peter King, recorder of the dty of London, Sir John Hollis, 
lord William Powlet, lord Coningsby, Mr. Cowper, Mr. 

* ** The leaden of opposition courted the company of the zealots, inTited 
them to their tables, and by their attention and hospitality during the leaaon 
of festivity, too much fomented that effrontery of lioentiouineia which dis* 
graced the natioa.'* Cunmngham's History* &c vol ii« p. 883. 


Thomson^ lieutenant-general Mordaunt, Mr. Compton, and 
Sir David Dalrymple. Dr. Sacheveral had for Us counsel 
Sir Simon Harcourt, Mr, Dodd, Mr. Phipps, Mr. Dee, and 
Mr. Henchman ; and be was assisted by Dr. Atterbury, Dr. 
Moss, and Dr. Smallridge, to whose superior abilities his 
speech was undoubtedly indebted for much of its effect.* His 
really effective defence, however, lay in the mighty mob of 
England, which attended him every day to and from West- 
minster hall, where the trial took place, striving, as if he had 
been a sovereign prince, who should have the honour of kissing 
his hands, and, as if he had been a martyr and confessor, 
praying for his deliverance. The queen herself attended eip«ry 
day, and her sedan was beset by the mob, with cries of ^* God 
bless your majesty and the church, we hope your majesty is 
for Dr. Sacheveral." They compelled all persons to uncover 
their heads as the doctor passed, and such members of the 
house as they supposed to be most inimical to him, they in- 
sulted with characteristic barbarity. In their intervals of 
leisure, when not employed around the person of their idol, 
they amused themselves by pulling down chapels, and pluiH 
dering the dwelling houses of eminent dissenters. They even 
threatened those of the lord chancellor, tlie earl of Wharton, 
and the bishop of Sarum. In order to protect the bank, the 
directors were under the necessity of applying for a military 
force, and the second day of the trial the guards at Whitehall 
were doubled, and the train-bands of Westminster continued 
under arms till it was concluded.f 

The commons addressed the queen, praying her to take 
effectual means to suppress these tumults, ** set on foot by 
papists, nonjurors, and other enemies to her majesty's title and 
government" She, in return, issued a proclamation, expressing 
** a deep sense of their care and concern, as well as a just re- 
sentment at these violent proceedings." In an address of 
thanks to her majesty for her gracious answer to their first 
remonstrance, they took occasion to declare that their *' pro- 
secution of Dr. Henry Sacheveral proceeded solely from the 

^ Sommeirille'a History of Great Britain during the reign of queen Anne^ 
p. 337. Supplement to the Hutory of queen Anne, p. 69. 
f SmoUet's Hittoiy of Great Britain. Sommer?iile*a Hiitory» &c. 


indispensable obligation they lay under to vindicate the late 
happy revolution, the glory of their royal deliverer, her own 
title and administration, the present estaUishment and pro- 
testant succession, together with toleration and the quiet of 
the government." These plain truths, however, were evidently 
much less palatable to her majesty than the undefined and 
dangerous dogmas of Dr. Sacheveral, who was all the time of 
his trial surrounded by her own chaplains, who encouraged and 
extolled him as the champion of the church, and when two of 
the leading rioters were convicted and condemned for high 
treason, she reprieved them both. The advocates of these de- 
grading doctrines are, indeed, the worst enemies of royally ; but 
like doctrines themselves are so congenial to the darkened 
understanding and the corrupted heart of man, when clothed 
with a little brief authority, that there is always danger of their 
being acceptable to him in such circumstances, especially when 
we consider that to perceive their native tendency requires so 
much good sense and such a degree of reflection, as can scarcely 
be at all times exercised amid the blandishments of a courl^ 
and beneath the distracting cares of a crown. 

The charges against the doctor were comprised in four ar- 
ticles, namely : — maintaining that the means used for bringing 
about the revolution were unjustifiable — ^that the toleration of 
dissenters was unwarrantable— that under the queen's adminis- 
tration the church of England was in great peril — that there 
were persons in ofBoe whose aim was the destruction of the 
constitution, while, through the whole system of a£Pairs, there 
wai# a general male-administration and corruption. These 
chaises were supported with great eloquence and much force 
of argument, in which the liberal principles of the constitution 
were luminously unfolded and applied to the defence of the 
revolution and the Hanoverian succession. Into this field, how- 
ever, the doctor and his defenders did not choose to enter. 
They admitted, though at the expense of consistency and truth» 
most ocplicitly all the propositions advanced by his accusers re- 
lative to the constitution, together with the necessity and 
justice of the revolution, confining their replies^ which were of 
the most thin and sophistical character, merely to disproving 
the application of the sermons to the articles chained in the 


impeachment Like every otlier beresiarch, who has been 
called to account for his errors, he maintained that the charges 
against him were deduced from a forced construction of words 
and sentences, selected from unconnected passages, and arbi* 
trarily joined together. He was, indeed, as is confessed by one 
of the most forward of his friends, hard put to it to maintain 
hereditary right and the unlimited doctrine of nonresistanc^ 
without condemning the revolution;* but he asserted that he had 
laid down a sound doctrine, though he had omitted to specify 
those exceptions to it which might arise out of particular cip* 
cumstances; and to vindicate the propriety of his doing so^ he 
appealed to the authority of the scriptures, to acts of par- 
liament, to the articles and homilies of the church, to the 
opinions of the most pious protestant divines, and even to the 
sermons and other writings of some of the existing dignitaries, 
now his judges, and distinguished both for orthodoxy and 
attachment to the constitution. With r^ard to toleration, he 
maintained that the word was not to be found in the statute 
book, and, approving entirely, as he did, of the exemption 
granted to the dissenters, when he spoke in disparagement of 
toleration, he meant something beyond this, and therefore had 
not calumniated the law. That the church was in danger, he 
attempted to prove, from the abounding of immorality and 
blasphemy, and from the many recent publications of a here- 
tical tendency. He denied that by chief men and false brethren 
he intended to libel her majesty's ministers, and insisted that 
all his expressions that had been so construed, ought, agreeably 
to the authority of scripture, to be applied, as he intended them, 
to persons of rank and influence, too many of whom in every 
age had been enemies to religion and the church ; and, in con- 
tradiction to his notorious principles and conduct, he concluded 
with a solemn appeal to the Searcher of hearts, that he never 
had the smallest intention to calumniate the memory of king 
William, to censure the revolution, to foment parly distinctions, 
or to defame her majesty's administration. 

The accusation and defence being thus finished, the lords 
entered into warm debates, and, after many ridiculous as- 

* Lockhart Papers, vol. i.p. 518. 


ierdons and foolish speeches on both sides, the doctor was, on 
the twenty-second of March, found guilty by a majority of 
seventeen voices, his sermonji ordered to be burnt by the hands 
of the hangman, and himself suspended from preaching for 
three years. A sentence so very triyial, after accusations so 
heavy, and such a parade of preparation, could not fail to have 
all the weight of an acquittal upon the public mind. By the 
tories it was considered as a real triumph, and as such, cele- 
brated by bonfires and illuminations in every quarter. Higher 
censure was no doubt intended, but the sovereign mob of Eng- 
land had taken up the doctor's case as peculiarly its own, as 
had also her majesty the queen, who, by her interposition, in- 
fluenced several of the lords to be especially tender on the 
point of punishment, and the leaders of the prosecution were 
probably glad to save appearances by a small censure, when 
there seemed to be a very general disposition to bestow a vote 
of thanks. The Scotish Jacobites took a most peculiar interest 
in this trial, and improved it diligently for promoting their 
views. The duke of Hamilton, the earls of Marr, Wemyss, 
and Northesk, voted for the doctor's acquittal, and the duke of 
Argyle, though he voted him guilty, made ample atonement 
by the zeal with which he exerted himself in favour of a 
lenient punishment 

The faction of the disaflPected having thus gained a complete 
and unexpected triumph, resolved to improve it to the utmost. 
Her majesty they humbly addressed from all quarters, censpring 
all resistance as a rebellious doctrine, founded upon anti- 
monarchial and republican principles; and as Sacheveral hail 
abundance of leisure, being only forbidden to preach, though 
he held all his places and emoluments, he was paraded through 
the country as a kind of diidnity, the mob every-where huzzaing 
at his heels, drinking in his divine doctrines, and, as a proof 
how much they were benefited, outraging the feelings of the 
whigs, reproadiing their names, misrepresenting their motives, 
insulting tlieir persons, rifling their houses, and pulling down 
the meeting-houses of the presbyterians, whom the doctor taught 
tliem to consider as ** plagues, growing evils, and incarnate 
devils !" 

To favour and to prolong this scheme of exhibiting, and to 


pour contempt upon the sentence oi the lords, Sacherenil tvas 
presented to a rich benefice in Wales ; to take possessioQ of 
which, he went in procession with all the pomp and magnifi- 
cence of a sovereign prince* He was sumptuously feasted by 
the university of Oxford, and by noblemen, who, while they 
wordiipped him as the idol of their party, could not but 
despise in their hearts the object of their adulation. In towns 
he was received by the magistrates in all their formalities, and 
often attended by a body of a thousand horse. At Bridgenorth 
he was met by Mr. Creswdl at the head of four thousand 
horse, and an equal number of foot, wearing white knots edged 
with gold, and leaves of laiuel in their hats, the hedges being 
for two miles dressed in flowers and lined with people. The 
steeples, wherever he came, were ornamented with streamers, 
flags, and colours, and nothing was to be heard but the cry of 
the church and Dr. Sacheveral.* 

Confirmed in what were most probably her original views, by 
the flattering addresses of the tories, and having her resolution, 
which was naturally feeble, strengthened by these demonstrations 
on the part of the mob, the queen chose a new cabinet, dis- 
solved the parliament, and issued writs for a new election. 

The new cabinet consisted of Sir Simon Harcourt, the 
defender of Dr. Sacheveral, now created lord chancellor of 
England, lord Dartmouth and Mr. Henry St John, secretaries 
of state, Robert Harley, chancellor of the exchequer, &c. &c. 
The great lord Somers was dismissed from the presidency of the 
council, which was bestowed upon the earl of Rochester. The 
lord-lieutenancy of Ireland was given to the duke of Ormond, 
the command of the forces in Portugal to lord Portmore, and 
the lieu tenantship of the county palatine of Lancaster was 
bestowed upon the duke of Hamilton. In short, with the ex- 
ception of the duke of Marlborough, whom it was not thouglit, 
as yet, prudent to dismiss, there was not a whig left in the 
enjoyment oi any place of consequence. 

The wisdom of these measures, and the happy selection of 
the new cabinet, were every-where extolled by the tories, and 
addresses the most iuljM>me were got up in all quarters, to give 

• Smallet's Hwf ory of England. 


the new adminktratioD countenanoe» and courage to proceed 
in that career of dishonour which they had already marked out 
for themselves^ and eqiecially ,to enable them to carry all the 
elections, and give them a tory parliament, whicli alone was 
wanting to render their triumph complete« " Unheard of 
methods," says Burnet, ^^ were used to secure them [the 
elections]. — In London, and in all parts of England, but more 
espedally in great cities, there was a vast concourse of rode 
multitudes brought together, who behaved themselves in so 
boisterous a'nmnner, that it was not safe, tod in many places 
not possible, for those who had a right to vote to come and 
give their votes for a whig. Open violence was used in several 
parts. This was so general through the whole kingdom, all at 
the same time, that it was visible the thing had for some time 
been concerted, and the proper methods and tools had been 
prepared for it Tlie clergy had a great share in this; for, 
besides a course for some months of inflammatory sermons^ they 
went about from house to house, pressing their people to show^ 
on this occasion, their zeal for the church, and now or never 
to serve it.''* Nor were the managers of the faction a whit 
less diligent in Scotland, and in as much as there never was 
any thing thare like the voice of the people heard in elections, 
their business was so much the more easily accomplished Had 
there been there any thing like a popular voice^ their success 
had indeed been small ; for, to the fears of the pretender and 
popery, there was now added the immediate danger of presby- 
tery, which, it was well known, was particularly obnoxious to 
the party that had now obtained the ear of her majesty, and 
the direction of her government. '^ The tones," it is remaiked 
by one who has been at no little pains to exhibit himself as one 
&[ the most important of their number, ^' spake little above 
board, but underhand among themselves represented, that now 
or never was the time to do something for the king [James], 
and by restoring him dissolve the Union.'* Accordingly, all of 
them who had any influence hastened to take the oaths to the 
<pieen, that they might, by verting or being voted for, serve 
more eilectually the interests of the pretender. The dukes of 

* History of his own Timet. 


Hamilton and Argyle, with the earl of Marr, also hastened 
home to Scotland, where they threw the whole weight of their 
influence into the scale of the tories, who, in consequence of 
these exertions, carried the whole sixteen peers, and nearly two- 
thirds of the commons. That they did not carry the whole, is 
ascribed, by Lockhart, solely to the circumstance of the 
ministry not having changed, as by the Jacobites they had 
been frequently desired, the whole of the Scotish revenue 

Matters had, indeed, been going on in Scotland with very 
little noise, during the time that faction had been shaking the 
whole administration of the three kingdoms. The General 
Assembly of the church sat down, according to appointment, on 
the fourteenth of April, 1709. After sermon, by the Reverend 
Principal Carstares, moderator of the last assembly, Mr. John 
Currie, minister at Haddington, was chosen moderator, David, 
earl of Glasgow, was again honoured to be the queen's com- 
missioner. This assembly met under the same favourable 
aspects, and was hailed with compliments similar to those of 
the preceding year, which were answered in a similar manner. 

The first object of this assembly's attention was the outward 
order and decency of public worship, for promoting which 
they passed an act, in which ^* it is seriously recommended to 
persons of all ranks, that considering in whose presence they 
are, and with what deep humility the glorious God is to be 
adored by sinful men, Aey would forbear bowing, and other 
expressions of civil respect, and entertaining one another with 
discourses while divine worship is performing, and holy ordi- 
nances are dispensing." The propagation of the gospel in the 
Highlands and Islands was also, as it had been for many years 
by-past, particularly attended to, by ordering every possible 
facility to be afforded to students who had the Irish, or Gaelic 
language, and by recommending to tlie care and diligence of 
ministers and people the design of a society for propagating 
christian knowledge in these parts, for which her majesty had 
. already promised her letters patent erecting it into a corporate 

* Lockhart Pftpen, yqI. i. pp. 319, 320. Rae's History of the Rebellion, 
p. 8. 



body. This assembly also passed a very laudable act for estab^ 
lishing a public library for every presbytery at the ordiaary 
place of meeting, enjoining ministers to endeavour to procure 
collections in tb^ir several parishes for advancing the same. It 
was also recommended ** to presbyteries to use all effectual 
means»" for suppressing* Bourignonism* and other errors, espe- 
cially the former, which, notwithstanding it had been condemned 
by a former assembly, 1701, as '* impious, blasphemous, and 
damnable," and Dr. Garden, one of the ministers of Aberdeen, 
deposed on account thereof, still continued to spread and to 
find numerous abettors. This assembly further, ** sensible of 
the many evident sig^ of God's displeasure against this land, 
manifested by the unseasonableness of the weather, especially 
in seed-time, with the sad effects thereof in the present dearth 
and threatened scarcity, and the great loss of flocks and cattle 
in divers parts of the land, and by many spiritual plagues on 
all ranks, justly inflicted upon us by an holy and righteous 
Crod, for our great and manifold sins, committed against the 

* Thif heresy bad its name from Antonietta Bourignon, who was bora at 
Lisle io the year 1616, and at ber birth was so deformed, that it was debated 
in the family, whether it was not proper to stifle her as a monster ; yet she 
attained such a degree of beauty as to obtain admirers. She set up for a re- 
former, and published a great number of books, filled with very singular 
oodons. But the most remarkable of her Writings are, 7^ Light of the 
WoHd, and 7%e TVsftmony of Truth, She was a great enemy to reason 
sad common sense, which she maintained ought to give place to the illumi- 
nations of divine faith ; and she asserted, that whenever any one embraced 
her doctrine, she felt the pains and throes of a woman in labour. 

She pretended to have multiplied visions and revelations, and to have seen 
Adam in the same form in which he appeared before the fall, and the manner 
of bis procreating, when he possessed in himself the principles of both sexes. 
This procreating fiscolty, she affirmed, he had carried so far as to produce the 
human nature of Jesus Christ. ** The first roan," says she, " whom Adam 
brought forth without any concurrent assistance, in his glorified state, was 
diosen by God to be the throne of the divinity, the organ and instrument by 
which God would communicate himself externally to men. This is Christ 
the first-bom, united to human nature, both God and man 1" Her temper is 
aid to have been morose and peevish, and her avarice was extreme. She 
dressed like a hermit, and travelled France, Holland, England* and Scotland, 
in the last of which many thousands embraced her opinions. * She died at 
Faneker, in the province of Friese, October 30th, 1680. Her works form 
18 vols. 8vo« — Encyclopedia Brttannica, vol. iiL p. 486. 


clearest gospel light and most solemn engagements and deepest 
obligations to the contrary, judge it necessary that a day be 
set apart for solemn prayer, fasting, and humiliation before the 
Lord, in all the churches within the bounds of the respective 
synods and presbyteries for the causes aforesaid." This as- 
sembly also presented a memorial to the queen, requesting the 
civil sanction to fiist and thanksgiving days^ &c. &c and, after 
appointing the next meeting of assembly to be at Edinburgh, 
upon the twenty-sixth day of April, 1710, broke up, on the 
twenty-seventh of ApriL* 

On the twenty-sixth of April, 1710, the assembly was again 
convened, while Dr. Sacheveral and the issue of his extraor- 
dinary trial were still the only subjects of public speculation. 
After sermon by the Rev. John Currie, late moderator, Mr. 
William Mitchell, one of tha ministers of Edinburgh, was 
chosen moderator — ^David, earl of Glasgow, was i^ain com- 
missioner. Whatever feelings her majesty might now entertain 
towards the church of Scotland — ^we can scarcely suppose them 
to have been of a very complacent character — ^her advbers 
seem to have considered it prudent not to depart, as yet, from ' 
that smooth and conciliating language, which, on former oc- 
casions, she had so successfully employed. <^ The experience 
we have,'* says her majesty in her letter to this assembly, ** of 
the calmness, decency, and orderly procedure of former as- 
semblies, very acceptable to us, and suitable to the prudence 
and wisdom of so great and reverend a meetings suffer us not ^ 
to doubt that you will at this time go on in the same way.'* 
This seems to have been highly pleasing to the assembly, 
and, in their answer, after a pretty full enumeration of her 
majesty's favours, and their own grateful returns, they add, 
" And we crave leave upon this occasion to assure your majesty, 
that we abhor all the principles that stain the glory of the 
reformed christian religion, and all opinions that have a ten- 
dency to shake the excellent and solid foundation upon which 
your majesty's just title to the 'supreme government of your 
dominions, and the security of your throne in a protestant 
succession, against all- popish pretenders, are happily estab- 

* Prioted Acts of Assembly, 1709. 


lisheA"* This was probably intended to produce the most 
soothing effect; but that it was gratifying to her majesty may 
well be doubted. The right to which the assembly alluded 
was only founded in an act of parliament, and her own church 
had begun to flatter her with a very different sort of title, that 
of indefeasible hereditary right,f which all kings, usurpers not 
excepted, have for the most part been anxious to repose upon, 
though maxims of policy may sometimes forbid them to avow it. 
After passing an overture respecting the trial and licensing 
of probationers, and another for the puiging of scandals in 
the army, the assembly proceeded to appoint a day of fasting, 
<* on account of the many evidences of God's displeasure and 
fearful symptoms of approaching judgments, the great and 
ciying sins of the land, atheism, irreligion, popery, many 
errors, and dreadful delusions, with immoralities of all kinds.'* 
And in an act, passed ** for the due observation of the fast now 
appointed, and of fasts and thanksgivings which may be here- 
after appointed,'' the assembly ^'recommend it to all the ministers 
of this church, that with due prudence and zeal, tliey do, in 
their preaching, reprove and warn of, and in prayer, confess 
and acknowledge the epidemical crying sins, both of former 
and present times, highly aggravated by the violation of our 
solemn covenants and engagements, and many professed re- 
solutions to the contrary;" from which it is evident, however 
much the conduct of the Scotish church had been supposed, by 
Messrs. Madonillan, Hepburn, and others, to be at variance 
with these solemn covenants and engagements, she still admitted 
their indissoluble obligation. Error, however, seems to have 
been making rapid progress, though, as usual, disguised under 
the garb of original illustration and novelty of expression, as 
we find the assembly passing an act for preserving the purity of 
doctrine, which enjoins ^* tlie avoiding all expressions in matters 

^ Printed Acts of Assembly, 1710. 

f ** The fukonie flattery of pverogative, the aYowed prefereoee of her ma- 
jerty't hereditary to her parliauieatary right, and the suspected characters of 
many who took the most active part in support of these tenets, afforded 
plausible grounds for rousing a suspicion of designs being on foot to subvert 
the revolution setdement and the proleitaiit succestaon.' Soromerville's 
History, &c. pp. 4io, 41 1. 


of faith contrary to the form of sound words," and *< discharges 
all persons to vent any opinions contrary to any head or article 
of the confession and catechismsi or use any expressions in re- 
gard to the articles of faith not agreeable to the form of sound 
words expressed in the Word of God, and the Confession of 
Faith, and catechisms of this church, which are most valuable 
pieces of her reformation." « And the General Assembly does 
hereby farther enact, that no minister or member of this church, 
presume to print, or disperse in write, any catechism, without 
the allowance of the presbytery of the bounds and of the com- 
mission." The ridiculous blasphemies of Antonietta Bourignon, 
appear also to have been still gaining ground, as another act 
was passed for their suppression, with a recommendation to 
the professors of divinity, ^< to make a collection of them, and 
to write a full confutation ot the same." 

The society for propagating christian knowledge, having 
been established by letter patent from the queen, in the month 
of August the preceding year, gave in a representation to this 
assembly, which thereupon passed an act, recommending to 
all presbyteries and synods, as well as all other charitable 
persons, to come forward with their collections in aid of its 
funds. They also appropriated one half the bursaries of all 
the presbyteries in Scotland for four years to the aid of hopeful 
and pious students having the Irish language, that so the 
society might be abundantly supplied with instruments for 
carrying into effect their benevolent and pious intentions. The 
commission of this assembly was empowered to send commis- 
sioners to London, ^^ to obtain redress with relation to popery, 
irregularities, and other things that are grievous to this church;" 
and the two acts respecting the national fast were *' transmitted 
to the secretaries of state, to be laid before the queen, in order 
to obtain the royal sanction thereto."* The assembly, after 
appointing the next assembly to meet at Edinburgh on the 
tenth day of May, 1711, was dissolved with the usual forms. 

Hitherto the affairs of the church had gone on pretty 
smoothly, no attempts having been made since the union to 

* Printed Acts of Assembly, and Index to unprinted Acts of Assembly, 


injure her in r^ard to any oF her essential pnv9egesL Tba^ 
clouds, hbweyer, ^ere now thickening in her hbrizon, alid,^ 
without some unforeseen interposition, a- stomi was evidently 
approaching. She haid, indeed, been under the necessity of 
proceeding with extreme caution, seldom venturing to make 
any very dir^i^ or pointed assertion of her privil^es, lest haply 
die might awaken that spirit of opposition, which, Aough by 
circumstances^kept under fbf the* present; she well knew y^ai 
not yet extinguished ; and without this sipecies of temporizing, 
whidi her friends at court, real and pretended, as well as Iier 
own leaders, glidssed over with the li'ames of liberality, modera- 
tion, and pnidtooe, k doies hot appear that the politicians of 
that day, any more than those of this^ thought it possible she 
could have been quietly tolerated so long. Even the very small 
approximation which diis last assembly made towards claiming 
the indispdtitble rights of a nation^ church, appears to have 
been highly offensive, for we find Sunderland, immediately after 
the rising of the assembly, writing to Mr. Carstares, thus ex- 
presses himself: *' I hope the assembly will be Very sensible of 
her majesty's goodness in cohdescetidhig to interpose the dvil 
sanction to dieir act [for the iae observance of &st days], for 
which it most be owned tfaei^ wa^ no occasion, the government 
not having been wanting hitherto in aiiy diirig^ necessary for 
promoting either the civil or relSgibus concei'ns of the people; so 
that if we could see into the views of some, who perhaps have 
been most active and zedous for this step, we should probably 
find them different firom what they appear to be, ahd to fall 
but too much in with the like humour here which has ahreadjr 
raised so great a ferment^ and which, if not diverted, must ne- 
cessarily eiid in the disturbance of die qidet, both of church 
and state. And I dare not promise you, if the assembly 
should ofier again at the like step, that they Will meet witli 
the same easiness and compliance in the governnienc Andy 
therefore, I hope, it will be the care and study of the cautious 
and prudent of the ministers to keep them, as much as pos- 
sible from unnecessarily asserting of their authority and pri- 
vileges^ which is^ what their enemies desire above all things 
they should, and which cannot fail to bring that upon* them 
they seem so much to apprehend from the Union.'* No 
I. P 


^pguage cm be<fk;|||^t|)a{i tfaUi npr is it poMible tpi {mint 
ii(i stronger colours tixe dependant audition of th^ ckurch of 
ScotlandL Three short years bad yet scarcely elapsed siace 
her cpastitution bad be^ fixed, and her lib^ties guaraateed 
in a solemn treaty^ which was declared tp be inviolable ; and 
yet, but a second time to claim that which was confessedly her 
due and just right, " cannot fail to bring upo^ her all tbie 
evils she apprehends," that is to say, ^e subn^sion o^ h^r 
unalterable constitution.* 

Sunderland, when he wrote the above, was. on the eve of 
losing his place, and knowing what was all along designed 
with regard to the Scotish church, and that those wb^ were 
to succeed him would be less disipp^d ta stand between her 
and the evil intentions of her enemies, had he been a better 
man, might be supposed to have intended it as a friendly 
warning to stand prepared for what was most certainly ap- 
proaching; but the probability is, that Sunderland sti)l hoped 
to preserve his plage, and tb^t he was only sounding- 
Carstares, preparatory to. his adopting those measures, which 
IffB could not fail to perceive would be necessary if he intended 
to. keep, in her majesty's, good graces. This view of the 
n^aUer is greatly strengthened, if not confirmed, by letters to- 
the sapae M^. Carstares from other individuals, who were 
either already basking in the full sunshine of court favour^ 
or in expectation of doing so immediately. The first is. 
from lord Ilay, an apology for himself and. his brother, the 
duke of Argyle, both of whom had recently gone over to the 
tqries* *^ I have b^rd," he says, " lately from Scotland' 
that there are some very busy in insinifa^ng that my brother 
and I are taking measures against the i^ter,est of our church 
and revolution establishment. I was alivays of opinion that 
it was very obviously our interest not to, mingle ourselves 
with the factions here, I mean as Scotchmen ; for, it being 
very plain that no.parjty here has our country mpch at heart, 
the exasperating any side here might, at some conjuncture 
or other, draw both upon us, and crush us at once. The 
queen has been pleased to remove the earl of Sunderland, as 

* Letter to Mr, CarsUres, dated May 82d, 1710. 

HllSTORY OF BGCm:. AND. 115 

'tis sdid, for behavihg himself dSsrespectftilly towards her, 

and some afe so bbid as to censure even her majesty's malting 

that step ; I; f6r my part, think it my duty to approve of ft, 

as I shall of aiijr other alteration she may happen to make ; 

arid tftihk 'o^)c interest^ both of church and state, as secure 

under thoie she may femplojr as it has been hitherto."* This 

^s <fewarnly a pretty itrbng expre^fon of confidence, though 

it c6nld have no effect in soothing the suspicions of any btit 

such as tad attained to the sarte implicit belief in die im- 

ma'ciklacy of her majesfty's intentidnSi of which there were, 

we suspect, at that time, very few among Scotish presby- 

tcrians. The next is from the earl of Marr, who was just 

how cofAe Vtxio great favour at court, and had obtained d 

commission for his brother, lortl Grange, to be justice clerfr. 

** Some people are at pains to give out here, thAt the change 

the qu^n has thought fit to tnake will give your brethren 

soUie discontent ; but I hope rtiey will be wiser than to show 

any 'fslike to what the quelen, to ^hom they have beeh so 

much obliged, tfiinks fit to do for her service either here or 

there. They owe the queen Uior6, perspn'ally, than any 

minister ever she had, and it wouTd be kti odd rcY|uittal for all 

her favours, to suspect heir inclinutions to them now. 'Tii 

in nobody's power to hurt them but their own. There S^ 

nothing but die continuance of that favour the queen has 

always shoWn them designed to th^m ; and if they be not 

made tools bf by some people, fdr their own bye-ends, they 

will be as Safe as ever. As I have told you often, I wi^h 

ihefn well*, and the contitiuance of their church-government ; 

and Yhts makes me the tinore concerned fot them upon this 

juncture. I know, ks th'ey may, your prudence, from a long 

tract of experience ; and I wish they may take your 'advice, in 

beftaving themselves with thht dtiiy imd sUbmiisston to so 

good a queen, who, I m^y say, has establisfacfd them even 

beyond what their best friends could have expected. They 

need not be afraid that h^er irnajesty Will erer go into high or 

violent meadure5."t 

• Letter to Mr. Carstares, July 5th, 1710. 
t Letter to filf. Carstares, Jiily 22d, 1 7 16. 


WMefelp* it may he iqquir^ lny the n^c^ssHy for so much 
lab^re^ ^eclaoii^tion upon b^r majesty's gopdn^s, and the 
purity an4 simplicity of her intentions ? Had she conferred 
a^y thing more upon the church of l^otland thmi wbat was 
stipulated for ip the claiii^ of right, which {n Scotland fonned 
the very \i^is of her ni^iesty'^ govemmrat? And had, ^qjL 
all t^f t t^e churcl^ of Scotlfuod enjoye4 been guaranteed by 
thf tir^a^ of Union in the pl^est and m^st uneqnivocid 
term^ ? TM necessity appears to hav^ lain simply in thif ; 
high n;^e(^$ures we^e really contemplated, and Mr. Carstares^ 
nnder the gqise of friendship, was niade an instrument 
wherewith to sound the temper of the clergy, to familiarise 
them with idea^f of inferiority and d.epeBdance, and to oyole 
tbe niQire ardent and enterprising, who, less courtly in their 
manners, and less careful of cppsequences, might have 
been apt tp characterize such at^mpts, ^o as to produce un- 
pIc;fSi^]^t results among the people, whose feelings were still 
f^veristf, and their attachment to the new order of things not 
fit all to be depended upon« The &natic Sacheveral, sounding 
^p alarm of the church's danger, had awakened ^ tempest 
^mong the pleb^ns of England, concerning whom, it might 
have been justly inquired, what were tbey to the church,^ or 
what was the church to them ? that had shaken an adminis- 
tration to pieces, though perhaps as able, and unquestionably 
as successful, as had ever been at the helm of a state,* and 
what might not, by the same means, be effect in Si^otli^pd^ 
Inhere ti^e church, of which the meanest individual felt himself 
an integral portion, was intwined with the confirmed habiu 
aQ4 tbe noblest and the dearest associations of the people? 
Such W9S probably the mode of reasoning adopted by the 
flew directors of the sovereign's will; and till, by repeated 
insults^ Umely bornej, they discoveredj, that the ancient spirit 
9f the Scotisb church, w^s, nojl; to. be awakei^ed by any ordi-. 
pary means, their measiiress were tiiken with caption, and with 
tJie appe^r^nee at le^t of candour ^d impartiality* 

The new parliament, which had been elected amid such 
violent struggles, assembled on the twenty-fifth of November, 

• Supplement to the History of Queea AnQe» p. 5 u 


1710, and H aoon appealed iJiat the torioa were greatly pre- 
ponderant, from wjbicb Ihe Scotish Jacobites drew the 
most cbeering concliisiQii^* Tb^ queen, in her speech, con- 
trary to ber practice on all former occasions of a like kind, 
took m> nPti<«^ of the success of the last campaign, and 
iostead of promising, as formerly, to maintain the toleration, 
she adopted the language of Dr. Sacheveral, saying, << she 
would maintain the indulgence granted by law to tender 
opBsciences,''^ which, witb other concurring circumstances, 
demonstrated to the most careless that her heart was wholly 
with h^ neiir friends, and gave abundant room lo surmise 
(hat she was better pleased to have her title to the crown 
bottomed upon lineal descent and presumptive right, thaa 
upon the authority of parliament, and the love of her people.f 
S^e appealed, however, to the fact of her calling a new par- 
liament, as an evidence of her copfidence in the duty and 
affection of her subjects ; recommended the vigorous prosecu- 
tion of the war in Spain,^ which bad been the bobby of her 
present ministers, while they were in the ranks of opposition; 
expressed great concern for the heavy debts of the navy, with 
her earnest desire that measures might be taken for dis- 
charging them, and preventing the like mismanagement in 
future ; and, finally, she promised to support the church of 
Eogland, preserve the Union, and to employ none in her 
service, but such as were hearty for the protestant succession. 
This latter assertion leaves a heavy stain upon her majesty's 
integrity, which in this Instance can be cleared only at the 
expense of her understanding, which, as it was at best none of 
the clearest, might at this time, darkened by the breath of 
faction, and- the steam of conflicting passions, fail to reflect 

* ^ This change into the language of Sacheveral was much obseived." Bur- 
WBtS Uistoiy of bk Own Timet. 

t SapasMYville't Qi^^fy of Qk^ Britjaio. p. 4oa. 

X This part of her majesty's speech was a source of high enjoyment to the 
French «iojierch» espedaUy wbep he read it coupled with the answer of the 
commons, " We conceive it of the highest importance to carry on the war 
with yigpur ip S^a." " Qu^ Messteurs,** said he^ *< il est de tres grand 
imporunce au France." SommcrviUe's History of the Re^ of Queen Annei 
p. 315. 


the true image of her own intention^. At the same time 
addresses from both hddsied te-echoed the speech. 

The conduct of the former hiinistry, ^Ith regard to contested 
elections, had been often deiibiinced by those Who now filled 
their places^ a^ tyr^nical and unjust in the highest degreis ; and 
it was not sui-ely too much to expect^ tliat, by exercising an 
ordinary degree of impartiality, they would read a practical 
repiroof to their predecessors. But so far wbrfe they frohi dis- 
playing any feeling of this sort, that they seemed resolved to 
blot out the remeitibrance of the doings in this way of former 
piElrliaments, Only by heaping the journals with decisions more 
ihVeteratdy atrocibiis.* Reyolutionists, or whigs, were almost 
bh all occasions thrown out^ either by falsifying the returns, or 
by tbie iniputdtion of fancied crimes, so that few were adniitted 
into the house biit such as it was believed would be willing to go 
all lengths the managers might require. Nor were they satisfied 
With merely excluding whigs: the Scotish members, beiUg a 
number of them Jacobites, and finding themsdves possessed of 
the {iower of seclusion, could not forbear exercising it upon one 
another; Mr. Griersonj junr. of Lag, the worthy s6n 6f a 
most worthy father,-|* and a hearty Jacobite, who in the last 
{)arliam<ent, had stood by the tories on all occasions, was returned 
for Dumfries-shire, but it happened to be through the interest 
of the duke of Queensberry, and out of contempt for his grace, 
owing to the part he had performed in the business of the 
Union, the Scotish tories exerted themselves to the utmost 
in favour of Mr. James Murray, second son to the viscount 
Stormdnt, and though Lag was, even in thfeir oWn e^iiilatibn. 
Very deserving, acceptable to the cOurt, and one upon Whom 
they could have depended for furthering all their secret mcichi- 
nations, prevailed to have him thrown out, and Mr. James 
Murray preferred.^ 

The principal object which occupied the attention of this 
session of parliament, though it continued through the winter, > 

* Enquiry into the mismatiagements of the last four years 6f the reign of 
Queen Anne, p. 12. 

f The reader will find a pretty fall detail of his meritorious artings against 
the preshyterians in Wodrow's History, &c. 

X Lockiiart Papers, vol. i. pp. 325, 326. 

HIS10«¥ OF SCOTi»ANO. 119 

and tlie grealer part of theiaucoeediQg summfir, was th^. crimina- 
tion of the late mmistty} which proved to be a matter of much 
more difficulty than had been anticipated. Charges of the 
grossest malversation were preferred against them, and a com- 
mission, chiefly composed of Jacobites, with each a liberal al- 
lowance for his trouble, appointed to substantiate them. A re- 
port by this commission was speedily published, showing a 
defalcation, of upwards of thirty-five millions; b^t wheQ it 
came to be more closely examined,, it discovered only the 
rash malevolence of its authors, who had ventured to report,, 
before they had been at the pains to coinprel>en^ the subject; 
and the mighty uproar closed, with laying open the peccadilloes, 
of a few paltry clerks, and a receiver or two» which among the 
mass of persons, and these too often of no great reputation, 
necessary for the collecting of an extensive revenue, can scarcely 
be expected but to be met with, at any time an inquiry 
may be instituted.* To give countenance, however, to tliese 
extravagant charges, a system of fraud, and of calumnious 
misrepresentation was adopted, which lost to the natipn the 
benefits of a long list of the most daring achievements, 
achievements that had been purchased with die loss of much of 
her best blood, and of sums till that time unheard of even in 
the details of national prodigality, and whicli, but for the 
almost immediate interposition of providence, bade fair to have 
cat short the career of Britain's glory, ere it was well begun^ 
and to have consigned her to slavery, ignorance, poverty, and 
dependance. Tlie changing of the sifccession had become a 
favourite object with some, w1k> had now got into, power, and 
before this could be effected^ it was necessary that the benefits 
accruing from the revolution, should be placed out of view, 
either by denying their existence) or lessening their effect 
Peace with the French king was also necessary for the suc- 
cessful prosecution of their project, and though this was easy in 
itself, it was by no means easy to be brought a|i)ouX so as to 
satisfy the general feeling of tlie nation, which, by a splei^jJi^ 
iniccession of victories, had been wound up to no ordinary height; 

* SommerviUe't Hlitory of Great Britain, &c. pp. 418« 419. North British 
Memoira, p. 365. Supplement to the History of Qoeea Anne, pp. 100, 108- 


l)oth these purposes, it was presumed, were in some d^^ee 
served at the same time, by disparaging the revolution, and by 
holding up its friends, among whom the late ministry were 
I ockoned the chief, to general contempt, as enemies to the church, 
public peculators, timeservers, and inveterate republicans.* 

But of all the public characters of that day, none was more 
obnoxious to the reigning faction than the duke of Marlborough, 
whose unrivalled talents they peculiarly dreaded, and the 
splendour of whose achievements it was difficult, as it was 
dangerous, to attempt to tarnish. He had been allowed Co 
retain the command of the army, when the greater part of the 
whigs had been turned out of their employments, only because 
of his great popularity, and for fear of alarming the allies, among 
whom he possessed great influence, and who reposed in him 
the utmost confidence ; but as their plans came to be more 
matured, and it was determined to pursue a separate line of 
policy, the opinion of the allies came to be of less consequence^ 
and by a multiplieity of libels and all manner of groundless 
calumnies, they hoped so to blacken his reputation, that in a 
short time they might safely dismiss him, not only without 
incurring any particular odium, but with a considerable in- 
crease of popularity. 

It was also hoped, from the still increasing exertions of 
the most christian king, and the great talents of marshal 
Villars, who had obtained the command of his forces, that the 
laurels of the duke, during the ensuing campaign, if they 
were not in some degree blasted, could not acquire any re- 
markable accessions. In this expectation, however, they were 
disappointed ; for those obstacles, which they fondly hoped 
he would find insurmountable, only served to illustrate his 
stupendous genius, and gave him an opportunity of sur- 
passing all his former fame. When he entered upon the scene 
of action, in the spring of 1711, prince Eugene had with- 
drawn, with the Germans, from the grand army to the Upper 
Rhine, leaving him with the Dutch, English, and a few aux- 
iliaries, greatly inferior to the French under Villars^ who 

* Rae's Histoiy of the Rebellion^ p. 7. Maephersoa*t History of Great 
Britain, vol. ii. pp. 410, 411. 


had taken post behind the Senset, and occupied lines, ex* 
tending from Bouchain oii the Schelde, along the Senset 
and the Scarpe, to Arras, and thence along the Upper Scarpe 
to Canche, which were defended by redoubts, and other 
works in such a maniler as to render them in his own opinion 
impregnable, and which, by way of anticipated triumph, he 
called the ne plus tUira of Marlborough. By a complication 
of mancenvres, the finest, perhaps, ever practised by any 
genera], Marlborough drew him out of these impregnable lines, 
and took possession of them without the loss of a man.* 

Bouchain, the object Marlborough had in view by this 
niasterly movement, was immediately invested. In the mean- 
time, he despatched brigadier general Sutton to England, with 
an account of his h&ving passed the French lines, which, to the 
junto that had now in their hands the government of Great 
Britain, was no very agreeable intelligence, as it reduced them 
to the necessity of new inventions to detract from the merit of 
a roan against whom they had already done their utmost 
But their full hearts were speedily relieved by a lucky 
surmise, that it was a something worse than useless achieve* 
ment, as he had by it only removed his camp from a plentiful 
situation to one where the troops would most certainly be 
starved. The enterprise Marlborough had undertaken was, 
indeed, to ordinary minds, very like an impracticable one. 
Bouchain was situate in a morass, fortified in the best pos- 
sible manner, having an ample garrison of picked men, 
and Viltars himself in the immediate neighbourhood with an 
army superior to tiiat of the besiegers. But the genius of the 
British general, and the courage of bis troops, triumphed 
over all these difficulties. In spite of all that Vlllars could 
do, in the short space of three weeks after the opening of the 
trenches, he had the mortification to see the fortress sur- 
rendered, and the garrison march out ^^ with their hands in 
ifjcir pockets" prisoners of war.f 

This was the last, and perhaps the most brilliant exploit 

• Sommerville's History of Great Britain during the reign of Queen Anne, 
pp. 439, 440. Supplement to the History of Queen Anne, pp. 120 — 122. 

I* Memoirs ot Military Transuctions, &c. by Captain Robert Par);er, 
pp. !fi^^ 197. 

I- Q 


performed by the great duke of Marlborough. By the cap- 
ture of Bouchain, he had opened a way into the very bowels 
of France, and no sooner were the breaches thereof repaired, 
than the opposite armies began to separate, the allied forces 
taking up their quarters in the frontier towns, that they miglu 
be rendy for taking advantage of all their successes in 4he 
spring. Marlborough retired to the Hague, and about the mid- 
dle of November, returned to England, where, instead of being 
welcomed with those honours which services so splendid 
called for, he was dismissed from all his employments, attacked 
with every species of vulgar abuse, and ordered to be prose* 
cuted by her majesty's attorney-general, as a public peculator. 
The charges laid against him were, his having received a 
yearly premium paid by the contractors to the army for bread, 
and a perquisite of two and a half per cent upon the pay of 
the foreign troops. These had all along been allowed to the 
commander-in-chief in the Low Countries, in aid of the ten 
thousand pounds which were yearly granted by parliament for 
secret services. That the party who preferred these charges 
had not the smallest belief that the actions charged were 
criminal, is evident from their bestowing upon the duke of 
Ormond the command of the same army, with the very same 
perquisites, without which, indeed, he refused to accept it,* 
but they served as an apology to the public, for the trans- 
ference of the power and the perquisites into hands which 
certainly had not merited the one, nor given any good evi- 
dence of being qualified for effectively employing the other,, 
and as texts to the herd of mercenary scribblers, which they 
kept in daily pay, upon which to found their infamous fabri- 
cationsf against a man who was the glory of his age and 

* Supplement to the History of Queen Anne, p. 1 13. 

t One of their hirelings, or more probably one of themselves, asserts in a 
number of the Examiner, a scurrilous party paper, of which the shrewd, but 
heartless and unprincipled Dr. Swifl, and the infidel Bolingbroke, were the 
two principal luminaries, " That the duke of Marlborough was naturally a 
very great coward. That all the victories and successes that attended him 
were owing to mere chance, and to those about him, for whenever he came 
to be engaged in action, he was always in a great hurry, and very much con- 
founded upon every little emergency that happened, and would cry in great 
confusion to those about him, ' What shall we do now?'*' 


country. Charges of a similar kind were preferred against 
Godolphiny which, no doubt, had a similar origin, as they 
came to the same conclusion — that is, were silently dropped. 

But if the ministry were embarrassed with success where 
they had hoped for disgrace, they had abundance of disgrace 
where they as earnestly hoped for success. One of their most 
frequent topics of declamation against the late ministry, was 
the alleged mismanagement of the war in Spain, where they 
contended it should have been carried on with the greatest 
vigour, and where, as they alleged, it had been overlooked. 
They accordingly pretended to turn their attention to this 
neglected quarter with more than ordinary interest. The 
duke of Argyle, who, from envy of his talents and singular 
success, had become a great declaimer against the duke of 
Marlborough, and, from the hope of emolument, a hanger-on 
upon the new ministry, was appointed generalissimo, to carry 
the terror and the triumph of their arms over that devoted 
coantry. When his grace, however, arrived in Spain, he 
found the troops in the roost wretched condition, and the 
remittances promised him — though the commons had voted 
one million five hundred thousand pounds expressly for that 
service — never reached him ; in consequence of which, he was 
compelled to raise money upon his plate and personal credit, 
for their immediate wants, and in a short time returned to 
England, having done nothing.* 

Mr. St. John, at the suggestion of some Indian chiefs, and 
for the benefit of brigadier Hill, the brother of Mrs. Mashaa),f 
the waiting-woman, to whom he and Harley owed their pre- 
sent elevation, had planned an expedition against Quebec, 
for the equipment of which, the queen was prevailed upon to 
sign a warrant for the payment of twenty-eight thousand 
pounds, though it had never been spoken of in parliament. 
Eleven line of battle ships, besides frigates and transports, 
having on board five thousand troops, sailed upon this ex- 
pedition ; but, from the lateness of the season, the ships not 
being adapted for the service upon which they were sent, the 

* Life of John, duke of Argyle, pp. 69, 70. 

f Memoirs of the four Inst years of Queen Anne, p. 118. Macpbenon's 
History of Great Britaio, p. 534. 


want of proyisioDSy and the total incapacity of the general 
under whose charge the whole was placed, it also returned, 
having, with tlie exception of the loss of eight ships, with all 
that were aboard them, accomplishisd nothing.* 

Under all these mortifications, which they must have felt 
very keenly, they could yet console themselves, that they were 
making considerable progress towards a reconciliation with 
France, which was of the first importance to their present 
plans, and to their ulterior prospects. The projected peace 
was advancing apace, in the hands of Mr. St. John, lord 
Dartmouth, and Matthew Prior ; the house of commons was 
every thing they could wish, their principal opponents being 
expelled, and though the house of lords was not quite so 
complacent; they already contemplated measures for render- 
ing it equally subservieut to their views, as we shall see in 
the sequel.f 

Bat, to return more particularly to the aifairs of Scotland 
— the parliament having been occupied as we have already 
related, had little time to bestow upon her, and that little was 
employed rather to her disadvantage than otherwise. The 
first object that came to be debated, in which she was more 
particularly interested, was a bill imposing a duty upon the 
exportation of linen, the debates upon which, were managed 
with great heat, and in a manner that showed distinctly that, 
on either side, national prejudices were yet far from being 
extinguished. Many members, indeed, spoke of Scotland as 
if she had been a conquered rather than an allied country. 
** Have not we," said Harley, " bought them [the Scots], and 
a right to tax them. And pray, for what did we give them the 
equivalent ?" He was replied to with great warmth by the 
Scotish members, particularly by Lockhart of Carnwath, who, 
with all his faults, was certainly, in his own way, zealous for 
the honour of his country. The bill was, nevertheless, carried, 
in defiance of all opposition. An attempt was also made 
for promoting the trade of Scotland, by placing the transport- 
ation of naval stores from that country upon the same footing 
as from the American colonies, but it was not successful. 

♦ Memoirs of the four last years of Queen Anne, p. 1 18. 
t Burnet's History of his Own Times. 


In the mean time the assembly of the church of Scotland 
conTened at Edinburgh, upon the tenth of May, 1711, and 
after sermon by Mr. WiUiam Mitchell, late moderator, made 
choice of Mr. William Carstares, principal of the college of 
Edinburgh, as their moderator^the commissioner on this 
occasion yras William, marquis of Annandale. Notwith- 
standing the violent encroachments which the episcopalians 
were in many places making upon the rights of the Scotish 
chorch, and the openly avowed intention of the Jacobites to 
have all these encroachments legalized, the letter of the queen 
was soft and soothing, breathing even more than her accus- 
tomed piety, and promising, on her part, every thing that 
could be desired. " We are," she says, " persuaded, from 
your prudent and calm proceedings in former assemblies, 
that at this time you will go op in the same way ; and that you 
will take care to plant vacant churches with learned, diligent, 
and pious ministers ; to promote religion, suppress vice and 
impiety, and prevent the growth of popery and atheism. 
And nothing shall be wanting on our part, to convince you 
of our royal intentions to protect and maintain you m the 
full possession of your rights and privileges, as by law estab- 
lished."* Taken in connexion with the spirit of her present 
administration, these professions on the part of the queen, with 
the Calderwoods, the Bruces, the Knoxes, and the Hendersons 
of former days, would most probaUy have been considered 
as intended to cajole, rather than to satisfy and confirm 
doubtful minds, and must have been by them treated accord- 
ingly ; but the church of Scotland had now fallen into the 
hands of men of easy faith and accommodating tempers, under 
whose tutelage the assembly was made to reply with the most 
infantine simplicity. '* The assurances that your majesty 
in your great goodness has been pleased to give us of your 
royal intentions, to protect and maintain us in the full pos- 
session of all our rights and privileges, as established by law, 
do make us easy amidst all the vain confidence of those 
amongst us, who separate from our communion, to whom 
the advantages we enjoy under your majesty's just and gracious 

* Queen's letter to the General Assembly, 1711. 


administration are an eje-sore; and shall oblige as to carrjr 
ourselves so, as your majesty may ever have reason to con- 
tinue more and more satisfied with our conduct. It is our 
grief, that your majesty's zeal for promoting of piety, sup- 
pressing immorality and profaneness, and for bearing down 
atheism, popish idolatry, and superstition, hath not obtained 
the success we are assured your majesty doth earnestly desire, 
and we heartily wish for; but, when your majesty is not dis- 
couraged from renewing your injunctions as to this important 
affair, we shall be inexcusable, if we do not, with our utmost 
endeavours, second your majesty's pious indhiations. 

<< The planting of vacant churches with pious and learned 
ministers hath always been, and shall be our most serious 
endeavx)ur ; but we cannot conceal from your majesty, that in 
some places we meet with too open and designed opposition ; 
however, we are resolved, that how inhumane soever these 
insults be, they shall not discourage us from obeying God 
and your majesty, in promoting so good a work, not doubting, 
but that your majesty's so gracious and plain declaration of 
your royal pleasure, to maintain and support us, with the care 
of those intrusted under you, shall be able, through the in- 
fluence of your royal authority, to give an effectual check to 
such as openly contemn your laws, and have too little regard 
to the public peace. That your majesty may be compassed 
about with divine favour,«iB with a shield, and always preserved 
both from deceit and violence, for the protection and comfort 
of the protestant churches, tlie happiness of your people, the 
security of the liberties of Europe, and for procuring thereto 
a safe and honourable peace, and defeating all die hopes that 
adversaries may have, of imposing a popish successor upon your 
dominions: that, after a long and happy reign upon earth, 
your majesty may be possessed of a glorious immortality, and 
that the succession to the throne after your majesty, and the 
heirs of your body, in the protestant line of the illustrious 
family of Hanover, by law established, may be firm and sure, 
are, and shall be the prayers of &c. &c."* In the same spirit, 
** The General Assembly did, by an unanimous vote, reconunend 

* Answer of the General Assembly to the Queen*^ letter, 1711. 


to all the ministers of this churchy that in their public prayers, 
after praying for her majesty, queen Anne, they do expressly 
mention the princess Sophia, electress, and dutchess dowager 
of Hanover, and the protestant line in that family, upon whom 
the succession to the crown of these dominions is by law 
established ; or that they pray in such terms as their congre- 
gations may undastand that they mean the princess Sophia, 
and the heirs of her body, being protestants."* This recom- 
mendation gave great offence to many serious presbyterians, 
both ministers and people^ and it may very reasonably be 
doubted, if it gave any satisfaction to her majes^. Of much 
more importance^ and more suitable to the character of the 
assembly, were t«ro recommendations, which are still as 
necessary as they were then, perhaps more so, the one for the 
more regular dispensation of the Lord's supper, so as that it 
might be enjoyed through the several months of the year ; the 
other that the worship of God, in all its parts, should be set up 
in every family, ** according to former acts of assembly, and 
directions giv^n concerning the same." 

This assembly also passed an ** act concerning probationers, 
and settling ministers, with questions to be proposed to, and 
engagements to be taken of them," which, as it took no 
particular notice of already attained to reformation, between 
the years 1638 and 1649, gave additional grounds of jealousy 
to those who were previously doubtful of the strict propriety of 
the revolution settlement. Were these regulations, however, 
faithfully enforced, and were every candidate for office in the 
established church able to answer the questions with a good 
conscience, there would be fewer grass-grown paths around our 
decaying parish churches, much less noise about the rights of 
conscience, but a much more evident display of its legitimate 
exercise in the general business of life. To the commission of 
the assembly was left, as usual, the maintenance of unity, and 
the suppression of error and schism in the church, the ** notice 
of what misrepresentations shall be made, either at home or 
abroad, of the doctrine, worship, discipline, or constitution of 
this church, and to take all decent and proper methods for the 

• Acts of the General Assembly, 1711. 


vindication thereof,'' — ^the care of erecting schools — the corres- 
ponding with the society for propagating christian knowledge — 
the consideration of the case of Mr* John Mackmillan, late 
minister of Balmaghie — the censuring of Mr. John MacnieJf 
<< who continues to preadi, after bis licence has been declared 
null" — the assisting Mr. Mackie to obtain possession of tlie kirk 
and stipend of Balmaghie — the receiving of such curates as may 
apply for ministerial communion, &c. &c. and in fine, the care 
and preservation of all the rights and privileges of the church* 
The errors of Antonietta Bourignon were also, by this assembly, 
again recommended to professors of divinity, to be confuted, 
and it was dissolved in the usual form on the twenty-third of 
May, having appointed the next meeting to be at Edinburgh, 
on the first Thursday of May, one tiiousand seven hundred and 
twelve years.* 

The General Assembly of the church of Scotland, which, 
degraded as it was, and sunk in the estimation of the people, 
compared with what it had formerly been, had the power to 
have enkindled a prodigious flame in the nation, being thus 
tranquilly got over, the Jacobites were left at liberty to pui:sue 
their insidious purposes without fear, and they, no doubt, hoped, 
that before another assembly would be convened, its opposition 
would be, from the progress of events, still feebler, and less 
likely to be effective. Nor did their hopes appear to he without 
a solid foundation. In England, the fanatic Sacheveral, aided 
by all those arts which political duplicity and supei-stitious 
bigotry have ever at command, had effected every thing that 
high church policy could desire. The stream of popular opinion, 
swollen to an irresistible torrent, was sweeping before it, in 
mass, or in rapid succession, all those ameliorating maxims, 
the salutary offspring of pure religion and sound philosophy, 
which had for ages been the chief source of the glory and 
growing felicity of the nation. Fifty additional churches, too^ 
had just been ordered to be built and endowed by the new 
ministry,! which, while it impressed the unthinking vulgar with 
exalted notions of their piety, by extending their patronage, 
gave them a great increase of influence in the church. 

» Acts of Assemhly, 1711. 

f Supplement to the History of the reign of Queen Anne» p. 98. 


An attempt bad also been made, to give to high church bigotry 
the same importance, and the same ascendancy in Scotland. 
Dr. Jc^n Sage," who was, in the year 1705, constituted bishop of 
Dunblane, had for a number of years following the revolution, 
through the medium of the London press, kept that country, 
which, poor as it was, appears even then to have been a reading 
country, in a state of perpetual a^tatron, by an inundation of 
pamphlets, filled with the grievances of the bishops, and the 
groans of the curates; and now, emboldened by the example of 
Sacheveral, and the countenance shown him bjr persons of every 
degree, ah episcopalian, of the name of Greenshields, set up 
the episcopal form of worship, in its most offensive shape, in 
the Scotish metropolis, under the very beards of the chief rulers, 
civil and ecclesiastic. After having repeatedly admonished him 
to no pttr|)ose, the magistrates of Edinburgh shut up his meeting- 
house, and committed him to prison, as an intermeddling and 
seditious incendiary. Aided, and set on, by the influence of 
the Jacobites, who regarded the Scotish presbyterian estab- 
lishment as the most insuperable barrier in the way of their 
favourite project, the restoration of the pretender, Oreenshields 
brought his case before the court of session, where the sentence 
of the magistrates was confirmed, and the case of the Jacobite 
episcopalians rendered hopeless, for any thing that could be 
done for them in Scotland. Determined, however, to leave no 
mean untried, the party persuaded and assisted Greenshields 
to carry the matter before the lords spiritual and temporal, 
where it arrived at the time of Dr. Sacheveral's trial, and of 
coarse was only taUed, and lay over till next session, when, 
by the change of die ministry, of the parliament, and of the 
popular voice, it could not fail to be most favourably entertained. 

At the sAme time^ the ministry, sensible that they could not 
obtain a decision upon this matter that would b^ agreeable to 
their own party, without at the same time encroaching upon 
the rights of the Scotish churdi, would most gladly have 
allowed it to sleep, and, had they been left to themselves, would 
rather have gratified Mr. Greenshields in some other way.* 
But a few of die leading Scotish Jacobites, Carnegy of Boisack, 

• Lockhart Paper*, vol i. p. 366. Bnrnct's History of his Own Times, Sec. 
f R 


Mr. James Murray, Sir Alexander Areskine, lord li<m*king-at- 
armsy Sir Alexander Cuming of Cantar, and Lockhart of 
Curnwath, who, to serve the chevalier, had taken the oaths to 
the government, and obtained seats in the house of commons, 
having entered into a close correspondence, and engaged to 
stand by one another in the joint prosecution of whatever 
might tend to promote their views, which were all directed to 
the dissolving of the Union, and the restoration of the pre- 
tender, considered this too good a subject to be lost sight oi^ 
as it afforded a fair opportunity of bringing into notice the 
almost forgotten curates, who were to a man enemies to the 
protestant succession, and of having a thrust at the presby- 
terians, whom the Jacobites hated, as having been, in their 
opinion, principally at the bottom of the revolution. Ac- 
cordingly, they brought up Mr. Greenshields to London, sup- 
plied him with money, and adopted such powerful, though 
underhand, dealings with the lords, as could not have failed to 
produce a decision in his favour, though they had been much 
more impartial judges than they really were. The sentence of 
die court of session was, of course, reversed, and the magis- 
trates of Edinburgh subjected to heavy damages, to the great 
joy of the Jacobites, who imagined that in this transaction 
they beheld the dawn of more propitious times. 

The times were, indeed, more propitious for them than, 
probably, sanguine as they were, they had ever in reality hoped 
to see. The duke of Hamilton, the head of their faction, who» 
during the alarm of the late invasion, had sat up for three night& 
successively, that he might be in readiness to join the pretender 
upon his first landing,* was now a minister of state; the duke of 
Athol, a favourite at court ; the earl Marischal, with almost all 
the peers that had been taken up and imprisoned for the late 
invasion, lords of parliament; and all the leading cavaliers, 
Lockhart of Camwath, Carnegy of Boisack, Cuming, Murray, 
&c. &c. leading men in the house of commons, where the re- 
doubted Bromley was now speaker. Harley figured as lord treas- 
urer, and Mr. St. John as a secretary of state. Wliat was still 
more cheering, Harcourt, the defender of Sacheveral, and the 

* Lockhart Papers^ vol. i. p. 247. 


advocate of divine and indefeasible hereditary right, was now 
lord chancellor of England, so that tiiere was but another seep 
to take, and all would be eiitirely to their minds. Believing, 
uo doubt, that this step would immediately be taken, and, as a 
mean to hasten it on, they celebrated the pretender's birth-day, 
June the fifteenth, at Edinburgh, and various other places. 
with great solemnity, as if he had already Jbeen recognised kin^ 
of Great Britun.* 

About this time a silver medal, having on one side a h«ad of 
the chevalier de St George, with this inscription, Cujus est, 
and on the reverse the British Islands, with the motto ReddUe, 
was handed about among his friends on the continent, and 
especially among his favourites in Britain. One of these 
medals was presented by the dutchess of Gordon, through the 
medium of Mr. Robert Bennet their dean, to the faculty of ad- 
vocates, which, after a warm debate^ at a meeting, ostensibly 
called for admitting a new member of faculty, but designed, by 
the tories among themselves^ for the purpose pf promoting the 
interests of the pretender, was accepted of, and an address of 
thanks voted to her grace for the distinguished favour she had 
bestowed upon the body. The reception of this medal was 
warmly opposed by Mr. Alexander Stevenson, who moved, that 
the medal should be returned to her grace, as the receiving 
thereof was to *' throw dirt in the face of the government." 
Mr. Stevenson was seconded by Mr. Robert Alexander of 
Bhckhouse, who aflirmed that to receive the medal was to 
acknowledge a right contrary to that of her majesty. He was 
replied to by a Mr. Fraser, who renuu*ked, that the medal of 
Oliver Cromwell, who deserved to have been hanged, and the 
arms of the commcmwealth of England, which he probably did 
not esteem more highly, had been received by them, and why 
should they not receive this? The insolence of this inter- 
rogation nused the indignation of all the loyal members of the 
faculty who were present, especially of Mr. Duncan Forbes, 
afterwards the famous lord president, ^r. Hugh Dalrymple, 
Ur. James Ferguson, Sir James Stuart of Goodtrees, her 
majesty's solicitor-general, and Mr. Joseph Hume of Nineholos, 

» • Biutiet's History of his Owu llmtM. 


who, adverting to the witty remark of Mr. Fraser, with regard 
to Oliver Cromwell, said, it would be time enough to receive 
the ppetendei^s medal when he was hanged. Dundas of 
Arniston, however, aware how the meeting was constituted, 
and that by the number of votes he would carry his cause in 
the end, concluded with a speech to the following extraordi- 
nary efieet: — ** Whatever these gentlemen may say of their 
loyalty, I think they ai&ont the queen, whom they pretend to 
honour, in disgracing her brother, who is not only a prince of 
the blood, but the first thereof; and if blood can give any 
right, he is our undoubted sovereign. I think too they call 
her majesty's title in question, which it is not our business to 
determine. Medals are the documents of history, to which all 
historians refer; and, therefore, though I should give king 
William's, stamped with the devil at the right ear, I see not 
how it could be refused, seeing that an hundred years hence it 
would prove, that such a coin had been in England. But, 
dean of faculty,'' he continued, borrowing vigour fi»m the 
applause of his numerous friends, and the desponding and 
horrified countenances of his opponents, '* what is the use of 
speepfaes? None oppose the receiving the medal, and re- 
turning thanks to her grace, but a few scoundrel vermin and 
mushrooms, not worthy of our notice ; let u% therefore^ proceed 
to name some of our number to return thanks to the dntchess 
of Gordon f" 

Whatever, in a l^al point of view, the learned members 
might think of the logic of this speech, they could not but 
admire the confidence and the devotion of the speaker, and, 
accordingly, they appointed him, with the assistance of Mr. 
Home of Westhall, to return thanks to her grace, in whatever 
terms he should find convenient, which, three days after, he 
did in the following extraordinary manner i — ** Madam, We 
are here deputed by the dean of the feculty of advocates, in 
their name, and for ourselves, to return our most hearty thanks 
to your grace for all your favours, and particularly for the 
honour you did us in presenting us with a medal of our sove- 
reign lord the king. We shall always be proud of any occasion 
to testify our loyalty to his majesty, and the respect and honour 
we have for your grace. Madam, I hope, and am confident 


SO <}o my consutuciius that your grace shall very soon have an 
opportunity to complifnent the faculty with a second medal, 
struck upon the restoratioi^ of the king and royal family, and 
the finishing rebellion, usurping tyranny and wbiggery !"* 

Violence and exjuravag^iit zeal have a natural tendency to 
defeat their own purposes. Had Dundas and Home con- 
ducted themselves with a little more prudence and moderation, 
the end they had in view might have been in some degree pro- 
moted ; but the manner in which diey went about it, perhaps 
more than the thing itself, made so much noise, and created so 
much speculation, besides exciting the nodce of Sir David 
Dalrymple, her majesty's advocate, that the faculty, becoming 
alarmed, called a general meeting, which disavowed the whole 
business by an act dated at Edinburgh, the eighteenth day of 
July, 1711: *^ The dean and faculty of advocates, under- 
standing that several malicious reports have been raised and 
industriously spread, concerning a medal, said to have been 
lately sent to one of their servants, in order to be kept along 
with other curiosities belonging to that spciety, met yesterday, 
extraordinarily upon that ocpasion. And it appeared to 
them, that a medal was sent to one of their servants, who be- 
ing called, acknowledged his having the«same, and justified 
that it never was put into the faculty's collection of medals, 
nor had ever been out of his custody. The said dean and 
faculty did,< at the said meeting yesterday, unanimously de- 
clare, that they rejected the ofier of the said medal, and 
ordered the said servant to deliver up the same into the hands 
of the lord advocate, which was done in their presence. 
And further, the dean and faculty of advocates did unanim- 
ously appoint a committee, to bring an act of faculty, con- 
taining a narration of the fact as above, and a declaration of 
their duty and loyal affection to her majesty's person and 
government, and the protestant succession, as by law estab- 
lished, and their detestation of all practices that directly or 
indirectly may contain the least insinuation to the contrary, 
or may give encouragement to the pretender. The committee 
having met, and made a report, the faculty in a very frequent 

* North British Memoirs, pp. 255, 860. 


meeting assembled this day extraordinarily, did unanimously 
agree to the narration of the matter of fact as above. And 
for vindication of their duty and loyalty to her majesty's 
person and government, and the protestant succession, as by 
law established in the illustrious house of Hanover, do de- 
clare their utter detestation of all practices that directly or 
indirectly may contain the least insinuation to the contrary, 
or any encouragement for the pretender or his abettors ; and 
for publishing these their sincere and stedfast resolutions, do 
ordain these presents to be signed in their name," &c. The 
faculty also published an advertisement in the Edipburgh 
Gazette, against the author of the Flying Postj who published 
the transactions of the first meeting, which saved appearances, 
and the government took no notice of the matter further than 
to dismiss, upon the representation of the Hanoverian re- 
sident. Sir David Dalrymple from the office of lord advocate, 
on pretence of remissness in the affair. His successor. Sir 
James Stuart of Goodtrees, however, took as little cognizance 
of the matter as he had done; and there cannot be a doubt 
but that it was the desire of her majesty*s ministers, that the 
whole affair should be overlooked; but the friends of the 
protestant succession, had still sufficient influence to procure, 
in the next session of parliament, an act, compelling all prac- 
titioners of law in North Britain, to subscribe a declaration 
against the pretender.* 

. This perpetual bustling and rage for display, on the part 
of the Jacobites, was certainly in the highest degree impolitic, 
and tended materially to defeat their designs. Having gained 
over the queen and surrounded her with their own creatures, 
it should have been their study to create no alarm, but to 
work their way silently and surely, concealing their strength 
and their intentions as much as possible till they were ready 
to be put in execution. Such, in all probabilitv, were the 
views of those, who, having got into situations of trust and 
influence, were best able to forward these intentions; but the 
mad enthusiastic devotion of some, the avarice of others, who 
were anxious to be profitably employed, and the childish 

♦ North British Memoirs, p. 'J53 — 203. 


impatience of all, disconcerted the combinations oF deliberate 
prudence, and drove, however reluctantly, the most cautious 
of their leaders into a precipitancy of action, which, alarming 
the fears of the nation, uniting the views and concentrating 
the efforts of all who were friendly to the constitution as 
settled at the revolution, tended iti no small degree to the 
final ruin of all their projects. Many of the party, indeed, 
still contemplated no other than a forcible restoration of James 
to the free and unfettered exercise of his, as they believed, 
unalienable prerogatives, through the assistance of France ; and 
to encourage Louis to make another attempt in his behalf, 
much of their absurd rant was intended. In pursuance of 
the same end, we find them repeating, with additions and 
improvements, all the misrepresentations of Hooke, and mag- 
nifying every little circumstance to the utmost. *^ Since the 
revolution," says the famous nonjuror Lesley, in a memorial 
presented by him, this year, to the court of St. Germains, but 
evidently intended for that of Versailles, ** there has not been 
so great a confusion of counsels and of measures in England 
as there has been since the last change in the ministry ; and 
the affair of Greensbields, a minister of the church of England, 
whom the parliament has lately protected against the presby- 
terians of Scotland, has irritated the latter to that degree, 
that they would concur in whatever might deliver them from 
the Union with England, which is universally detested in 
Scotland, where they are all persuaded, that nothing can de- 
liver them from it but the return of their sovereign. 

There is at present a concurrence of circumstances more 
favourable for an enterprise than there has been since his 
majesty came out of England. But all this will change in 
time, and for the future they will attend only to the means 
of supporting, as easily as they can, the chains from which 
they see no further hopes of being delivered. There is not 
a man in Great Britain who is not convinced, that if the king 
of England had landed the last time in Scotland, he would 
have infallibly succeeded, and the conjuncture appears at pre* 
sent still more favourable. The inclination of the Scots to- 
wards their king appears visible, in their sending, as members 
to parliament, the eame men who had been brought prisoners 


to London on account of the invasion, and I can assure, 
that these men have not changed their sentiments." This 
memorialist goes on to inform his master, how nearly the bank 
of England was ruined by the last, and how certainly it would 
be so, by a present invasion, from which he deduces this 
consoling conclusicm. ^* If the bank of England fails, I be- 
lieve there is no doubt, that the confederates will not be able 
to carry on the war, and then his most christian majesty will 
have a safe game to play, without running any risk. Troops*' 
he adds, ** are daily draughted, to be sent out of the kingdom, 
so that few will be left to make opposition, ahd there are severals 
in the army, who have discovered their dispositions, of returning 
to their duty towards their king, if they found the opportunity. 
They are preparing fleets to be sent to the Mediterranean and 
elsewhere, so that the few ships which will remain to guard the 
channel, cannot hinder the passage from Brest to Kircudbright, 
especially if an alarm is given from Dunkirk and other parts. 
All the fleet of England, can never hinder a ^uadron to pass 
from Brest to Ireland, and Scotland is only a little more distant 
in the same line." After alluding to the hazard, which, even 
the king's friends might be unwilling to run, and stating the 
necessity of ten thousand men to accompany him, if success was 
to be ensured before hand, he proceeds to assure him, of the 
favourable sentiments of the queen : — ^* It is generally thought, 
that the princess of Denmark," so he denominates the queen, 
<* is favourably inclined to the king her brother, and that she 
would choose rather to have him for her successor, than the 
prince of Hanover. But slie is timid, and does not know to 
whom she can give her confidence. The duke of Leeds told me, 
tliat he had endeavoured to sound her as much as he could upon 
the subject, and he is in her confidence, and has free access to 
her ; but though she never chose to explain herself upon this 
point, she says nothing against him. It is thought, that if the 
king of England was in Scotland, a treaty with him would be 
immediately proposed, and then the members of parliament 
.would be at liberty to declare their sentiments, whereas they are 
now constrained by an act of pai'liament, which declares, all 
those guilty of high treason, who shall oppose the Hanoverian 
succession, by word or writing. But die king of England being 


in Scotlaiid, aad all the kingdom acknowledging him, whieh 
could not fail to happen soon after his arrival in that country* 
then the present necessity, and the common good of the nation> 
woqld authorise the liberty* which each might take, of proposing 
whatever could prevent the &tal ^flSscts of a civil wan" Wh^t 
is meant here by the fatal effSects of a civil war, is not easily oom* 
prehended) for from what follows, a eivil war seeins to be the 
objea which the memoriali^ is pursuing* and from wbiich* he 
evidently hopes for the most iavourable results : — ^^ The smallest 
advantage whiph an expedition of the king of England into 
Scotland could produce, would be a civil war, which might be 
supported from time to time by France, ev^i though none of his 
majes^'s subjects sbpuld join him. But that is not to be sup- 
posed* &r in the divisiop of parties* there are now maleoontenls 
enough in Great Britain, who would rejoice at that ppportiuuty 
of joming bim, besids^ sq many in distressed cincumstanoe^ or 
cm bad terms ynih the gpveimmtnt* whom &ar, neaentmenl;* or 
hope wpuld m^^wcfii and there ane men of that oharactier in 
eveiy country, but ftp w^e so many as in Great BritaiB.*^* 

Louis and his ministers had been so long accustomed to 
these r#pres<ep^tipns» that Uiey pririiably paid no great aitan-? 
tion to this, the stal»ments of whiob must hav« appeared* ex^tn 
to them* doMbtfipl* if n^ contradktory; they had, at the saoae 
time* their hwds moir<e (than full* and had already begui in 
good earnest tp attempt rejiievUigihamselves* not by eslai)ging^ 
but by na^rpwipg the fiield of their warlike operations ; ^d* 
however much it suijted formerly with their interests, or thaw 
general ppUpy, to proinote a civil war in Brkain* it was w 

* Monoii^ of thp Sieur JUunb if^Uy] to itba court of 8t. O&tvRmm. 
Stuart Papers, 1711. Lesley was a coadjutor with Sage yaftLbne^fff^ tkH 
mass of ribaldry which we have already mentioned as inupdating the coiu^tiy 
on the bec& of the revoliition, and he exemplified the candour of his character 
ky^iie following account of presbytery and of pre^yterians ^— " It has been 
aa old phs«nira|iOD» that viieBevier pMsbytsry was established, there witetyntft 
and adultery ^ave been pei;^icolarly .rampant. A^ oae tald of Sootiand, ia 
the dajs of presbytery, they bym all the old woioep for witches, jgn^ 4^1^ 

the young ones for w s. The records of the stools of repenjt^uvte jf 

Scotland would astonish you, where such multitudes of men an<^ women comf 
dulf to wake thdir sliow for adultery and fornication, that it has almost cea^^ 
to be a ibaaie !" Dhe iUhaanris,{>ubliihad in 1704, ivos, Ac. Ac 
I s 


sary for the present, as they were just entering upon nego- 
tiations for a separate peace, to seem, at least, to pursue a 
different line of conduct. 

Fortunately for the interests of religion and liberty, 
breathless anxiety seems at this period, so favourable to their 
views, to have superseded every other feeling, and to have 
paralyzed generally, every thing like well directed exertion on 
the part of the Jacobites ; yet there were among them, aien, 
subtle and sanguine, whose conceptions were bold, their 
address plausible, and their plans, had thej been seconded 
by unanimity and prudence, on the part of their followers, 
not a little dangerous. Pretending to be a friend to the 
church of England, the advocate of national independence, 
and a lover of liberty, we find one of them, the same year, 
thus stating his opinions : — ** I need not go about to prove, 
that the house of Hanover, and the states of Hclland, are 
united with the whigs and discontented party of England, 
against the queen, her present ministry, and the church of 
England. Their late proceedings, have sufficiently shown their 
inclinations that way, and nothing is more obvious, than that 
the church and court party, can expect no quarter from these 
three united powers, if ever they come to have the superiority. 
The duke of Hanover, has, in conjunction with the states, de- 
clared himself so openly for the whig party, in opposition to the 
queen herself, as well as her ministry, that it is visible, he is 
inseparably united to that party, and will always be influenced 
by it ; and that if ever he comes to have the power in his 
hands, the church and present ministry must fall a sacrifice 
to the whigs' revenge, the breach being too wide to expect 
they can ever be thoroughly reconciled. I am of opinion, 
therefore, that as matters stand now, there remains only one 
expedient, that can possibly secure at once, both the church 
and state, against any attempt that may be made to their 
prejudice, either during the queen's life, or after her death, 
by a powerful, absolute prince, supported by a jealous, in- 
terested nation abroad, and animated by an exasperated, 
factious party at home ; and that is to call home the queen's 
brother, whose just right gains ground daily in the hearts of 
his subjects, in order to which, I think it not only advisable, 


bat absolately necessary, to send to treat with him, without 
loss of time, for all depends upon taking timely measures, it 
being of the last importance to the court and country interest, 
as well as his, to be before^hand with their common adversaries. 
Accidents may happen ; we are all mortal ; and if things be 
not prepared and secured before a vacancy, it will be very hard 
after that, to avoid a civil war ; for we all know, that accord- 
ing to the laws now in being, Hanover, in that case, roust of 
course, be proclaimed king. It will be too late then, to 
repeal these laws, which make it high treason to oppose him ; 
and it is not to be doubted, but he will quickly come over 
here, and bring with him, if it be necessary, all the force the 
Hollanders and he can draw together. On the other hand 
it is certain the king will not be wanting, on his side, to 
transport himself, at any rate, into some part of his dominions, 
to join with his friends, in order to assert his right, and venture 
all, rather than have the shame and grief, to see a foreign 
usurper take peaceable possession of his lawful inheritance. 
This must unavoidably produce a civil war, which is perhaps 
what the Hollanders wish for, the fatal consequences of which, 
may last and extend nobody knows how far. 

** The only remedy I see to prevent these misfortunes, and 
save our nation from ruin and bloodshed, is the proposal 
above mentioned, of sending, immediately upon the conclusion 
of the peace, to treat with her majesty's brother, the king, 
and call him home privately, upon the first recess of 

** This is absolutely the quickest, safest, and easiest way ; 
for all other slow, dilatory, methods of preparing things by 
degrees, managing the opposite party, waiting for new favour- 
able opportunities, and keeping, in the meantime, this prince 
at a distance, are exposed to too many dangers and difficulties, 
besides that unanswerable one of a sudden mortality, which, 
as it may very possibly happen, to our great grief and mis- 
fortune, when we expect it least, so it is the height of im- 
prudence not to prepare against it. 

** It would require a great deal of more time than we can 
in prudence promise to ourselves, to go about to repeal the 
act of the settlement of the crown in a parliamentary way. 


before he be called over i $o I think thftt tedtooa method 
nowise advisable* Besides thai the undertaking itself might 
iheet with such opposition in his absence, as woald expose it 
to the datiger of a miscarriage; whereas, he being once upon 
the place, invited thither, and countenanced by her majesty, 
(which is no very hard matter to contrive, so as to make it 
very (irncticable in the recess of parliament, without the least 
c)dng«lr of disturbance,) those very persons who would have 
opposed him in parliament and every where else in his 
absence, will be die first to come and kisB his hand when he 
is herej and comply with whatever the queen shall think fit 
to do in his favour. 

<< tt is so visibly the queen's and the present ministry's true 
Interest to call her only brother home, in this conjuncture^ 
that he and they may be a mutual support and security to 
oiie another, that I am morally assured he will not make the 
lekst difiiculty to trust himself entirely into their hands when- 
ever they please to call him ; and that he will be willing to 
come over with a page only to accompany him, upon the 
queeh his sister's letter^ if it be thought fit and necessary for 
his and their commoh interest so to dO; and, when he is once 
hf^hfe, I am sure nobody will find fault with the queen's re- 
<ieivilig him kindly. She may safely present him to her 
ebuntil, own him there for her brother, add declare her good 
intention^ towards him, and what she has thought fit, with 
the advice of her ministers, to treat and concert with him, 
for the future good and peace of her kingdoms; after which 
st^p, it will be infinitely more easy, and less hazardous, than 
hy any other method whatsoever, to get the present settlement 
of thte succession altered in the next meeting of the parlia^ 
ment^ and every thing Regulated there to their mutual satis- 
faction ; and all the rights and privileges of church and states 
crbwb, pariiamont, and people, settled again upon the solid 
ibttMation of the ancient laws and constitution of the kingdom. 
" But to assure the success of this great work, 1 think it 
absolutely best, when he is invited over, that he be allowed 
to tome ^straight to London, where his sudden and iinex- 
p^t^d appearance will surprise and confound all his unpre* 
pa^ed enemies^ break •all their measures, and make every 


thing go so quick and easy on the queen's aide and faisi that 
they will sooni by the wise conduct of the present ministry^ 
pat it out of the power of either Hanover or the dbcontented 
whigs to disturb the new settlement that shall be agreed upon 
between 'the brother and his now only sister. But| in case 
things be not thought ripe enough^ or Sufficiently disposed 
to bring him straight U> LondoUi the next best will be ko 
bring him to Scotland; which will be better by far than 
tending him td travel into foreign countries. Only one thing 
is to be observedf as to Scotland, that the government of the 
church there being presbyterian, and the generality of that 
nation being discontejftted with the Uniodi which we in Elng* 
land think it our interest to maintain, he may, perhaps, have 
some hard proposals made to him upon that head, by a pre* 
valent party in that kingdom, which will make him very 
eneasy, by putting a disagreeable necessity upon him cf re- 
fusing what he cannot grtat them, without disobliging die 
English^ which I have good reason to believe he is resolved 
not to do ; it being contrary to his indiuation, as well as his 
interest^ to do any thing in favour of one nation, that may be 
a just ground o£ grievance to another: his intention, aS I 
am credibly informed, being to leave all those matters of 
state, as wdl as of religion, to be entirely decided and settled 
in a British parliaflisnt*''* 

There is great plausibility in the reasonings of this writer ; 
and the plan he proposes^ had it been practicable, was cer^ 
taialy the best. That he was in the confidence of the ministry, 
and sure of the queen, is pretty obvioua; but his assumptiona 
with regard to both, are many of them gratuitous* Jamea 
was unknown in £ogland, nor was it at all likely that hia 
presence would have bad sttch a magic influence upon all thai 
were opposed to him. These representations of his frienda, 
however, fiUed with such bold aveitnents of the <^afige of 
public opinion in Britain with regard to him, and with such 
glowing aoiicipations with respect to the success of his cause, 
seem to have had a powerful effect upon James himseU^ and 
to have led hii* to entertain very sanguine hopes of being 

*• SUmitAipeni ITIU 


called to the throne of his fathers in a way that suited better 
with his temper, which was by no means warlike, than by the 
strength of either French, Scotish, or Irish armies. We find 
him, accordingly, attempting to cajole the queen, and through 
her the British parliament, to alter the succession, as by law 
established in the house of Hanover. In pursuance of this 
plan, he, in the month of May this year, addressed to the 
queen the following remarkable letter : — 

^* Madam, The violence and ambition of the enemies of 
our family, and of the monarchy, have too long kept at 
distance those who, by all the obligations of nature and duty, 
ought to be more firmly united ; and have hindered us from 
the proper means and endeavours of a better understanding 
between us, which could not fail to produce the most happy 
efiects to ourselves, to our family, and to our bleeding country. 

" But, whatever the success may be, I have resolved now 
to break through all reserve, and to be the first in an en- 
deavour so just and necessary. The natural affection I bear 
you, and that the king our father had for you till bis last 
breath; the consideration of our mutual interest, honour, and 
safety, and the duty I owe to God and my country, are the 
true motives that persuade me to write to you, and to do all 
that is possible for me to come to a perfect union with you. 

*' And you may be assured, madam, that though I can 
never abandon, but with my life, my own just right, which 
you know is unalterably settled by the most fundamental laws 
of the land, yet I am most desirous rather to owe to you, than 
to any living, the recovery of it. It is for yourself that a 
work so just and glorious is reserved. The voice of God and 
nature calls you to it; the promises you made to the king our 
father enjoin it; the preservation of our family; the preventing 
unnatural wars require it; and the public good and welfare of 
our country recommend it to you, to rescue it from present 
and future evils; which must, to the latest posterity, involve 
the nation in blood and confusion, till the succession be again 
settled in the right line. 

** I am satisfied, madam^ that, if you will be guided by 
your own inclination, you will readily comply with so just and 
fiiir a proposal as to prefer your own brother, the last male 


of oar name, to the dutchess of Hanover, the remotest relation 
^^e have, whose friendship you have no reason to rely on, or 
l>e fond of; who will leave the government to foreigners of 
another language, of another interest; and who, by the general 
naturalization, may bring over crowds of her countrymen to 
supply the defect of her right, and enslave the nation. 

** In the meantime, I assure you, madam, and am ready 
tx> give all the security that can be desired, that it is my un« 
alterable resolution to make the law of the land the rule of 
my government, to preserve every man's right, liberty, and 
property, equally with the right of the crown ; and to secure 
and maintain those of the church of England, in all their 
just rights and privileges, as by law established ; and to grant 
such a toleration to dissenters as the parliament shall think fit. 

'* Your own good nature, madam, and your natural affec- 
tion to a brother, from whom you never received* any injury, 
cannot but incline your heart to do him justice; and, as it is 
in your power, I cannot doubt of your good inclinations. 
And I do here assure you, that in that case no reasonable 
terms of accommodation which you can desire for yourself, 
shall be refbsed by me. But as affairs of this moment cannot 
be so well transacted by letters, I must conjure you to send 
one over to me, fully instructed and empowered by you, or 
to give security for such a one from me ; for by that way 
only, can things be adjusted to our mutual satisfaction, which 
shall be managed on our side with the utmost secrecy. 

*^ I have made this first step towards our mutual happiness 
with a true brotherly affection, with the plainness and sin- 
cerity that becomes both our rank and relation, and in the 
most prudent manner I could at present contrive; and will 
be directed by you in the prosecution of it, relying entirely 
on your knowledge and experience, as to the means and 

<^ And now, madam, as you tender your own honour and 
happiness, the preservation and re-establishment of our ancient 
royal family, the safety and welfare of a brave people, who 
are almost sinking under present weights, and have reason to 
fear greater; who have no reason to complain of me, and 
whom I roust still, and do love as my own — I conjure you to 


meet tne in this friendly way of composing our difference, 
by which only we can hope for those good effects which will 
make us both happy, yourself more glorious than all the other 
parts of your life, and your memory dear to all posterity."* 

At the same time that he addressed the above to the queen, 
he transmitted orders to his friends in England to support, 
with all their influence, her present administration; and, that 
he might not be wanting in any probable mean of advancing 
his interest, wrote also the following CKpIanatioo of his views 
with regard to religion :— *'* In answer to yours, I cannot, at 
this distance, and in my present circumstances, enter into dis- 
putes of religion; but those of the church of England have no 
reason to doubt of my favour and protection, after the early 
assurances I gave them in my instructions, bearing date the 
third of March, 1702, which you have seen, and I am re- 
solved to make good. I knew my grandfather, and my 
father too had always a good opinion of the principles of the 
church of England relating to monarchy; and experience 
sufficiently showetb, Chat the crown was never struck at but 
she felt the blow ; and though some of her chief professors 
have failed in their duty, we must not measure the principles 
of a church by the actions of some particulars. 

^ Plain dealing is best in all things, especially in matters 
of religion ; and, as I am resolved never to dissemble in re- 
ligion, so I shall never tempt others to do it ; and, as well as 
I am satisfied of the truth of my own religion, yet I shall 
never iook worse upon any persons, because in this they 
chance to differ from me ; nor shall I refuse, in due time and 
place, to hear what they have to say «pon this subject. But 
they must not take it ill if I use the same liberty i allow to 
others to adhere to the religion, which I in my conscience 
think the best; and I may reasonably expect that liberty of 
conscience for myself which I deny to none."* 

What entertainment the queen gave to the above letter 
has never, so far as we know, been explained. That she had 
■ome inclinations towards her brother in his exiled aud help- 
less condition can hardly be doubted ; but when the narrow- 

* Stuart Papera, 1711. f Ibid. 


ness of her intellect, and the timidity of her character is 
considered, the measures proposed were certainly too bold 
for her to adopt without much consideration, and a far more 
decisive manifestation of public feeling in favour of James 
than had yet been given. Nor do we find that this address, 
so remarkable for moderation, and which some of bis warmest 
friends had so long solicited him in vain to emit, produced 
any sensible e^ct in his favour. 

In the meantime, the ministry were pursuing diligently their 
pacific plans. Prior, the poet, had been sent to Paris in the 
month of July, and returned in the month of August, accom- 
panied by Monsieur Mesnager and the Abbe Gualtier, with 
whom, notwithstanding the remonstrances of the emperor and 
the states, and a vehement memorial from the elector of 
Hanover, preliminaries of peace were signed in the month of 
September, and it was determined to open a general congress 
at Utrecht in the beginning of the ensuing year.* The parlia- 
ment was opened on the 7th of December by a speech from 
the queen, in which she informed them, that, " notwithstanding 
the arts of those that delighted in war» the place and the time 
for treating of a general peace was appointed." She still, how- 
ever, professed to hold the interests of the allies as inseparable 
from her own ; and, as they had expressed the utmost confi- 
dence in her, she would do her utmost to procure them satis- 
fiiction. She, at the same time, professed great zeal for the 
protestant religion, and the liberties of the nation, and 
promised, on the return of peace, to pay a particular attention 
to the encouragement of trade.f 

The commons re-echoed the speech in the most cordial 
manner, but the lords still continued refractory, and, after a 
long and keen debate, introduced a clause into the address, 
stating ** their conviction, that no peace could be either safe 
or honourable for Great Britain, or for Europe, if Spain and 
the West Indies were allotted to any branch of the house of 

The duke of Hamilton, who was now become a particular 

* Msqihanon's Hittoiy of Great Britain, vol. iv. p. S34. 

t Sorooierville's Hittory of Great Britain duriog the reign of Queen Ann^ 

p. 449. 

I. T 


favourite with tht; queen, having, with a view to strengthen ' 
the tories in the upper house, where they were still in danger 
of being baffled by superior numbers, been created a peer of 
Great Britain, by the title of barou Dutton, in Cheshire, and 
duke of Brandon, in Suffolk, cftme forward this session and 
claimed his seat accordingly, which occasioned the most acri- 
monious opposition. Counsel was heard for the duke and 
for the queeu, and though Queensberry had been already 
admitted into the house, (under a protest, indeed, by some 
lords,) in perfectly similar circumstances, and though the whole 
Scotish peers supported him, and the whole weight of court 
influence was thrown into his scale, the duke was rejected by 
a vote of the house, fifty-seven voting against, and fifty-two 
for him.* Against this decision a dissent was entered by 
the Scotish lords, December the twentieth, and they with- 
drew from the house. This procedure greatly alarmed the 
queen, and, on the seventeenth of January following, she sent 
a message to the lords, requesting their advice in settling this 
matter to the satisfaction of the kingdom. The lords, upon 
this, passed some resolutions, which, though, for the present, 
they produced no alteration with regard to admission into that 
house, pacified the Scotish lords so far that they returned to 
their stations. 

Foiled in the attempt to strengthen their interest in the 
upper house, by the introduction of the duke of Hamilton as 
a British peer, the ministry had recourse to a yet bolder 
measure, that of creating twelve new peers in one day, the 

* Douglas, eighth duke of Hamilton, and fifth duke of Braadony halving 
presented a petition to the king for a summons to parliament as duke of 
Brandon, his majesty ordered a reference to the house of lords, by whom, 
after hearing counseI» the opinion of the twelve judges was required. They 
unanimously agreed, 6th of June, 1788, that his grace was entitled to such 
summons, and that his majesty was not restrained by the iSd article of Union, 
from creating Scotish peers, peers of Great Britain. The house of lords 
therefore resolved, that his grace, Douglas, duke of Hamilton and Brandon, 
was entitled to be summoned to parliament. The same being reported to 
the king, his majesty, on the lith of June, 1782, caused a summons to be 
issued accordingly, and his grace, as duke of Brandon, took his seat in the 
house of peers, of which his family had been for so many years dq>rivcc1. 
—Peerage of Scotland, vol. i. pp. 723, 724. 


thirty- first of December,* by which they were enabled eftec^ 
tually to overcome all opposition. Such a stretch of pre- 
rogadre was not at all calculated to sooth the strong suspicions 
that were already entertained of their secret purposes; but 
thoogh exclaimed against, as most extravagant, by reason- 
able, or moderate, men of all parties, as there was none of the 
twelve belonging to the Scotish peerage, it could not be pro- 
nounced illegal, and probably, considering the necessity of 
the case, the projectors of the measure thought this negative 
quality sufficient for their justification. It is a precedent, 
however, which no minister has yet arisen, and it is to be 
hoped, no one ever will arise bold enough to imitate. The 
British peerage is a very noble institution, and the house of 
peers forms a most august tribunal, and one that has been 
eminently useful in preserving to the nation those blessings 
which have been purphased with its best blood ; but should 
the time ever come, when, to farther party views and support 
prerogative, its members are multiplied by the dozen, its 
respectability must cease, and its utility become more than 

The duke of Queensberry, who was secretary of state for 
Scotland, and to whom the superintendence of Scotish affairs 
ever since the Union had principally been confided, being now 
dead, the duke of Argyle and the earl of Marr affected to 
have the disposal and management of all things relating to 
that country. The secretaryship, however, as there was no 
possibility of adjusting niatters between the earls of Marr and 
Day, who both laid claim to it, was for the present allowed to 
lie dormant The pretensions of these noblemen, Argyle 
and Marr, being strenuously ui^ed on both sides, and there 
being no one that tould hold the balance even between them, 
occasioned, in a short time, an entire alienation of affection, 
and the adoption of a course of conduct, which was in the 

* The firtt queatipn upon which tboM lords were called to vote was for 
an a^jouromenty wUch the whigs were anxious to prevent, when the lord 
WhartoDy who was more remarkable for wit than for good morals, ** treated 
them as a petty jury, lyid asked whether they proposed to vote indnridually, 
or to convey their decision by their foreman.*' Coxe's Lifo of Mailboroiigh, 
vol. ill. p. 4S3. 


end fatal to the family of the latter, and to the cause whioh 
in an etil hour he espoused.* 

Like the session that preceded it^ great part of this was 
spent in following out those plans that had been laid for 
criminating the late ministry, upon the successful issue of 
which, the stability of the present was eridently supposed^ in 
a great measure, to depend; and the Scotisb Jacobites, in the 
meantime, aided by the English tories, followed up their pur- 
poses against the church of Scotland, with a steady and fisUal 
effect Far from being satisfied with their triumph in the 
case of Mr. Greenshields, they had determined upon ob- 
taining an ample toleration for die episcopalians in the former 
session, and had been diverted from their purpose, of which 
the ministry did not at that time approve, only by a promise 
from the queen, to lay it as an injunction upon her ministers 
to procure it for them in this, together with the restoration of 
patronages, which, by an act of the Scotish parliament in the 
reign of king William, had been taktt away. So secretly 
too were their plans concerted, that, excepting a few of their 
confidential friends, the world knew nothing of any such de» 
sign, till the motion for toleration was made in the house of 
commons, January twenty-first, 1718, where it was carried 
without almost any opposition, though to the premier Harley, 
now lord Oxford, it does not appear to have been at all 
palatable.f This bill, at the same time that it gave full 
freedom to the episcopalians in the exercise of their worship, 
with all its rites and ceremonies, withdrew the civil sanction 
from the decisions of the church of Scotland, thus robbing 
her, as Burnet remarks, of that '* which in most places is 
looked on as the chief, if not the only strength of church 

Though the Jacobites had not made their specific objects 
generally known to the public, there was abundant room for 
concluding, that their views upon, and their feelings towards 
the Scotish church, were of the most hostile description. The 
commission of the Genera! Assembly, of course, despatched 

* Lockhert Papers, vol. i. p. 334. f Ibid. vol. i. pp.378, 379. 
i History of his Own Times, vol. i. [fol. ed.] p. 594. 


Messrs. Willioni CftTBtftres, Thomas Blackwali, and Robert 
BaiUie, to Londoo, to watch their progress, and take such 
measures m might appear to tbem proper for defeating such 
nttempts, to they had reason to diink would be made fur 
breaking down the constitution of the church, and subjecting 
her to the will and power of a faction, which, from mistaken 
views of self^iggrandiseaieBt, had resolved upon sacrificing, at 
the shrine of indefeasible hereditary right, the civil as well as 
the religious liberties of their country.* The presence of 
this deputation in London, however, seems only to have 
marked more strongly the state of degradation into which the 
Scotish church had fallen. The utmost their petitions and 
protestations could obtain for them was a derisive hearing, 
followed with contemptuons neglect; and the sum of their 
exertions procured nothing more than the oath of abjuration, 
to be tacked to the toleration, which was made imperative upon 
the ministers of the established church, as well as upon those 
episcopalians who took the benefit of this new, and, as it was 
called, liberal regulation. Had this part of the bill been en- 
forced, the whole would have been rendered nugatory, with 
regard to those for whom it was mainly intended ; but the 
Jacobites well knew that no consistent presbyterian could take 
the oath, and they had sagaci^ enough to foresee the heart- 
burnings that would, in consequence thereof, take place 
among the members of the establishment, whence they na- 
turally enough inferred the impossibility of enforcing it upon 
dissenters. As the projectors of the measure had foreseen, it 
very nearly occasioned a schism in the church of Scotland ; 
but none of the Scotish episcopal clergymen, if we except one 
at Glasgow, ever took the oath, though they all took the 
benefit of the toleration. 

* It ought here to be carefally noticed, that with the bustling Jacobites of 
this period, the siaiply tolerettag rdtgious opintons wife entirely out of the 
queftioo. Political power and influence was the sole object they had in 
fiew. Episcopalian cbapds they wanted to open only that they might have 
it in th^ power to shut presbyteriaa churches: and they Wanted to shut 
presbyterian churches, prindpally because they thought, and thoQght justly, 
that from them bad, in a great measure, emanated the doctrines of the re* 
volation, which they wished, by any means, or by all means, to de«tmy. 


' This act was speedily followed by another, restoring pat- 
ronages, which had happily been abolished in the Sootish 
church ; and mucli about the same timei the qaeen, to show 
her satisfaction with these good works, perfcMrmed on behalf 
of the now suffering prelatic body in Scotland, bestowed the 
rents of the lands of the late bishops in North Britain, upon 
such of their clergy, as had coafonned to the government.^ 

Having thus succeeded in again bringing the Scotish 
church under the intolerable yoke of patronage, destroying 
her discipline, and imposing upon her ministers an oath, guar* 
anteeing the integrity of the episcopal church of England^ it 
might have been supposed, that her enemies would have, for 
the present, been satisfied; but, to show their perfect pre- 
eminence, and how completely they had her in their power, 
they proceeded to repeal a law of Scotland, which forbade the 
courts of justice to be shut, on what are by episcopalians, 
called Christmas holidays,f which days, it had always been a 
fixed, and a first principle with presby terians, not to observe ; 
and thus in the most direct manner, imposed a badge of in* 
feriority upon the nation, both in her civil and ecclesiastic 

That these acts were direct infringements of the treaty of 
Union, in which the entire freedom of the church, as it then 
stood, had been so specially provided for, does not admit of 
dispute, and their immediate object, not to speak of their evi- 
dent tendency, was her total destruction. They were ebulitions 
of personal ungodliness, the strictness of presbyterian disci- 
pline, being a heavy yoke to the Scotish gentry, most of whom 
were episcopalians, and desperate efforts of that political 
perversity which had embroiled the nation, from the first 
dawning of the reformation. They have, however, been 
pretty generally applauded, as flowing from an enlightened 

* SotnmerviUe*s History of Great Britain, during the reign of Queen Anne, 
p. 473. 

t Upon the third reading of the bill for repealing this law, Sir Da^id 
Dalrymple said, ** Since the house is determined to make no alteration on the 
body of this bill, I acquiesce, and only desire it may be entitled, a bill for 
encouraging Jacobitism and immorality," which would indeed, have been its 
most appropriate title. 


lind Ubeial policy ; and the charges of bigotry and intolerance, 
have been preferred against the church of Scotland, for that 
opposition, feeble indeed it was, which she made to them, 
by writers, who either were, or onght to have been better 
informed upon the subject. The franiers and the supporters 
of these measures, so far from being men of liberal views, and 
tender of the rights of conscience, were the veriest bigots ever 
intrusted with the powers of legislation; and at the very 
time, when, under the pretence of relieving conscience, they 
were paving the way for restoring the reign of tyranny, civil 
and religions, in Scotland, they were doing the same thing in 
England, by imposing new and unheard of restraints upon the 
exercise of that sacred principle. They passed ** An act for 
preserving the protestant religion, by better securing the 
church, and for confirming the toleration granted to protestant 
dissenters, by the act exempting them from the penalties of 
certain laws, and for supplying the defects thereof," &c &c. ; 
an act, the whole tenor and spirit of which, are, a flat con- 
tradiction to its professed purpose; an act which has ever since 
been a dead weight upon religious liberty in England, and 
even in our own day, if we mistake not, has given occasion 
Tor acts of gross oppression. As their schemes were more 
matnred, they advanced to more bold and more effective ex- 
pedients, and two years after this, passed *^ An act, to prevent 
the growth of schism," which a historian, not remarkable for 
free speaking, charncterizes, as '' the most violent infringement 
upon liberty of conscience, recorded in the annals of parlia- 
,ment*"* The object of this act, like all of the same kind, 
that had gone before it, was, pot only to retrench the political 
in6uence of the dissenters, by giving more certain effect to the 
laws that had already been framed for that purpose, but at 
once to extinguish their principles, by rendering them in- 
capable of taking any active part in the education of youth. 

It was to no purpose to object to this bill, its barbarity, in 
interfering with one of the first principles of nature, the right 
of parents to educate their own children ; its cruelty, in de- 

* Semncrvilio^t Hiitory of Great Britain during the reign of Queen Anne, 

|). 560. 


priving many respectable iodividuals of the only means oF 
subsistence ; and its wickedness and absurdity, as tending to 
the spread of ignorance and irreligion* protestaot dissenters, 
being, in many places, not only the most successful, but the 
alone teachers o£ youth. This was indeed, what constituted 
their offence. They had multiplied schools, and by their 
sobriety and diligence, while they were actire in diffusing the 
principles of general knowledge, recommended to the world 
those more free and philosophic views and principles by which 
they were actuated. These views and principles, have, in 
every age, and in every country where they have appeared, 
been the terror of ignorant and corrupt governors ; and to the 
friends of high church and James, they were at this time 
peculiarly obnoxious. Every nerve was therefore strained 
to carry a measure which had so great an object, as their 
suppression in view, and the results of which, were considered 
so promising. The more rigorous clauses were opposed in 
the cabinet by lord Oxford, and on the day of its final 
decision, he absented himself from the house; but it was 
carried in the house of commons, by two hundred and thirty- 
seven voices, against one hundred and twenty<-six« In the 
house of lords, it had only a majority of eight.* On the day 
fixed for its commencement, however, the queen died, its exe- 
cution was suspended, and it remained a dead letter on the 
statute book, till the year 1718, when it was repealed. The 
Scotish acts, have not to this day, except very partially, and 
in some minor points, been repealed ; but in the progress of 
our history, though they originated in bigotry and ignorance 
of the worst kind, we shall find that they have some of them 
at least, so far from answering their original intention, pro* 
moted in a high degree, the best interests of liberty and religion. 
The men who projected these measures, as well as those 
who principally supported them, were all known Jacobites. 
The bill for preventing the growth of schism, was brought in 
by Sir William Windham, and specially supported by 
secretary Bromley; and Lockhart of Carnwath, claims the 

^ Memoirs of Queen Anne, &c. &c. p. 997. Sommenrille^s Hjitory of 
Great Britain, ^'c. p. 561. 


honour of being the prime agent in all those measuresi that 
have ao^ loaterially afiected the church of Seodatid) for which, 
his avowed motive was, to discredit the Uoioo* and to render 
it so intolerable to the Sootish people in general, that tbeyr 
might be willing to run all hazards, even to the length of 
restoring the Stuarts, in order to have it diasolved^ They had , 
also the address, even previously to these legal and orderly 
advances towiirds their object, to have a gratuity bestowed 
upon the clans, and, under* the pfetence of rendering them 
serviceable to the queen, having them trained to the use of 
arms, of which great quantities were clandestinely carried into 
the Highlands, and cantioosly distributed among those only, 
who were known to be enemies to the religion and liberties of 
the country.f * 

Finding the labours of their deputation to London fruitless, 
or rather productive of additional mischief-^for the abjuration 
attached to the toleration bill was ascribed by the Jacobites, 

* * As my ehief^ my only design, by engfiging in public affiurs, was to serve 
the kmg, se fer as I was eapiible» I bad that always priowiiy in my view ; and 
at the same time, I was veiy desirous, when a proper occasion hflppened^ that 
the ScoU nation should have the honour of appearing os unanimously as pos- 
sible for him ; and in order to prepare those, who, I knew, would not assist the 
king, out of a principle of loyalty, (I mean the west eountry presbyterians,} 
for rec«nng impressions, that might prevail with them on other topics, I 
had. in coacert with Dr. Abercroroby, been at a good deal of pains, to publish 
and disperse amongst these people, papers whidi gave from time to time, full 
accounts of what were likely to be the consequences of the Union, and bhowcd 
bow impossible it was fur the Scots to subsist under it. And I pressed the 
toleration and patronage acts more earnestly, that I thought the presbyterkii 
cler;gy, would be from thence convinced, diat the establishment of their kirk, 
roold ia time be overturned, aa it was obvioiM, that the security thereof, wax 
DOC so thoroughly establiahed by the Union, as they imagined ; and I believed 
this affair of the malt ta^, as it touched every man's copyhold, and was a general 
grievance, would be the best handle to inflame and keep up the spirit and 
resentment of the Scots against the Union, the efTects whereof, (from the dis- 
position that I observed of the people, towards the kii^, about tho time 
of the derigoed invasioa, I70S, which in many, was then chiefly occasioned 
by their fresh indigoatioo at the Union, though the same began now lo cool, 
which b commonly the fate of all reduced, and accustomed to slavery,) I did 
conclude, would certainly tend to advance the king's interest " Lockhart 
Pipen, vol. i. pp. 417, 418. 

t Rac's History of the Rebellion, p. 40- 

I. u 


who could not take it, to the officious intermeddling of Mr* 
Carstairs, and the recognition of ^^tbe lords spiritual," in 
their petition to the peers, gave great offence to some of 
the severer presbyterians — ^the commission of the general as- 
sembly, agreed, on their meeting at Ekiinburgh, in the month 
of March, immediately after the passing of the bill, as the last 
resource, to address the queen for relief, which they did in 
manner following: — ** May it please your majesty. Upon 
notice we had of a bill depending in parliament, intitled, A 
hiU to prevent the ditiuHmg qf thoK ^^ in 

Scotland, in the exercise qf their reHgioug worship^ and in the use 
^the Uturgy qfthe church ^England; we in all humility, pre- 
sumed to address your majesty, for the preservation of our 
present establishment, as secured to us by law, and for pre- 
venting the inconveniences that might ensue on the foresaid 
toleration, at the passing whereof thereafter, in both houses of 
parliament, we cannot but be deeply affected. 

^^ But now that by the foresaid bill, the oath of abjuration, 
enacted for the better security of your majesty's person and 
government, and the establishment of the succession to the 
crown in the protestant line, is appointed to be taken by all 
ministers, we do, in most humble duty, truly and sincerely 
own and acknowledge, that your majesty is lawful and rightful 
queen of this realm, and of ail your other dominions and 
countries thereunto belonging: and do solemnly and sincerely 
declare, that we do believe the person pretended to be the 
prince of Wales, during the life of the late king JameSy and 
since his decease pretending to be and taking upon himself 
the style and title of king of England^ by the name of James 
the eighth, or the style and title of king of Great Britain^ hath 
not any right or title whatsoever to the crown of this realm, 
or any other of the dominions thereunto belonging ; and we 
do most heartily renounce and refuse any allegiance or 
obedience to him ; and we withal, solemnly and sincerely 
profess, that we will bear faith and troe allegiance to your 
majesty, in all duties and occnsions whatsomever, that can be 
incumbent on us. And further, we do faithfully promise to 
the utmost of our power to support, maintain, and defend the 
succession of the crown in the protestant line against the said 


pretender, and all. other persons whatsoever, understanding 
the foresaid oath of abjuration in the fullest sense wherein it 
can be understood, to renounce and disclaim any right that 
the said pretender can claim to your foresaid dominions; 
and, in the plain sense of the words, in so far as the said 
oath, and the acts to which it refers, settles and entails the 
succession of the crown of these dominions, for default of issue 
of your majesty, on the princess Sophioj electress dutchess 
dowsger of Hanooer^ and the keirs of her body being pro- 

^* But seeing we cannot dissemble with your majesty, that 
there remains a scruple with many, as if the conditions men* 
tioned in the acts of parliament, establishing the succession, 
referred to by the said oath, were to be understood as a part 
thereof, and that to swear to something in these conditions, 
seems not consistent with our known principles. And that it 
is expressly declared and statuted, by the treaty and articles 
of Union, and the acts of parliament of both kingdoms 
ratifying the same, that none of the subjects of Sooibmd shall 
be liable to, but all and every one of them for ever free, of any 
oath, test, or subscription, within ScoUandj contrary to, or 
inconsistent with our present presbyterian church establish* 
ment; we, in the most humble and dutiful manner, most 
earnestly beseech and obtest, that this, our address and repre- 
sentation, and most sincere declarations therein contained, 
may be graciously accepted by your majesty, without respect 
to the foresaid conditions scrupled at, as the just and true 
signification of our allegiance and duty, and our sense of the 
foresaid oath and engagement, to prevent all mistakes and 
misrepresentations that possibly we may be liable to in this 
matter." &c. &c.* 

Much has been said of the rebellious genius, and the in- 
tractable spirit of presbytery. This address, however, will, 
we should suppose, appear to men of all parties sufficiently 
submissive. Unfortunately too, the addressers could derive 
no benefit from it, but by the queen assuming that dispensing 
power, the exercise of which had been one of the most aggra- 

* Prioted Acts of Assembly, 1719. 


yated chaises agaiiifit king James ; and to a«k that which her 
mqesty could not legally grants waa^ to speak in the softest 
terms, in the church of Scotland highly unbecoming. At the 
same time, her majesty seems to have been willing to gratify 
them as far as was in her power. The withdrawing of the 
civil sanction from ecclesiastical censures, bad filled the hearts 
of all good men with fearful apprehensions of^what^ were it 
possible to alter instantaneously national feelings, and national 
habits, by positive laws, would moat certainly have been the 
immediate consequence — an overwhelming flood of immo-> 
fality,* and, on the meeting of the General Assembly, May 
the first, 1718, in her letter by the commissioner, John, duke 
of Athol, keeping her eye on this very subj/ect^ slie thus soothe 
ingly addresses them : — '' It hath always been our concern to 
employ our authority for suppressii^ vice and immorality, and 
we assure you, that such magistrates as siiall be most faithful 
in executing the laws and conforming themselves to our royal 
pleasure, signified in our proclamations, in punishing all such 
practices as are a scandal to the christian profession, shall hav^ 
most of our countenance and favour. Lest any late occurs 
rences may have possessed some of you with fears and jealousies, 
we take this solemn occasion to assure you, it is our firm pur* 
pose to maintain the church of Scotland as established by law; 
and whatever ease is given to those who difier from you in 
points, that are not essential, we will, however, employ our 
utmost care to protect you firom all insults, and redress your 
just complaints.'' The assembly, in return, observe, ^^ It is a 
sntisfaction to us that your majesty is pleased to assure us, that 
such magistrates, as shall be most faithful in executing the laws 
against those practices which are a scandal to the christian pro- 

* Ths advantages flowiag from nioral and religious habits, and the mis- 
chievous tendency of bad laws, were, perhaps, never more fully manifested 
than in Scotland by these measures. Awed by moral and religious feeling, 
patrons, for a number of years, took little interest in the settlement of parishes, 
and it was long before candidates were found profligate enough to acknowledlge 
them. Had it not been for the shameless conduct of ajinisterial candidates^ 
patronage might have to this day remained a dead inofiensive letter. Magis- 
trates too, continued to act as formerly, notwithstanding the new law, and it 
was comparatively long before the church of Scotland knew how much, by 
those acts, she had been shorn of her strength. 


i Lari on, ibdl hove most of your nugcstyVi countenance and 
tAvour; and we humbly prenime to persuade ourselves, that 
your nugcs^ wiD, in your royal wisdam, find out such methods 
us sbaQ be most prc^^er finr making your pious purposes, ex- 
pvessed in your royal proclamations, mote effectual than 
kitberto, to our deep regret, they have been. 

** The late occurrences, which your mi^csty is pleased to 
t^ke notice of, have, we must acknoidedge, possessed os with 
fears and jealouaes : but as we have always embraced, and do 
at present lay hold upon the assurance your majesty is pleased 
to give us, of your firm purpose to maintain the church of 
Scotland, as established by law, so we cannot, but with all 
dutiftil submission, and in that truth and ingenuiQr that be* 
conies Ae finthiul ministers and servants of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, put your rosjesty in mind of the representations and 
petitions laid before you by the commission of the last General 
Assembly, for a remedy in these matters ; humbly hoping that 
our most just complaints may come in due time and manner 
to be redressed.*'* 

l%e measures pursued by this assembly, however, were not 
calculated for obtaining any thing like a speedy redress of their 
grievanoe& Instead of intrenching themselves behind that I^al 
constitution, which hod so lately been declared unalterable; 
laying open the absurdity and contradiction of the oath itself, 
with its consequent sinfulness ; discharging all under their ii^ 
spection, from discrediting their principles, and debaudiing their 
consciences by having any thing to do with it, and, with the 
spirit of ancient conifassors, boldly saying, we are not careful, 
O queen, to answer thee in this matter, they contented them- 
selves with simply approving the representations of the com- 
mission, which they ordered to be engrossed in their books, 
made a similar protestation of loyalty, and, after suppli- 
cating, in the same words, for a dispensatbn for such of their 
brethren as might find themselves under the necessity of re- 
fining it, proceeded to « most seriously obtest all the ministers 
and members of this church, whatever may happen to be their 
<Uffierent practice, to entertain a good understanding herein, 

♦ Printed Acts of Assembly, 1712. 


in all mutual forbearance, firmly hoping, through the grace of 
God, that if they continue in the same good mind, seeking aod 
serving the Lord in sinceriQr, and bearing with one another in 
mutual love and charity, our gracious God will extricate us 
out of all these difficulties." They also ^^ instructed and em- 
powered their commission, to advert carefully to all good 
opportunities, and to use all proper and dutiful means and 
methods, whereby these our grievances may be redressed;" but 
a paper, proposing some means to be used for that end, drawn 
up by Mr. John Hepburn, minister of the parish of Urr, and 
a number of the societies in the south and south-west adhering 
to him, was rejected without so much as a hearing.* 

There appears to have been a great neglect of the ordinance 
of the Lord's Supper in the church of Scotland at this period ; 
and this assembly passed an act, ordering its dispensation in 
every parish at least once a year. The assembly further re- 
newed their injunctions with regard to the society for propa- 
gating christian knowledge in the Highlands and Islands, and 
had the satisfaction of learning, from a committee of that 
society, that they had already agreed to set up eleven schools, 
beside the catechist or schoolmaster established at St. Kilda, 
viz. one at Abertarf, one in Castletown of Braemar, a third in 
Auchintoul, these last both in the Highlands of Aberdeen, a 
fourth in the parish of Larg, in Sutherland, a fifth in the 
parish of Durness, in Slrathnaver, a sixth in Erlish, in the 
presbytery of Skye, an eighth in Glenelg, a ninth in Harray, 
Orkney, a tenth in the Island of Sandy, in the north Isles 
there, and the eleventh in Zetland ; and it was added, that 
for all these they had found young men duly attested, and 
upon suitable trial sufficiently qualified. Another act was 
also passed, in favour of students having the Irish or Erse 
language, in order that there might be an abundant supply of 
instruments for the propagating the light of divine truth in that 
benighted portion of the country ; and the assembly was con- 
cluded with a *^ recommendation to all synods, presbyteries, 
and kirk sessions to be much in prayer for direction to the 
ministers and judicatories of this church, and that God would 

^ Humble Pleadings, &c. &c. 


preserve what be has wrought for us, and to return thanks 
to Crod for bringing this assembly to so comfortable a con- 

The assembly having thus left the oath of abjuration to 
be taken or not, according to the discretion of individuals, it 
became a grievous snare to the church of Scotland. Many 
minbters absolutely refused it ; and many members declined 
all communion with those who took it. Many of those, too, 
who took it, took it with explanations, which went to render 
their taking it of no utility, and made them objects of pity to 
their nonjuring brethren, and of contempt to their enemies 
the Jacobites, who were watchful spectators of their conduct, 
and did not fail to represent it in the most odious light.f 

* Index to unprinted Aeu of Assembly, 171S. 

f The following is a copy of the oath : — ** I A. B. do truly and sincerely 
acknowledge, profess, testify, and declare, in roy conscience, before God and 
the world, that our sovereign lady, queen Anne, is lavrfiil and rightful queen 
of this realm, and of all other her majesty's dominions and countries there- 
unto belonging. And I do solemnly and sincerely declare, that I do believe, 
in my consdence, the person pretended to be prince of Wales, duriug the life 
of the late king James, and since his decease pretendmg to be, and taking 
upon himself the style and title of king of England, by the name of James the 
third, or of Scotland, by the name of James the eighth, or the btyle aud title 
of king of Great Britain, hath not any right or title whatsoever to the crown 
of this realm, or any other the dominions thereunto belonging. And I do 
renounce, refuse^ and abjure any alliance, or obedience to him. And I do 
bwear that I will bear fiiith and true allegiance to her majesty, queen Anne, 
and her will defend to the utmost of my power, against traitorous conspiracies 
and attempts whatsoever which shall be made against her person, crown, and 
dignity. And I will do my utmost endeavour to disclose and make known to 
her majesty and her successors all treasons and traitorous conspiracies which I 
shall know to be against her, or any of tbem. And I do fiiithfully promise to 
the utmost of my power, to support, maintain, and defend the succession of 
the crown agmnst him, the said James, and all other persons whatsoever, as 
the same is and stands settled by an act cuiituled, An aci declaring the rights 
and Hbertiet of the tubfect, and settling the succestion of the erown to her present 
vMJestyy and the heirs of her body being protestants; and as the same by 
another act entituled. An oat for the further Htnitaiion of the croum, and better 
teairing the rights and liberties of the subject, is aud stands settled and entailed, 
■iter the decease of her majesty, and for default of issue of her majesty, to the 
princess Sophia, electress and duuhcas dowager of Hanover, and the heirs of 
her body, being protestanu. And all these things I do plainly and sincerely 
acknowledge and swear, according to the exprei^s words by roe spoken, and 


These latter had also the craft to raise aa opifiiw which was 
widely spread, and readily reported by some of the ji^raot 
presbyterians, to bring discredit upon their nonjuring brethren^ 
that the scruples they had against the oaih were raised by 

according to the piaia and commoa sense and understandiii^ of the same words, 
without any equivocadoD, mental evasion, or secret reservation whatsoever. 
And I do make this recognition and promise, heartily, willingly, and tnilyy 
upon the true fdth of a christian. So hefp me OotL** 

The following is the declaration^ wfaieh was made at takiag the oath, by the 
synod of Dumfries^ and it may he p^etumed that explanatioqs made in other 
plsces would be of a similar tendency :-— " We, the ministers of the established 
church of Scotland, in the synod of Dumfries and sheriffdom thereof under- 
subscribing, are come hither to take the oath of abjuration, required of us 
by authority ; which the act of security, for our church govermnent, obliges 
us to understand only in a sense that is not any way contrary imto, or in- 
consbtent with the true protestant rel^ioD, presbyt«riaa church govemmeat, 
worship, and discipline, established by the said act, conform to ao address from 
this ehurch to her majesty, gradousiy received by her : anda therefore, we 
do declare, that we uke it only in the said sense ; and thst we reckon our- 
selyes nowise obliged, from any thing in this oath, to approve of, or support 
the hierarchy, or ceremonies of the church of England, or any thing contrary 
to the said presbyterian church govermnent, worship, and discipline. The 
which declaration we conceive to be agreeable to the true meaniii^ of the 
words of the oath : and, therefore, crave the same to be recorded in the 
justices of the peace of the said sheriffdom their books, as the only sense 
wherdn we take the said oath. Signed at Dumfries," &c. &c.* 

The following account of the. matter, by Lockhart of Carnvath, hM a good 
deal of bitterness, but, we are afraid, at the same time, a great deal of troth. 

^ It is also well worth remarking, that such of the presby terian brethrea as, in 
compliance with this law, became jurors, aeted as odd a part, in the way and 
manner of theu* taking, as Mr. Carstares did in obtaining the oath of abjuration; 
for, as a great many, especially ki and near to Edinburgh, would not by non- 
compliance run the hazard of incurring the penaldes in the act contained, 
they were at the same time very solicitous to retain their reputation with the 
populace, and, in order thereto, framed ane explanation, containing the sense 
in which they took the said oath, viz. in su far as it was consistent with their 
known pribciples, and no further. After the brethren of the presbytery of 
Edinburgh, and I was told they followed the same method in most other 
places, had sworn and signed the oath, which to them was administered by a 
full meeting of the justices of peace, they retired to a comer of the court, 
where Mr. Carstares repeated, or rather whispered, over the aforesaid ex- 
planation, in his own and his brethren's names, and thereupon he took instni- 
ments in the hands of a public noiar, brought thither by him for that effect. 

• IUe*» Hictory orth« Rebellion, p. la. 


tbe Jesuits, for no other purpose but to create dissension; 
4od this silly sarmise had, in several instances, a more mis- 
ckievous tendency, and tended to create disgust and disaffec- 
tion, in a higher degree than even the oath itself. Upon the 
whole, however, the effect of these measures was far di£Ferent 
from what their projectors anticipated, and, instead of for- 
warding Ae views of the Jacobites, were the principal means 
of blasting them for ever. 

Under the leading of Sacheveral, and the excitement of 
Oxford and Bolingbrdce, the clergy of Ekigland had been 
brought to preach little else than the doctrine of indefeasible 
hereditary right; the irresistible power of princes, with the 
necessity of a constant succession of diocesan bishops; of all 
ecclesiastical administrations by priests episcopally ordained ; 
of auricular confession to them, absolution from them, and of 

This JeBuitical way of doing businessy though it served as a pretext to justify 
them to some poor silly people, exposed them much to the censure of all 
sober thinking persons, it being evident from hence, that, though they roared 
oat against the mental reservations of the church of Rome, they could do the 
very same thing iheoaselves when it served their turns. It proved that either 
they were scrub theologuts^ or men of no conscience ; for, seeing all divines 
and lawyers agree in maintaining that all oaths are taken and binding in the 
sense and terms of the lawgiver imposing the same, any explanation contrary 
to the plain literal meaning of the words, and without the approbation of the 
lawgiver, hath no manner of import whatever. And, moreover, the explana- 
tion was not made puUidy and adhered to in the face of the court, and at 
the time of swearing the oath, so as to stand on record ; though, by the bye, 
the JQstices had no power to consent to and receive the same, being no furder 
authorized and required, than to put the laws in execution, by administering 
the oath in the terms of the act imposing the same. It is, therefore, evident, 
I say, that this explanation was altogether illegal and unwarrantable, a down- 
right juggling with God and man, and a precedent for admitting the greatest 
cheats, and performing the greatest villanies, for by the same rule, why might 
they not abjure Christianity and profess Mahometism, provided they secretly 
declared to be so only so far as consisted with their principles ? And why 
might they not falsely swear away any man's life and fortune, provided they 
prirately declared that their oath was to be understood as probative, in so far 
ooly as it connsted with truth ? But the baseness and bad consequences of 
such principles and practices are so conspicuous, and so detested by all men 
of honour and conscience, there is no need of enlaiging furder, the bare re- 
cital of the fact, to which I was an eye-witness, being more than enough 
to create in such a just abhorrence of it, and all who act af^ that manner." 
Lockhart Papers, vol. i. pp.584, 985. 
I, X 


propitiatory tacrifioes o£Pered up by tkeiii^ so that the poor 
people, ignoFant at best, were eirery day beomning more so, 
and, careless of eidier civil or religions interests, were basting 
to have their necks again enwreathed in the iron yokes of 
tyranny and superstiticHi. So &r, however, were the ministers 
of the &otirii establishment from imitating so peniicioas an 
example, that they, for the most part, pursued exactly an 
opposite course ; and from the inroads msde upon the liberty 
€i the cbiicch, took occasion to vindicate her institutions, to 
expose those false principles which gnided her enemies; and 
to point out ^e doleful eonsequenees that behoved to follow 
the completion of those snperstructsres, that were attempting 
to be founded upon her ruins.*^ 

At the same time, it must be admitted, that the iiU>oucs of 
the well affected part of the church of Scotland, were greatly 
counteracted by the zeal of their opponents* Assuring them- 
selves that they had now the favour of the government, the 
disaffected of every class displayed peculiar activity, and 
Romish priests, under the patronage of the Jacobite nobility 
and gentry, swarmed in almost all parts of the country, par* 
ticulnrly in the north, in the islands, about Aberdeen, and in 
the south, where Jacobitism was more prevalent than in the 
middle and western districts. These, under the protection 
of the chiefs of the Isi^tion, were so bold as to go about all 
the parts of their religion ; and they were so successful as to 
subvert whole parishes, and retain even considerable districts 
in Romish darkness. This was particularly the case in 
Lochaber, Glengarry, Moydart, Arisaig, and the Island of 
Skye, where the light of protestantism had been but partially 
diffused, during the brightest periods of the reformation. A 
popish bishop of the name of Bruce, had even the confidence 
to fix his residence openly in Perthshire, where he lived in 
great splendour, sent forth emissaries in every direction, and 
performed the duties of bis office as freely and formally as if 
he had had public authority for so doing. The people, at the 
same time, resorted to their idolatrous places of worship in 
the same manner as if they had been parish churches. In 

• Rae's History of the Reballioi^ pp. 36^38. 


these they published banns, celebrated marriages, baptisms, 
and masses ; and for their support schocds were estaUiBhed, 
and the more promising youth sent beyond seas, to be pre* 
pared at foreign seminaries for supporting, and diffusing more 
obundantly over the country, the kingdom of darkness. 

This zeal on the part of the papists, was warmly seconded 
by the Scotish episcopal clergy, who, for profanity of conduct, 
and heterodoxy of doctrine, for the most part came, at this 
time, very little, if any thing short of those of Rome; and they 
possessed some advantages for poisoning the public mind, 
which the others did not These advantages they were very 
careful to improve. They had the name of protestant, and 
employed themselves assiduously to persuade the people, that 
the pretender might turn protestant — ^nay, many of them 
affirmed that be was protestant already. <' And what a pity," 
they exclaimed, *^ that the lineal heir of onr crown should be 
obliged to wander in foreign parts, while a family so remote 
as that of Hanover, not within the ninth degree of blood lo 
queen Anne^ should be brought in to reign over us." They 
were also at immense pains to fabricate and to spread the 
most foolish, and false, and calumnious reports of the prow 
testant successor ; affirming that be communicated thrice a 
year with the Romish church, and so was popish as well aa 
the pretender — ^which, had he done bo^ no reasonable man 
would have doubted — and still worse, he was also a pagan, 
and sacrificed to the devil, with many other unworthy but 
ridiculous things, which, though no man of common sense 
contd believe, yet among the unthinking vulgar, who were 
not aware of the design, brought a certain degree of contempt 
apon his character, and had their own weight, even with 
many, who, it might have been presumed, would have been 
superior to such vulgar tnAoence.* 

Participating strongly in that general feeling of insult and 
indignity that prevailed through the country, the old dis*« 
senters under Messrs. John Mackmillan and John Macneili 
felt themselves now called upon to make a still more decided 
appearance against what they supposed the defections of the 

^ Rae's History of the Rebellion, p. 14. 


time than they had hitherto done; and, for this purpose, they 
resolved upon a solemn renewal of the national covenants. 
Great pains were accordingly taken throughout tlie various 
societies, belonging to the general correspondence, to have every 
member properly enlightened upon the subject, and to bring 
them cordially and universally to join in an act, which, whether 
as it regarded the cause of truth and holiness, their own ex- 
oneration, or the best interests of present and future genera- 
tions, they considered &s of the last importance. Draughts of 
an acknowledgment of sins, and an engagement to duties were 
prepared, and, at various meetings of committees, carefully 
corrected ; conferences were held for reconciling all differences 
and disagreements, existing between the societies themselves, 
or between individual members of the societies, and on the 
twenty-sixth of May, 1712, the general meeting at Crawford 
John approved of all these previous preparations, and finding it 
to be the mind of the greater part of the societies, *^ that the 
work of renewing the covenants shall presently be fallen about," 
proceeded to appoint the time and place for its performance. 
Accordingly, after days of fasting had been observed, more 
privately by the several societies, and more publicly by con- 
gregations assembled in the fields, they met at Auchinsaugh, 
near Douglas, in one great body, on Wednesday the twenty- 
third of July, 1712, when Mr. Mackmillan " began the work 
with prayer, for special assistance to attain due preparation for, 
and a suitable frame throughout the whole solemnity.'' After 
giving a prefatory exhortation, Mr. Mackmillan was followed 
by Mr. Macniel, with a sermon suitable to the occasion, which 
being closed with prayer, the covenants were read, and there- 
after the acknowledgment of sins, tlie general heads of which 
were summed up in an extempore prayer ; psalms were then 
sung, and the congregation was dismissed with a reproof from 
Mr. Mackmillan, ^* for their unomcerned carriage and behaviour 
during the reading of the acknowledgment of the breadies of 
these covenants."* 

On Thursday, July 24th, after a sermon by Mr. Mackmillan, 

* Concluiions of the General Meeting, MS. in the possession of the 
Reformed Presbyterian Synod. 


the acknowledgment of sins was again read, and all such as 
were gailty of any such public steps of defection as are con- 
fessed therein, admonished ^* to make full and free confession 
thereof, before the congregation, with such a due sense o^ and 
sorrow for these public sins, as might evidence a hearty design 
of abandoning them.'* Of this, the minister himself set an 
example, and was followed by many others. The *^ engagement 
to duties was also read in the audience of the congregation, 
where it was showed, that the design of these engagements was 
to accommodate the covenants to our case and circumstances.''* 

^ TkefoUomng u the engqgemerU to dvHe* come under fy the CovenanieitM at 
Audmsaaighf 1712: — 

Because it is requisite, in order to obtain mercy, not only to confess, but 
also to forsake our sins, and to do the contrary duties; therefore, that the 
sincerity and reality of our repentance may appear, we resolve, and solemnly 
ei^gage before God, in the strength, and through the assistance of Christ, that 
we shall carefully endeavour, in all time coming, to avoid all these offences, 
whereof we have now made solemn public acknowledgment, and all the snares 
and temptations tending thereunto ; and to testify this sincerity of our re- 
solution, and that we may be the better enabled, in the power of the Lord's 
might, to perform the same, wc do again renew our covenants, both national 
and solemn league, promising to make conscience of a more exact performance 
of all tiie duties therein contained, so far as we in our stations, and present 
deplorable circumstances, are capable, particularly such as follow : 

Because religion is of all things the most excellent and precious in its own 
nature, and therefore most to be desired by the children of men, and the 
knowledge of the great truths of the gospel, so generally decreased in this 
land, b so absolutdy necessary to salvation ; therefore, in order to attain it, 
we shall labour to be better acquaint^^ with the written word of God, the 
only infallible rule of faith and manners; and shall (according to our 
capacity) study more than formerly, the doctrine of the reformed church of 
Scotland, summed up in oiur Confestion of Faith, Catechisms, Larger and 
Shorter, Sum of Christian Doctrine, and Practical use of saving Knowledge, 
Dkedary for Worship, (as the same was received and observed by this church 
m her purest times, viz. in the year 1649,) Propositions concerning Church 
Government and ordination of Ministers, annexed to the Confession of Faith, 
and other writings, clearing and confirming these truths, approven by thb 
church, and agreeable to the word of God. 

We shall likewise endeavour the advancii^ and promoting the power of this 
true reformed religion, against all ungodliness and profimity, and the securing 
and preserving the purity thereof, against all kind of error, heresy, and schism, 
as namely. Independency, Brownism, Aoabaptism, Antinomianism, Arminian- 
ism, Socinianism, Libotinism, Familisro, Scepticism, Quakerism, Deism, 
BupgDonismy and Erastianism ; and as we declare, that we willingly agree in 


Haying again ^ prayed fer the gractons presence and assdstance 
of the Divine Spirit, the minister pcdceeded to the administratioii 
of theoadi, causing the peof^ to stand up, and to elevate their 
hands at the end of each article.'' After suitable exhortations} 
the congregation was dismissed in the nsual form. 

our consdences unto the doctrine of the church of Scotland, in all points, at 
unto God's undoubted truth and verity, grounded only upon his written word, 
so we resolve constantly to adhere unto, maintain and defend, profess and 
confess, and (when called of God) to yield ourselves sufferers for the said 
doctrine, as we shall desire to be approven- and confessed by Jenia Chrift^ 
before God and his holy angels. 2dly, We shall alsd study more sincerity, 
uprightness, and heart-integrity in the worship of God, and shall not satisfy 
ourselves with the form of it, without the power and spirituality, which God^ 
the alone object of religious worship, doth require; and shall endeavour die 
due performance of all the duties of religions worship, which God hath in his 
most holy word required; and shall (if providence offer occasion) endeavour 
to recover, and labour to preserve the purity thereof, from all eomifitioM^ 
mixtures, innovations, and inventions of men, popish, prdatical, or any othe»; 
and while we are not able, by reason of the prevaOing power of the abettors 
and maintainers of them, to get them removed, we shall laboar (throngll 
grace) to keep ourselves free from all sinful communion, and partieipatioif 
with them, and shall in our stations testify agaiiiBt these corruptions and pei^ 
versions of God's worship, by all competent meant. Sdly, We shril likewne, 
by all lawful means, endeavour, that presbyterian church government, io kirk 
sessions, presbyteries, synods, and general assemblies, may be recovered ia its 
former purity, established upon its proper basis and foundation, the word of 
God ; and that it may be freed from all encroachments and invasions made thero- 
upon, by the powers of the earth ; and that the discipline of the churchy aay be 
impartially exercised against all scandalous offenders, great or small ; and when 
the ministers of this church, or any of them, shatl sincerely and eoasei* 
entiously endeavour the restoration of the government, in all its privil^es, and 
freedom from all erastian encroachments, and to have the discipline, duly and 
impartially exercised, then we promise to be obedient, and subject diereunto 
as becomes the flock of Christ, but shall always testify our dislike of all en- 
croachments, made and yielded to, prejudicial to the privileges which Christ 
hath bestowed upon his church. 

4thly, We shall always desire and pray for the reviving of the work of 
uniformity in the three kingdoms, and (if the Lord in his providence shall 
offer opportunity) shall seek and endeavour it by other means, possible, lawful, 
expedient, and competent to us in our capacities ; and shall never cordially 
consent unto, nor cease to testify against whatsoever doth obstruct and 
hinder that work of uniformity ; and shall detest and abhor all multiformity, 
introduced by erastianism, prelacy, and sectarianism, now so prevalent, and 
confirmed by this late Union with England. 
According to the snd Article, we shall do our utmost endeavour to have 


This transaction^ ai» might naturally have been expected, ex- 
cited mudi speculation at the time, and has been the subject of 
no little controveisy, even among the friends of covenanting. 
It seems, however, to have been followed up by i^ 

the land puiged of popiib idolatry, and the mOQuaieats thereof destroyed, 
particularly the i^wBinatioD of t^ mass, aad to for as lies in our power, ihaU 
oerer auftr the nine to be re-iatroduced, or erected again, nor favour any 
atteiDptB tendiag theretuito. We shall never make any conjuoction widt 
these abominahle popish idolaten, at home or abroad, in ansies or othervise, 
and shall, accordbg to our natiooid covenant, detest and abhor all tbcfir 
nieked, sapersdtious rites and ceremonies. We shall never consent, lor any 
reasosi whafaoever, that dw penal statotes aoade against papists should be 
snaatted ; bot shall, when opportwiity offers, be ready to ooncur in patting 
fhcm to a due aad vigorous execution. Sdly, We shall by all approven 
Bieaas, in our statioBS and voeations, endeavour the extirpation of prelacy, 
and shall never submit to that wicked hierarchy of 4>ishops, archbishops, Sec, 
having superiority of order and jurisdictbn, above preaching presbyters, 
whether crastian or only diocesan, in any form or degree, howsoever reformed, 
> limited, or restricted, by caotiona and provisions of men, 
; that all soch superiority is fiatly condemned in the word of God, and 
hadi proven many times fatal to the duirch of Christ. We shall detest and 
abhor, aad in our stations witness against whatsoever courses, tending to the 
csteblishment of that abominable hierarchy, and particularly, the oaths of 
alie^aiice, with the assurance and oath of abjuration, lately iaiposed oo tbe 
persons of public trust in these realms, in regard tiiey may justly be interpreted, 
ao stnngtben that hierarchy, by upholding the persons that maiotaia the 
eaese. We shall not subfldt to any orders issued forth by bishops, nor own 
them as our lawgiven, nor acknowledge any title tiiey have to be members of 
pariiament or council. 5dly, We shall, in like manner, detest and abbor, and 
hboar to extirpate dl kinds of superstitioa, all rites and ceremonies, super- 
added by human invention to the worship of God, not enjoined and required 
in his word, together with all heresy and false doctrine, and all profanencsa 
and immaralities of every kind, and whatsoever is contrary to sound religion, 
and shall, in the strength, and through the help of Christ, endeavour to demy 
all ungodliness and worldly lusts, and from henceforth, to live righteously 
towards our neighbour, soberly io ourselves, and to walk humbly with our 

We sfaidl, upon the one hand, endeavour to keep oursehres, as far as we 
can, firom all partaking in other men's sins, by consenting unto, association, 
incoqporadon, combination, compliance with, or conniving at their sins, and 
upon the other, to goard against all schism, and tialul separation, or unjust, 
raih, and disorderly withdrawing from societies, congregations or families, or 
any part of the communion of the true reformed church of Scotland, holding 
purely and entirely the doctrine, worship, discipline, azKl government of the 
same, in principle and exercise, according to the rules of Christ, and standing 


societies with great zeal; for, at a general meeting, held at 
Crawfordjohn in the succeeding November, we find the fbl* 
lowing conclusions agreed to: — 1st, That such, in each corre- 
spondence, as have not subscribed the covenants, do appoint, in 

acts and conttttutioiis of this churchy coosonant thereunto, at far as the Lord 
gives light therein. And as we look not upon our practice, in withdrawing 
from the backslidden ministers of the present erastian church, for reasons 
valid and sufficient, to be a gathering and setting up formed separated churches, 
under other ordinances and ministry, distinct from the presbyterian church of 
Scotland (although we be falsely aspersed as doing it), so we purpose and 
resolve, always to adhere to that standard of doctrine, discipline, and govern- 
ment, and that purity and form of worship, which, during our reforming 
times, were established, and to embrace such ordinances, and such a ministiy, 
as are of divine appointment, and that we shall not presume to withdraw from 
minister or member of that body, for any offence, in any case, where either 
the offence may be l^ally removed, without withdrawing, or cannot be in- 
structed to be condemned by the word of God, and constitutions of this 
church, or is in itself an insufficient ground of withdrawing, or where it is not 

■ defended, or obstinately persisted in, or is a thing to be condescended upon, 
forborne, or foiigiven, but shall study to maintain union and christian com- 
munion with all, and every one, whether minister or private christian, who 
adheres unto the purity of the doctrine, worship, discipline, and government 
of the church of Scotland, and to the whole word of Christ's patience^ in the 
sufferings and contendings of his people, in opposition to his enemies' en- 
croachments, and shall join in the way of truth and duty, with all who do^ 
and in so far as they do adhere to the institutions of Christ. And because 
many have laboured to supplant the liberties of the true kirk, and have, in a 
great measure, of late, by indulgencies and toleration, and now by oaths of 
allegiance and abjuration, and encroaching on the freedom of Christ's courts, 

. obtained their design ; we shall therefore, to our power, withstand and witness 
against all these encroachments, made upon the liberties of Christ's church 
in our land, and when we can do no more, shall withdraw our countenance 
and concurrence from such as hold their freedom from, and are modified by 
such usurpations, and shall neither hear their sermons, nor pay them stipends, 
while they continue unfaithful ; and shall, whenever God gives us cq>portunity, 
endeavour to recover, and when recovered, to maintain and defend the 
liberties and privileges of the church of Scotland, against all who shall oppose 
and undermine the same, or encroach thereupon, under any pretext whatsoever. 
With reference to the 3d article, wherein we are bound to defend the 
privileges of the parliament, liberties of the kingdoms, and the king's majesty's 
person and authority, in the defence of the true reformed religion; albeit 
God, in his righteous judgment, hath left the nation so far to the counsels of 
their own hearts, as to suffer them to set up magistrates, wanting the qualifi* 
cations requisite, and to fill places of power and trust, with insufficient and 
disaffected persons, who have no respect to the interests of religion, and this 

HiMxiftv OF ecorriANix 169 

tbeir booadB) a day for pim3r«r, and tfaereaAer, to write down 
thtir Dimet on paper, and send llicm to fiieir respective corre- 
spondenots, that they may iiring them to die next general 
raeetmg, wkh warrant granted by theia aa the clerk lo sabtfcribe 

utioii in particuilar, to giye up the rigbu aad privil^gei of pBrliament and 
kjogdom to the will and lust of the English^ and so to betray the interest 
both of religion and civil liberty, for unworthy by-ends ; yet we purfxise and 
promise^ that we shall alwi^s in our capacities bear witness against these 
courses, and shall not b^ any means corroborate then, or encourage and 
countenance the maintainers and abettors of them. And if ever the Lord in 
bis mercy shall be pleased to open a door of relief^ and break the cords of 
the ungodly, we shall not be wantiiig in all lawful and suitable endeavoun 
to promote^ to our power^ the recovery of that liberty and freedom which 
we have loat^ and to have these acts and oatha, which impede reformation, 
rescinded; and that all the righteous laws made in &vour of the covenanted 
reformatiop may be put in full forces and duly executed. 

We shall earnestly pray to God, that he would give us able men, men of 
truth, fearing' God and baung covetousness, to bear chaige over his people, 
and that all places of power and trust, in church, state, or army, may consist 
of, and be filled with men of known good affection to the cause of God, and 
of a christian and blameless conversation; and when it shall please the I^rd 
to give ut such magistrates and judges, supreme and subordinate, then we wW, 
in the terms of the covenant^ yield allegiance to them, and loyally subject to 
their good government, not from any by-end, or sinistrous principle, but out 
of oncere obedience to God's commandment, and shall willingly support and 
defend them, with our estates and lives, in thdr preserving and defending the 
true reformed protestant religion, in doctrine, worship, discipline, and 
government ;. and suppressing all kinds of false religion in their dominions, and 
in the administration of justice and punishment of iniquity; but while the 
Lord, in bis just displeasure for our sins, withholds such from us, we intend 
to wait till he turn away his ai^er, and not to stretch forth our hands to 
iniquity, in owning and countenancing such as are not duly qualified, as par- 
ticularly these that are popish or prelatical, in their prefqpsed principle and 
practice, and by oaths, engage themselves to maintain, and accordingly to 
defend the prelatical form of church government, who oppose and encroach 
upon the true government of Christ's house, by their suprem^y, and tolerate 
sectarian errors in tbeir dominions, and that every one of inem, supieroe or 
aibordinate ; and shall not corroborate their unjust authority, by paying them 
cess and supply, for upholding their corrupt courts and al-mies, employed in 
an nojust and antichri:it]an quarrel, or by compearing before tbeir judicatories, 
eitber to defend or pursue law-suits, or upon any other account.*^ 

Because we are not in a case to bring to due trial and punisbiaent eondigo, 
(according) to the merit of their offences^ malignaats and evil instrtunenta, 
accortfing to the 4th article^ therefore we shall endeavour fo heap oursalvMi 

• Tb'u part of Uie cngigoment bat, we tellore, judftew from wiiat bM 9omt iMdtr our omi 
*wnr-tion, become 6b$oleit. 

I. Y 


in their name. . Snd, That the oovenapts, as they were renevred 
at Douglas, be benoefordi made the formal terms of .our oooi- 
munion; and that e^ery correspondence have a bound copy, 
with four sheets of de^n paper,- for -the subscriptions, of all who 

as far as possible, from any compliance with, or approbation of, tbdr cause 
and courses, opposite to the cause and work of God, and shall endeavour to 
keep at a distance from every thing that may any ways import an unitive con- 
junction, association, or* confederacy with them, or strengthening them in 
their opposition to the cause of God, the covenanted interest. We shall, 
through grace, endeavour to represent before the throne of justice their wicked 
courses, and pray that God would defeat their inventions, though we sbaH 
always, as become christians> implore die throne of grace for mercy to their 
souls, so far as it may be consistent with God's eternal purpose of electing 
love. Moreover, we shall always endeavour to guard against all unwarrantable 
and irregular ways, not approven in God's word, of punishing roalignants and 
incendiaries, for their opposition to reformation. 

Whereas, in the 5th article, we are bound to endeavour, that the kingdoms 
may remain united in a most firm peace and union to all posterity; which 
union did consist in an uniformity in doctrine, worship, discipline, and govsm- 
roent, though (as was said) it is now laid aside ; and an union entered into 
which establishes multiformity therein, and so is the opposite of this cove- 
nanted Union. We shall, therefore, deny our consent unto, and approbation 
of this Union, and shall, as we have in weakness been witnessing against it for- 
merly, so continue to do for the future, and shall not corroborate or strengthen 
the same; biit upon the contrary (if the Lord aflbrd opportunity), shall do our 
utmost to have the Union of the kingdoms settled upon the true covenanted 
basis; and shall lay out ourselves, os far as possible, to entertain correspondence 
and sympathy with every one in the kingdoms of England and Ireland, who 
do or shall, to our knowledge, adhere to this league and covenant. 

According to the 6th article, considering what danger we and all oor 
brethren, under the bond and owning the obligation of these covenants, are 
in, and may be exposed unto, from the popish and prelatical malignant faction 
still prevailing, and from this backslidden church ; and being sensible of the 
many defects, which have been amongst us, in the duty of defending and 
assisting one another, in maintaining the common cause of religion and liberty, 
we do here solemnly enter into a bond of association with all that do now 
renew these covenants, with the acknowledgment of the public sins and 
breaches, and the engagement to the duties thereof, and concert and assert 
the old covenanted cause and quarrel, ks our fiithers stated and contended for 
it, from the year 1638 to the year 1650. Which cause of the covenanted 
reformation in doctrine, worship, discipline, and government, and all interests 
or rights, religious or civil, contended for dtu^ing the foresaid space of years ; 
condudng to promote the same, we faithfully promise to prosecute, propagate, 
preserve, and maintain, to the utmost of our power, with our lives and all that 
we have ; and to adhere to all the faithful testimonies, protestations, and de- 


are, or shall be memben oonstitaent of their correspondence. 
We find also, stricter conclusions adopted, with respect to die 
appointment, and the attendance of commissioners to thei^ 
general meetings, and orders issued for filling up their session 

daratioiiB»ia the defeace of the foreiaicl covenanted reformation, agreeable to, 
and founded on, God*8 word, ever sbce the foresaid year 1650, not regarding 
the foul aspersions of rebellion, combination, or schism, or what else our ad- 
versaries, from their craft and malice, would put upon us ; sedng what we do 
is so well warranted, and ariseth drom an unfeigned desire to maintain tiie 
true rdigioa ; to obtain the protection and preserve the honour of righteous 
government, and promote the peace and happiness of the kingdoms. 

And, for the better performance of what we here engage to, we shall 
sympathize, bear b\\ burdens, embark our interest with, assist and defend all 
those who enter into, or join with this association and covenant, and shall 
reckon whatsoever is done to the least of us, for this cause, as done to us all 
■n general, and to every one of us in partiodar ; and shall account it a breach 
of covenant, if, seeing our brethren pursMcd lor this cause, and having suffi- 
cient means to comfort and assist them, any of us shall dther make peace 
with the persecutors, bind up their hands, by oaths and bonds, from resisting 
diem, refuse to hide, harbour, or supply their brethren, decline to venture in 
lawful and necessary attempts for their relief, or withdraw from their dutiful 
support ; and bdng thus united and assodated in this cause, as we resolve and 
obUge ourselves to abide in thufirm conjunction, and neither consent nor 
concede to any combination or counsel, suggestion, persuasion, allurement, 
or terror, that may have any known tendency or influence, whether direct 
or indirect, to seduce us, either to division amongst ourselves, or defection to 
our adversaries, or a base indifierency and neutrality between the two ; but 
shall, with alt zeal, fidelity, and constancy, communicate our best help, counsel, 
and concurrence, for promoting all resolutions, which, by common consent, 
shall be found to conduce to the good of the cause ; and shall endeavour to 
discover, oppose and suppress all contrivances or counsels, that may cast in any 
let or impediment, that may be obstructive or prejudicial .to the same. So 
we shall likewise desire, design, and endeavour, (whenever the Lord in his 
providence shall ofler opportunity) to-get the defections, unworthy neutralities, 
and unhappy dirisions, which have long and lamentably wounded and wrecked 
this church, removed and remedied. And shall be willing, with all tender 
sympathy and compassion, to embrace and welcome, with the' outmost bowels 
of Icindness and respect, that we can, all who shall confess and forsake these 
defections, and, according to their stations, as ministers or private christians, 
shall, by all proper means, labour to satisfy the consciences of the godly, thkt 
are, through these defections and scandals, justly offended, and that, according 
to the rules of Christ, delivered in his word, and received in this church in her 
reforming times, and join cordially with us in the prosecution of this cause ; 
and we shall be wilting also, at their desire, to acknowledge and forsake, for 
peace and unity, whatever we can rationally be convinced to be bad in our 


lMK>k,. by in§«Kiu^ the uaiMfi qf >^ pi»M)D» who bad been 
iQlMrried» and of aU ^btldbrw bapUwL Ta xeceive the stamp 
vpon UBen Qkah» or u> pay tb« Biali lax, lately impofled by the 
Brttish i^luwreat, waa also dedawl inoompatible with the 
testimony, and strictly prohibited. It was also found, that 
fenner reeommendatimis, to provide arms and ammoniCion, 
had not been •* duly observed,** and thqr *• do recommend the 
same, to the several correspondences, that the neglecters be ad- 
monisbed; and if they oontinuey be oensured, as neglecters of 
die oonckisions of tUo meeting."* 

As the fever of party feelhig, that raged throogh the 
country, approached to its crisis, their measures became still 
bolder, and assumed a more decisive charactef . The several 
correspondences, were ordeved *^ to gat a true list of the maitfrs, 
who were shot, ov othenriae kiUed^ without process of law; 
what were their names and dbodes; time and place of their 
deaths ; who killed them ; and any other remarkable particulars 
about them, with a true double of the el^es on all the stones, 

conduct and management, as we must acknowledge* that in all things we fail, 
and come exceedingly short of that perfection which we should and would 

And because there be many» who heretofore have not made conscience of 
the oath of God ; but some through fear, others by persuasion, and upon base 
ends and human interests^ have entered thereunto, who have afterwards dis- 
covered themselves to have dealt deceitfully with the Lord, in swearing fiedseiy 
by his name: therefore we,, who do now renew our covenants with reference 
to these duties, and all other duti^ contained therein^ do, in the sight of him 
who is the searcher of hearts,, solemnly pro&6% that it is sot upon any politic 
advantage, or private interest, or by-end,, or because of any terror or per- 
suasion from men,, or hypocritically or deceitfully, that we do agiiin take upon 
us the oath of God ; but honestly and sincerely, and from the sense of our 
duty. And that, therefore, denying ourselves and our own thiags* and laying 
aside all selfijoterests and ends, we shall, above all things, seek the honour of 
God,, the good of his cause, and the wealth of his people; and that^ fonaking 
the counsels of flesh aud blood, and not leaning, upon carnal confidences, we 
shall depend upon the Lord» walk by the rule of his word, and hearken to the 
voice of his servants. In all which, professing our own weakness, we do 
earnestly psay to God, who is the Father of mercies, through his Son Jesus 
Christ, to be merciful unto us, and to CBsble us by the power of his might 
that we may do our duty, unto the praise of his grace in the churches. 

* Conclusions of the General Meeting, MS. &c. &c* 


wfkttdqrofJMiuMy,. 1719^ u^beaenito EiMnburgh." 
It waft fldbo ordered^ " that «m or im> of each eortespcwlettoef 
be appointed to sight the arma^ and take account cf the po^ 
paiMioliadiat the eanrcspoiideBcehard nad^ far their necessary 
seUkkefi^ice^ lit diis tine of pdUic danger/' '' AU |»er8oii% 
hming oecuion to travel abroad," Were^ atlbcisaBie tuae^ ordered 
to bring along with thear^ ^ teatiraeniak, signed by the hands 
of mmm of th« meaibers of the fettowdups^ wheM they reside^ 
odMrwbe^ no sedpeCy is to be idqparted to thea^"^ 

What was the qpccific object at thede mysterionsi pn^anb> 
tieoB, is somewhat dificok to det^nmne* That the aAenbera 
c4 these societies^ were equally opposed to the hoii^ of Stuart, 
and tlie house of Hattover, la abundantly obTkNta^ though the 
reaaona why ihej would join neither party, they did not think 
fit to declare at the tiase. Did they imagine^ that by standing 
pnUiely on the defimnve^ so many from both parties, would be 
mdneed to come oter to their ranks, as* would give them a de» 
elded prependersnce, and enabfe diem to restore, what they 
supposed to be, die true and itaalteraUe caveBSnted Sootisb 
eonaiitirtib* ? if they did, they wera cevtainly. no great poli- 
ficians; and y^t, in our esthdatkm, it b only by such a sup* 
positioilf tliat t&eir conduct can be^ rationally accounted far.f 

* Coadamms of the Oentrai BAeeiiiig, M& &o. &c. 

f We llfui» by die Haaover Papen, 17 U, that tfley wave now taken notice 
a( at the eeurt of UanoTec, and die following lettOTy ii a curious spedmen of 
didr spirit and pretensions about dits time. 

** Mr. Kirkpatrick, 

We having received information from onr fHends m 
Nithsdale, how yon retaining your old^ MafignaAey, and enmity ag^ y people 
of God, hate in pursoflncc y^>S, aikcfenieedtv nai y* risk of noddling w* y 
■MnameoU of y dead« dbmolishing and breaki% y* g^veitone of a tufferer far 
y^ cacMO of Christ, (f k highly criminal in y eye of y law, and is more y your 
neck. 19 worth, and deserves just severity, as bringing to remembrance your ol'd 
hatred, and y hand you bad in his suffering) ; and'now yon seem to be longing 
for a visit for your old murtfieribg: dctionsi q« if ydu woold etilte^ we straidy 
charge and command you, upon yo*" peril, to repair y* stone, by laying one 
iiponr y* grave, fully as good as y fonnettw' y same precise motto^ as well 
engraven, and y' yon perfodn y* work w* alk expedition y and if it be not done 
ag* May-day first, q» is a sufficient time, we promise to pay yon a visit, perhaps 
(0 yo* cott ; and if you obl%e us y>to, assure yondf, y* yer old deecU will be 
remembered to purpose, <f to assure you of, we have ordered thia to tie 


In the midst of all this seal, in opposition to the oonstitated 
authorities, there was an evident want of cordiality in the body. 
Never perhaps, was the folly of attempting^ by any device, or by 
any sanction, however awful, to secure uniformity of sentiment, 
upon abstractions that are either doubtful, or difficult of ap- 
prehension, more fully manifested, than in the history of the 
old dissenters. Only two years after the engagements, they so 
solemnly came under at Aucbinsaugli, we find from an act of 
session, at Crawfordjohn, in the month of June, 17 13, that 
severals who had joined in these engagements,- had already fidlen 
** into contrary courses, and practices, and some of them into 
scandals and immoralities, to the great prejudice of their holy 
profession,'' while others, to whose characters, nothiog, either 
in a moral, or religious point of view, could be objected, from' 
diversity of sentiment, or from offence taken at the conduct of 
some of their brethren^-often upon very frivolous grounds — 
withdrew from public ordinances, to which they could never be 
persuaded to return. So much were they divided in sentiment, 
that though they were all agreed upon the propriety of a day of 
public fasting, for their own sins, and for the sins of the land, 
years elapsed, before they could agree about the causes that 
should be assigned for it; nor oould they have for many years, 
the Lord's Supper dispensed among them, partly from the same 
causes, and partly from the alleged inability of Mr. Mackmillan, 
who ** could not easily condescend to set about it, until he 
should have more help, because of his own frailty, and the great- 
ness of the work."* They appear, however, to have been all the 
while labouring to have their differences removed ; but the re- 
moving of one, seems too often to have created more, llie want 
of presby terial authority was evidently severely felt by them, and 
though they made many efforts to obtain the benefit of it, first, by 
attempting to persuade some of their number to accept of ordin- 
ation from Mr. Mackmillan, and the session, accompanied by the 
call of the people, in which they could not come to unanimity — 

written in presence of our eorrespondence, at Crawfordjohn, March 1st, 1714, 
and subscribed in our name, by Hu. Clark els.*'— Conclusions of the General 
Meeting, MS. &c. &c. 

* Conclusions of the General Meeting, MS. &c Pamphlets of the ttme^ 
ftc. &c» 


Secondly, by applying to Mr. Adamson, who bad been processed 
before the church courts, for opposing some parts of their public 
managements, but afterwards became independent in his views 
— ^Thirdly, to Mr. M'Hendry, who was similarly situated, and 
took a similar course* — Fourthly, to Messrs.. Taylor and Gilchrist 
— Fifthly, to the twelve Marrow-men, as they were then called ; 
and lastly to some individual ministers of the Sootish church, they 
did not succeed, till a more formidable breach in, 
rendered their opposition of comparatively little consequence. 

But to return to the parliament — ^near the end of the session, 
the queen came to the house of lords, and stated the prelim- 
inary articles of peace, that had been agreed upon, between 
her and the French king, as far as they related to England; 
and she promised her best endeavours, for procuring satis- 
faction for her allies. She received an address of thanks, from 
both houses in return. The preliminary* terms, however, fell 
so far short of what had been generally expected, that they 
occasioned universal depression and discontent, and gave new 
and strong grounds for arraigning the conduct of ministers. 
The parliament, however, after censuring a few opposition 
pamphlets, probably with the view of checking their appre- 
hended increase, during the approaching vacation, was, after a. 
short speech from the queen, a(]^oumed by the lord keeper, 
on the 21st of June. 

The highest hopes were all this time cherished by the 
Jacobites as well as by James himself, who maintained a con- 
stant correspondence with some of the principal members of the 
British government, and, by means of the lady Masham, even 
with the queen, who, it was confidently anticipated by the more 
enthusiastic admirers of the exiled prince, would very soon, 
from a sense of duty, yield up to him that throne, which, ac- 
cording to the doctrine of her new friends, she had no right to 

* When the articles of the peace were ]aid before the priry council, the 
duke of Buckingham, holding up his bands, exclaimed, ^ Good God ! How has 
this poor nation been governed In my time ! During the reign ' of king 
Charles the second, we were governed by a parcel of French whores. In 
king James the second's time, by a parcel of popish priestii. In king William's 
time, by a parcel of Dutch footmen, and now we are governed by a dirty 
chambermaid, a Welsh attorney, and a profligate wretch, that has neither 
honour nor honesty." — ^Parker's BAilitary Memoirs, p. Si 9. 


possess; or, if she did not ivnnediaoely assume bim i«to lite 
government jointly with henel^ that she would at least' provide 
for his easy and direct suoMsai^n on her dexnise, ao^ iu the 
meantime, allow him a frntaUe settlement and a residence in 
Scotland, as the heir apparent of these kiagdaws.* This favour- 
able disposition of the queen seems to hinne been now tlie sole 
dependance of James, and he again wrote iier, appainently in 
the fullest oonfidence. ^ In the present situation of a£Gaics,'' 
says he, ^ it is impossiUe for me, dear sister to be any longer 
silent, and not to put you in mind of the honour and preser- 
vation of your fiunily ; and to assure you^ at the same time, of 
my eternal gratitude^ if you use your most effii»ciou3 endeav- 
ours towards both. Give me leave to say, that your own good 
nature makes me promise it to myself and, with that persuasion, 
I shall always be ready to agree to whatever you shall think 
most convenient &r my interest, which, after aU, is inseparable 
irom yours; being folly resolved to make use of no other means, 
but those you judge most conducing to our mutual happiness, 
and to the general welfiune of our country/'f In strict con- 
formity to these sentimenlfl^ the Jacobites^ many of whom, par^ 
ticularly of those belonging to Scotland, bad obtained seats in 
parliament, were individually instructed tp lay aside all their 
own projects, leaving it to the generosity of the queen, and the 
wisdom of her advisers, to make the necessary alterations upon 
the act of settlement, at their own time^ and in their own way4 
The queen, through the influence of Mrs* Masham, had 
certainly become considerably cold towards the electoral family, 
and, in as &r as she could overcome her natural timidity, 
anxious to promote the succession of her brother, though she 

♦ Smart Papcn. 1712- t Ibid. 

t '* I il\4 tbeo cai( about oipopgst the copimoni^ and finding them well 
enoiiff disposed to enter into measures for obliging the ministry to do what 
was expected with r^pect to the king and other matters of moment, wee 
b^gap to form n party for that purpose, and concert measures to be prosecuted ; 
when, in a little time thereafter, Mr. John Menzies (who received the 
despatches commonly from Sl Germains) came and showed me a letter to 
him from the earl of Midleton, signifying that it was the king's pleasure, that 
all his friends should joiu in supporting the ministry, and give them no un- 
eailne»s: requiring him to communicate the same to me and several others." 
— ^Lockhart Papers, vol. i. pp. ses, 369, 


did not choose to express herself yery distinctly upon the sub- 
ject. It was, indeed, an experiment that might have affected 
stronger nerves than hers, and sta^;ered wiser heads than were 
to be fonnd among her counsellors, although neither the immi- 
nency nor the real magnitude of die danger seems to have been 
at all apprehended either by her or them. The principal diffi- 
culties, in the outset at least, with the one aud the others, seem 
to have arisen from little paltry personal considerations, un- 
worthy of being entertained by either (diiiosophers or politi- 
cians. Bigotry and superstition bad led James VII. to desert a 
throne, and this bigotry and superstition, almost without dimi- 
nution, he had bequeathed to his son, in consequence of which 
he was an object of terror or of hatred to the greater proportion 
of three nations, who would otherwise have been his loving and 
devoted subjects. Anne, indulging a feeling that was natural, 
and to a certain extent commendable, pitied her poor brother, 
the heir of so many errors and snch complicated misfortunes; 
but she, too, was a bigot for the church of England; and, till he 
should do something for himself, by at least seemingly adopting 
her belief, she scrupled, or, perhaps, did not well know how to 
help him. 

Informed of this, as the sentiments of the queen, the most 
politic of his friends, particularly of those who were about him, 
and, for the sake of his Other's favour had deserted the church 
of England, pressed him to gratify his sister and disarm his 
detractors, by a seeming compliancfi with her request, though 
it should be only till he was fairly seated on the throne, when 
he might avow his predileaions more safely for himself and 
more {Nrofitably for his friends.* James, however, was in- 
flexible, and the queen, at the same time that she was offended 
with^ his obstinacy, was at a loss how to act. Had he complied 
with her desire, from the love which she believed the nation 
bore to herself, aided by the church, of which she had always 
been the liberal patron, she md^t probably expected, that her 
simple recommendation would have removed the principal 
difficulties that stood in the way of his being amicably received 
Bs her successor ; but, as he honestly avowed himself a papist, 

♦Stuart Papers, 1712. 
1 z 


some other plan behoved to be fallen iqpoQ, or ^ desigti 
abandoned. What must have added -in no wnaU d^gre^ to 
ner perplexi(y> she had no one about her in whom she wnld 
reidly confide. Oxford had, pnobablys more of her affecdon 
and confidence than may other, bnt he bad conducted himself 
with BO mudi caution as to hare become disagreeable to the 
Jacobites, and an oli^ect of great suspicion at St. Gennains, 
besides he was particularly odiops to her favourite, Mrs. 
Masham, of course she could not ky her difficulties befoce 
him ; Bolingbroke, by the sycoptiancy of lus behaviour, sad 
a liberal use of the public money, had beooiae quite agreeable 
to the favourite, and there could be no doubt of his bdng 
willing to go every length to serve his own interests but the 
queen, with all her weakness, was really aerious, and hated 
him at bottom for the libertine tendency of his opinions, 
and the profligacy of his manners, and we cannot $u{^)Ose^ 
whatever she might from necessity be induced to disclose, that 
she would rest with much complacency upon a person so very 
low in her esteem ; the probability, however, is, that he was 
trusted to a certain extent op this ocoasion. In common with 
all other Jacobites, her majesty seems to have secredy looked 
to the French government, in this dilemma, as the last resource 
of James, and felt an increasing desire to have all her di^renoes 
in that quarter made up. Plenipotentiaries from all the d]£* 
ferent belligerents had been assembled at Utrecht, tor some 
time, but, from the rash and impolitic procedure of the Bridsb 
ministry, the French had acquired such vantiige ground, and 
were so certain of carrying all their own particular views inlo 
effect at last,* that they were in no has^ to come to any csouf* 
elusion, while the operations of jealousy, and the difficulty of 
reconciling conflicting interests, produced a similar cffiMst ameng 
the allies. 

To remonstrate with the French court upon the unexpected 
exorbitancy of some of its demands, and to lock afler the 
interests of the duke of Savoy, in whom, as the next lineal 
heir to the- British throne after James, bar majesty took a 
special interest, perhaps also secretly to look after the affiurs 

* SoDimerviHe's History of Great Britain, &c. 


of James liimfie^ Bttl^gbrokd was dte^lchod to Paris, wkere 
he was received wkb eireiy mark of.attentioD^ ^^gfe&i to a tw- 
pension of hostilities, on the part of the Britisb» and was thus 
ntpposed to hftte mnoved every obstraetion in tlie way of 
eondlading A 8S|lflnile peace, if the allies did not come into 
those terms whtidt, from the dcftction of Britain, France had 
it now iit her power to impose upon them. Bolittgbroke very 
soon retomed to England, highly gritifiBd with the success of 
h» missiony aild the splendour of his entertainment, having 
reeeived from Louis the pvesent of a rich ring worth four 
thousand guineas.* 

When Bo&lgbrdEe returned to his colleagues in England, 
Prior, the poet, who had aceompanied him^ was left, in an in- 
ferlor capacity, to manage any leaser matters that mi^t occur, 
or that had been left unsettled; but a mOre hdnourable person^ 
James, duke of Hampton, was immediately selected to fill thaC 
important station, and to^ negotiate a bonness that was too 
deficnte to be intrust^ to such a man as Prior, or even to 
lord Bolingbroke. Hif grace, the duke of Ihmilton, was well 
kMwn to be the leader of the Jacobites both in Scotland 
and in England, and, for some lime past, had been in high 
favour with the queen, who, it is supposed, intended to intrust 
lm% on this occasion, not only with her particular views, 
widi regatA to the succession, and the mode in which she in- 
tended to make ii swre tO' her brother, but with power to nego* 
tiate with the court of France, the necessary means for carrying 
her kindly tntemions towards him into effect. What these 
means were baa never been explained, nor does it appear that 
Ms'gMce waa ever made frdly acquainted with them; but, from 
what we haive already seen were his views on the subject, and 
from his dedaration, chat ^ he never undertook any matter with 
so much pleasure as this journey'' he was now goii^ upon, we 
think we may wamntably conclude they were no other than 
the old eKpedieRt^ of French money and French annies.f 

^ Polidcal State, vol iv. p.'lOS. 

f It has been stated that part of the plan was, to allow the pretender a 
settlemeot in Scotland ; but we do not think there existed any authority for 
such a statement, but the fond wishes, and foolish anticipations of the 
pretender s ineno ! 


This appointment, as it filled the firiends of the protestant 
sncoession with jealousy and fear, inspired the Jacobites with 
the most extravagant joy, who expected from it nothing less than 
the immediate restoration of James. Lockhart of Carnwath 
was even bespoken to be ready at a day's warning to go over to 
his grace, to be employed as an assistant or special messenger, 
and was on his way from Scotland, to be in readiness for that 
purpose, when a melancholy occurrence put an end at once to 
the life of the duke of Hamilton, and the prqect that had beeo 
so carefully ripened for the pretender's restoration. A lawsuit 
of some importance being in dependance between the duke of 
Hamilton and lord Mohun, they had occasion to meet on the 
examination of some witnesses, when an altercation ensued, 
which provoked the latter of these noblemen to send the former 
a challenge, ^* which," says Burnet, *^ he attempted to decline ; 
but, both being hurried by these false points of honour, they 
fatally went out to Hyde Park, about the middle of November, 
and fought with so violent an animosity, that, n^lecting the 
rules of art,, they seemed to run on one another as if they tried 
who should kill first, in which they were both so unhappily 
successful, that the lord Mohun was killed outright, and duke 
Hamilton died in a few minutes after." 

Of his grace, the duke of Hamilton, Burnet has declined to 
draw any character. ^* I am sorry, '< says he, ^^ that I cannot 
say so much good of him as I could wish, and I had too much 
kindness for him, to say any evil without necessi^." Lockhart, 
who was undoubtedly admitted to his most familiar intimacy, 
though he appears to have been somehow or other a litde de- 
pendant upon him, says, ^* he was of an heroic and undaunted 
courage, a clear, ready and penetrating conception, and knew 
not what it was to be surprised, having at all times, and on all 
occasions, his wits about him ; and, though in parliament he 
did not express his thou^ts in a style altogether eloquent, yet 
he had so nervous, majestic, and pathetic a method of speaking, 
and applying what he spoke, that it was always valued and re- 
garded. Never was a man so well qualified to be the head of 
a party as himself; for he could, with the greatest dexterity, 
apply himself to, and sift through the inclinations of different 
parties, and so cunningly manage them, that he gained some of 


all to his, and if once he had entered into a new measurey and 
fonned a project (though in doing thereof, he was too cautious) 
did then prosecute his designs with such courage, that nothing 
could daunt or divert his zeal and forwardness. 

^ The cavaliers, and those of the country party, had a great 
opinion of and honour for him, and that deservedly ; for 'tis well 
known he often refused great ofiers if he'd leave diem, and was, 
by excellent qualifications, and eminent station and character, 
absolutely necessary both to advise and support them; he wanted 
not a share of that haughtiness, which is, in some measure, in- 
herent to his family, though he was most afiable and courteous 
to those he knew were honest men, and in whom he confided ; 
he was extremely cautious and wary in engaging in any project 
that was dangerous; and 'twas thought, and perhaps not with- 
out too much ground, that his too great concern for bis estate 
in England, occasioned a great deal of lukewarmness in his op- 
position to the Union, and unwillingness to enter into several 
measures that were fHroposed to prevent the same. But his 
greatest failing lay in his being somewhat too selfish and re- 
vengefiily which he carried alongst with him in all his designs, 
and did thereby several times prejudice the cause for which he 
contended, and to these two failings any wrong steps he shall 
be found to make are solely to be attributed. But since 'tis 
certain there's no mortal without some imperfection or other, 
and that his -were so small and inconsiderable in respect of 
his great endowments and qualifications, we may well enough 
pass them over, and conclude him a great and extraordinary 
man, and whensoever a loyal and true Scotsman will reflect 
upon his actions, he cannot fail to admire and love him for the 
service he did his king and country, and number him amongst 
those worthies whose memories ought ever to be revered in 

Others of the Jacobite fection seem not to have had so hi^h 
an opinion of his grace. Throughout the whole of Hooke's 
correspondence, during his mission to Scotland in the year 1707, 
as we have already seen, he is boldly charged with the meanest 
duplicity, in holding secret correspondence with Queensberry 

* Lockhart Papers, vol. i. p. 54. 


and Stair, the administrators of the government; with James 
aiid his foUowersy and, at the same fimey tampering with the 
l^resbyteriams m order to obtain the S<^tish crown f<H* himself; 
yea, as a desperate character loaded with debts, and, *^ should 
a party taice the field tor the chevalier de St. Gecwge, as one 
who ti^old eertainly join thekn, from his being so circumstanced 
that he could not do. otherwise." Lovat, id hia memoirs, also 
states, ** that he had been tnfonned by all the &ithful partizans 
of king James the third, and among others, by Mn John 
Murray, that the duke of Hamilton intended n^ good to the 
royal party, but that, on the contrary^ he was devoured with the 
alxnird idea of becoming himself king of Scotland"* 

An impartial review of the character aad conduct of the 
duke of Hamilton will not, perhaps^ fix upon him the design of 
aspiring to the crown^-^though the strange aad unAccountaUe 
nature of many of his actions might naturally enough excite 
suspicions of that sort among his oontemporaries» especially, as 
the idea had been previously dierisbed in hi» fiimily, par- 
ticularly during the troubles in the reign of the unfortunate 
Mary — ^but it will certainly demonstrate, that if he ever formed 
such a design, it was foolish in the extreme, as he possessed 
not one talent necessary for putting it in execution. He was 
given to intrigue, but wanted sagacity and the command of his 
passions; ambitious, but wavering and indecisive; crafty, but 
the dupe of his own cunning; and, for haasarding present good 
in the hope of future advantage, &r too careful of conse- 
quences. That he was an enemy to the revolution settlement, 
and a thorough paced Jacobite, there cannot be a doabt; but, 
from the unsteady, and, indeed, often inexplicable line of con- 
duct which he adopted, the abettors of the revolution derived 
more reid advantage than from any one of their professed 
friends, and tlie Jacobites more real injury than from the most 
forward of their enemies. Had there been any thing like 
consistency in Ms conduct; could he have been prevailed upon 
to snpjH'ess his mean jealousy of, and childkh pique against the 
dukes of Athol and Queensberry ; had he paid a little more 

* Mcmoin of the Life of Simon Lord Lovat, written by himseify &c pp. 

172, 186, 187. 


respect to real dignity of chsnuster, and « Btde kas to his 
es ta t es^ the Udiod might have been to this dagr among the 
events to come; and* had be not died bs a fool dietfa, in his 
quarre), with lord M^rfmo, his name had been certainly <»o&* 
crated by all classes of has countrymen ; but the circumstances 
gf bis death* isQabliog a £uction to pnoclaim him a martyr for 
his country, inquiry was supersededy suspicion laid asleep, and 
vulgar &me» to this day, speaks of him with admiration, as the 
great duk^ of HMmhon. 

The dealil of his grace, the duke of Hamilton, was severely 
felt by the Jacobites; and it j^ve the death Uov to the scheme 
thejr had been so anxiously employed upon lor several years, 
and jwbich they supposed they were on the point of accom- 
plishing. The differenoe between the noUe lords, was evidently 
nothing more than a personal quarrel, arising out of avarice and 
prides perhaps somewhat aggravated by liie circumstanoe of lord 
Mohun's advocating certain political opinions^ in Ami house, 
finc^n which* as we have seen, duke Hamilton — by an unjust 
senlen^ as he supposed-^was excluded, and so had not die 
honour of judicially opposing ; but it was bc^y represented as 
a deliberate munder, implicadng the whole body of the whigs, 
thoagh their principal leaders had succeeded in accomplishing 
it by the sword of general Macartney, lord Mohun's second, 
who^ it was asserted by colonel Hamilton, who seconded the 
dnke, made a push at his grace, as the latter was lifting him oil 
lord MohuB, upon whom he had fallen. A proclamation was 
immediately issued, offisring, for general Maeartney, £500 of re- 
ward by the government, and £300 by the dutcbess of Hamilton: 
and die peans of Scotland united in an address to her majesty, 
that sbs would be pleased to write to all the kings and states in 
aUiaaee with her, not to shelter general Macartney, but to cause 
him to be appmhended and sent back to England. Macartn^, 
howevw, estnUsshed himself at Antwerp, where he remained 
without molestation^T^-^xcept fRMn die duke's natural son, 
Charles Hamilton, who sent him a challenge, which he de- 
clined — taU the aece^ion of George I. when he surrendered 
himself, was tried, and, by the direction of the court, acquitted 
of the charge of murder, but the jury found a verdict of man- 
slaughter. Colonel Hamilton, his original accuser, npon this 


trial prevaricated so much, that he was obliged to sell his com- 
pany in the guards, and, to escape a prosecution for peijury, 
flee the country. The pretender, was himself so deeply in- 
terested in this affair, that he wrote to the dutches of 
Hamilton, a most gracious letter of condolence on the melan- 
choly fate of her husband, which, he probably felt the more 
keeidy, as it so seriously affected his own. 

The intention of all this bustle and noise about an affiur in 
which the pubUc were not very intimately concerned, was in- 
tended to counterbalance the loss sustained by the death of the 
duke of Hamilton, by rendering the whigs odious; but, un- 
fortunately for the cause, it rendered them at the same time 
terrible, and, from that day forth, Oxford seems to have re- 
solved to solicit, by all means consistent with holding his 
place, the countenance of the family of Hanover, nor does the 
queen herself though her good wishes were doubtless still with 
her brother, appear to have thought, after this, of making one 
consistently formed effort more for him during her life. The 
certain indications of a civil war being the unavoidable con- 
sequence of landing the pretender in any part of Great Britain, 
we think much more likely to have induced both Oxford and 
the queen to suspend, for a time, those arrangements by which 
they intended to serve him, than the difficulty, after losing the 
duke of Hamilton, of finding a person capable of carrying 
them forward, as has been broadly affirmed by Lockhart,* anc 
after him, repeated by various other writers. ^Oxford had 
long been regarded by the court of St. Germains with sus- 
picion ; this suspicion seems now, by rapid gradations, to have 
increased, till, at the earnestly repeated solicitations of that 
court, he was dismissed from his station ;t and though Boling- 
broke entered heartily into the schemes of the pretender, die 
vacillating temper, and the timidity of the queen, together 
with the secretly, and artfully managed opposition of Oxford, 
and the determined obstinacy of the whigs, rendered all his 
efforts, in the end, perfectly nugatory. 

The Jacobites, however, still suffered themselves to be so far 
imposed upon, as to indulge the most extravagant dreams of 

• Lockhart Papers, vol. i. p. 4lo. + Stuart PnptTs, 17H. 


immediste stfceefls^ ^^tarhkig/' as one liath weU observed^ 
** their hands arixl ey«» to » foolish eicpectation, in which, had 
they had the least foresight, they could not but see they were 
dr«^pped in the banning, and must eflbctually be disappointed 
in the end.* The duke of Shrewsbury was appointed ambas* 
sador to the court of FrstMoci^ in room of bis grace the duke 
of Hamilton, but was not, as is generally stated, thought wort^ 
of being infrosted with the metre ddicttte and important matters, 
that were to YM9e formed th^ most prominent of bis prede** 
oesscM^s commisBiotl. The duke de Aumont was, at the same 
time, sent to London by the court of Versailles, and was be- 
liered. to ha^e seo^t iMtmetiOAs to negotiate on the part of 
the pretender; it has even be^n stated, that the pretender was 
in ins tfaMi, And had several interviews with the queen, hir 
sister. Of , this last circumstance we have not seen sufficient evi- 
dence. FVom the swarm of papists^that attended him, and the 
ostentatiofB tenor of M» behavidur, de Aumont created a violent 
prejudice gainst himself, and; instead of serving the cause of 
James, injured it most maflerially. He was at first a favourite 
with the mob, but latterly^ ooukl not appear without being in- 
salted by it^ and his house wm at last maliciously set on fire 
and buraed to the groundf 

The great object of the pre^nt ministers, and in v^il)h the 
Jacobites took such a deep interest, peace, being, after many 
delays, signed on the thirteenth of MarclH the parliament, 
which, in e^tpectati^ff <$f tbi^ event, httd beetf fipom day to day 
prorogued, was opened on the ninth of Afmi. The queen; in 
her speech to the two houses, told them that she had now oon^ 
chid^ a peace in which she had obtained a further securi^ for 
the protestant succession ; and that she was in an entire union 
with the house of Hanover. Of the commons she asked the 
necessary supplies, and to both houses she recommended the 
cultivation of die arts of peace. She passed some severe re^ 
flections on flMtton, and complained of the liberty of the press,* 
suggesting the propriety of some new law to check its prepress. 
Trade and manufactures, she also recommended to their par*" 

• Secret Hiitdfy of f he WKitc StafP. 

f Sommervilte*]) History of the re't^i of Queen Anne, Ac. Ac* 

I. 2 a 


Ucular attention ; nor did she forget tlioee brave men wlio had 
served the country during the war, and w«re now likely to have 
no other resource but its bounty- The lords were, as usual, 
somewhat refractory, and, though they did not explicitly dissent 
from her majesty's sentiments, avoided any specific approbation 
of the peace, except in so far as it secured the protestaut suc- 
cession; but the commons expressed their entire satisfaction 
with it, and their admiration of her majesty's steadiness, not- 
withstanding the many difficulties that had been so industriously 
laid in her way. The example of the commons, with regard 
to the treaty of peace, was followed by the principal corpora^ 
tions in Britain, though they very soon found themselves under 
the necessity of petitioning parliament against the commercial 
part of it, and, in a short time, would gladly have parted with 
it altogether 

There were also addressers, Sootish Jacobites, who, withoul 
waiting for the signing of the treaty, but, anticipating its benelits, 
had sent up to the queen their hearty commendations thereof^ 
gi'atefully applauding ^^ the set of patriots, who were nojL only 
the faitliful advisers of this great transaction, but, in spite of 
an impiously bold opposition, have been its wise and daring 
administrators; thanking her majesty for reconunending the 
insolence of the press to the consideration of the late parlia- 
ment, hoping the ensuing will improve upon the- progress of 
the former, and work out a thorough reformation ; that they 
may be no more scandalized, nor the blessed .Son of God blas- 
phemed, nor the sacred race of Stuarts inhumanly traduced, 
with equal malice and impiety/' They conclude with declaring, 
that they will be *^ happy, if, after her majesty's late demise^ to 
put a period to our intestine divisions, the hereditary right and 
parliamentary sanction could possibly meet in a lineal suc- 
cessor."* This was got up at the instance of the earl of Marr, 
the commissioners ^nt up with it, were introduced by lord 
Bolingbroke to the queen, who received them most graciously, 
commended the warmth of their loyal attachment, and rewarded 
the chief of them with pensions. 

* llae*s History of the Rebellion, p. 32. Supplement to the Hittory of 
Queen Anne, pp. 295, 226. 


lliis, and other addresses of a simiHir kind, printed by 
public anthotity, excited the utmost astonishment in the more- 
thinking portion of the community, while they emboldened the 
friends of the pretender, to make, in their usual manner, mo!9t 
foolish displa3rs of their feelings, in almost every part of the 
kingdoniy by which, laying open their secret purposes, they 
alarmed all the more prudent among themselves, and gave par- 
ticular uneasiness to the queen, to whom nothing was so terrible 
as the prospect of internal commotion. By these means also, 
they* gave new life and increased activity to those jealousies 
that had for some time past been secretly brooding in the niinds 
of the mkiiiiters with r^ard> to one another, and which pro- 
duced those indecisive and (sometimes jarring measures, that, in 
tlie end, subjected them to disappointment and ruin. The 
lord chancellor Harcourt, and the lord treasurer Oxford, were 
particularly piqued at the forwardness of Bolingbroke, who, 
they were afraid, by countenancing^ these gross flatteries, was 
gaining too much of the ear of the queen ; and several of the 
leading members of both houses, whose veneration for the queen 
had led them hitherto to support the ministry, alarmed at 
these dangerous proceedings, began to clamour, even more 
violently than the whigs, for additional securities for the pro- 
testant succession.* 

In the meantime, the assembly of the church of Scotland 
met at Edinburgh, on the thirtieth of April, 1713, John, duke 
of Athol, being appointed commissioner, and Mr. William 
Wishart, one of the ministers of Edinburgh, chosen mode- 
rator. In her letter to this assembly, the queen was pro^ 
fuse in compliments, and expressed particular zeal for the 
protestant succession : ** We take," she says, ** this solemn 
occasion to renew the. assurances we have formerly given you 
of oar firm purpose to maintain the church of Scotland as 
established by law. The address of the late General As- 
sembly did so much manifest their loyalty and jgood affection 
to our royal person and government, and their true concern 
for the succession in the protestant line of the house of 
Hanover, as established by law, that it could not but be very 

* Supplement to the History of the reign of Queen Anne. 

188 HI8T<HIY Of aCOTIfAW?. 

acceptably to us : wm] your moderation and unanimity amqpngst 
yourselyes, 19 not more l^r your ojivfi good, than it will be for 
our satis&ctioo* And we as^ffre ^9r9elves, that ili#re wjll be 
nothing in jrour procedure but wbat sbull be /J^tiful to uh 
and shall mwifiB^t the wisdoin of your copdnct."* 

Notbii^ i^ fhe form pf an admonition coald kf^ more 
aootbii^ly ^eejt than this, ^d the assembly cppieid after it 
with ^dmirabl^ feUcity. ^ft^r tb^pking her m^eaty for $q 
Vin^ly accepting t^eir j^xpressi^ pf loyalty and afibptipn <o 
ihe protest8jQ(t suocp^^jon, a^ pransnt^ by l^e la^t assenybly, 
they go on to say : ^* We b^ le^ye ^ t/^$tify to yonr mqesfy, 
bow m^ch it 4id r^)oi^ 1^ to be a^uaintpd by your pommift- 
sioner frogi the throng witb tbie gr^eat care tht^t yoinr majesty 
has been pleased so conspicup^tly to show, for the protestant 
religion, ;u}d tb|e coptiai^pce pf it to suoce^d^ng geeeratioiia 
in your o^Q dppiinjpns, mfi .tb«t yoif r ipaji^sty h^s farther exr 
i^^ed the ^ame piops care to thp cburches abroad, #md that 
^od h^ bles^ ypur endpaypopr^ fqr pbtaipiffg ibe rieleaae c»f 
those i^bovwere in fk^ Fr^^h gi(U#y^ for jtheir r^Ugion; Mid 
also, the /cpnsent of France to ff^ivf^^s tbe hfirdship^ to wbicb 
the protestant d^urclie^ in Giprma^y i^rpfp )iab)#*" This wa^ 
all well, had it been trup, bp^ i^nfqrtiinf^iy /$^r the Tprajpity 
of the commissioner, and the intelligence of the a^spi^bly, 
th^rf was not ope word c^f it t^uf irhat was utterly false; and 
j^ principal ground of dissfiti^Ce^tppn ^itb (be peape, among 
all serious and good men, f^yep of the communion of the 
pbprch of England, was thp, shampfnl m^puf^r ip wbicb tbe 
interests of the suffering prptestant^ both in Ffappe ^nd in 
Q^ripany, |iaf} been n^^pct^ by ber majesty's mipistar#,t 
|la^y who certainly bad no iptentton of diprog^^ipg Ir9l9 thp 
bppqur pf the assembly, westing in the year K18, afi^rUs that 
f< though the late queen Ann/^, as the bead apd gnai^aptw of 
tb^ prptpstant interest, bad granted commis^ipn to tbp marquis 
^ I^irpmooty to act in concert with all the pther plpmpoiea- 
^i^ries, for the enl^geipept an^ .re^esM^Ushment q{ these 
f paring protestants in Frttnoe, ^nd he accordingly prpipnied 
fQ tbepi, at the congress a( Utrecht, an ^Kpell#nt p»#aioaial, 

• Printed AcU qf Amfimbiy, 1713. f Thot^bts cawaffFf^ the Peace. 

HlfiTOnV OF SCOfXANP. |||y 

mhidh^** ke adds, *< I bavc now b^ore oie» jet. Instead qf x^^ 
atoring them to di^ip ancimit pmil^;e$» ti^a^ gjiorlpm Qon^ 
fesBora ware put off witb a fain< r^u^st by Pur ipanQg^rs, 
that sii0h of tkem as ara confined to ggUays or other pri^ops, 
might b^ sat at liberty; and I btive npt yet heard that they 
obtaifiad so mpch/^*^ 

In unison viti| their addjrea$» tli^ as^mbly pa^^ed " ail act 
for maintainiftg the upity and paa<^ of tb^ cburch,'' referrin(jr 
to tlie oath of abjuri^ion, whirdi b«4 ni/|de» as we have seen^ 
and was sUll making so muish nQt«e in j^cptland. The object 
of this act was to inauloate forbaftfafice with regard to takiQg 
or not taking thik oath, und, after the full elucidation it had 
now received, still fl^aiBtaiaed it to be a matter of indifference. 
This act is a curious document, and shpws qoo^t distinctly 
that it is no new thing, even in the church of Sc^otUnd, for 
men to cover the most glaring departur^^ frog^ th^ simplicity 
of christian fiiith, the purity of go^p^l practice, 9Qd {hat unity 
which the scriptures more especially i^^ulcatai by & pretension 
of zeal for the success of the gospel* and the interests of 
praatical gedliness«.f Thifi assembly aUp, ** for the more 
decent perftMPraanee of the publia praises of God, do re^ 
commend to presbyteries, to use endeavours to have such 
ai^Qolmast#r3 phosen as are capable to teach the common 
tanes{ and that presbyteries take care that children be taught 
to sing the said common tunes; and that the said school- 
masters, not only pray with their scholars, but also sing a 
part of a psalm with them, at least once every day.'' The 
bodes oS ih^ $ociety ior propagating christian knowledge weK 
also examined by a committee of members appointed from 
each synod, their managements entirely approved of, and a 
recommendation to presbyteries passed in Cavouts of ti^ 

A numiier of. important matters were, no doubt, transaefted 
by this assembly, but, taking all th^ circumstances of the case 
into consideration, this was, perhaps th^ le^ faitUfi^l of any 
assembly since the revolution, and one from wbiob th^ public 

• Rse^ Hhtory of th« Rfibellioo, pp. 28, 89. 
t FMfePiriaud Aeuof AfMmbly, ^713. 


interests of religion seem to have derived almosf no bepefic 
The disputes between the jurant and nonjurant presbyterians, 
instead of abating were becoming still more violent^ and 
threatened a disruption, the consequences of which appeared 
to both parties terrible. The insolence of trafficking priestSi 
however, especially in the north, where popery was found to 
be greatly on the increase^ with that of the episcopal clergy in 
the same bounds, who lived with these priests upon the most 
brotherly terms, while they could not so much as bear the 
sight of a presbyterian minister,* awakened in the commission 
of this assembly, a lively feeling of danger, and determined 
them to publish a serious warning again^ the errprs and 
dangers of popery, and to address the queen, in a style of 
great plainness, to have the laws put in execution against 
these incendiaries, who were undermining the foundations of 
the constitution, civil and ecclesiastical. So far, indeed, were 
the ministers of the church of Scotland, in general, from being 
in unison with the assuembly, in respect of the queen's care of 
foreign protestants, that when the thanksgiving, for ** the safe 
and honourable peace'' was appointed, because the poor 
Catalans,! as well as the protestants of France and Germany, 

* Rae*s Hucory of the Rebellion. 

f " The Catalans [inhabitants of Catalonia] were a people who had enjoyed 
several rights and immunities while Spain was sut^ct to the house of Austria. 
As they had a just value for their privileges, they were desirous to secure them 
for themselves, and transmit them safe to their posterity. Accordingly, in 
the year 1705, having received several assurances from Mr. Crow, queen 
Anne's minister at Genoa, from the earl of Peterborough, and Sir Cloudesly 
Shovel, that if they would acknowledge Charles Til. as king of Spun, and re- 
nounce the house of Bourbon, her British majesty would use her utmgst 
endeavours to procure the establishment and oonfirroation of their rights and 
privileges, and the settlement of them on a lasting foundation; the Catalans 
acknowledged and received that prince as their sovereign, raised men and 
money for his service, and, during a war which abounded with extraordinary 
turns of fortune, gave signal proofs of their unshaken fidelity and aeel for the - 
cause they had espoused. Afler king Charlea came to the imperial crown, 
and Spain was at last given up to the house of Bourbon, the Catalans, far 
from being guided by a spirit of obstinacy and rebellion, as has been repre- 
sented, were willing to acknowledge king Philip V. for their lawful sovereign. 
At the same time, as they hoped to be protected by the emperor, a prince for 
whom they had exposed their lives and fortunes, and, as they relied upon the 
repeated assurances they had received that England would never abandon 

UI9TPRY OF 8C<rrLAirjx 19 1 

had been' deserted by it, they, almost to a man, refused to 
keep it 

Sut to. return to the parliament — after various discussions, 
respe<:tiiig the peace, and other matters, which, however im- 
portant, do not belong to Scotish history, the bouse came at 
length to the providing the supplies, when the malt tax, being 
renewed, was now for the first time extended to Scotland. This 
occasioned the most acrimonious debates in both houses. The 
Scotish members, declared the bill to be a violation of the 
treaty of Union, which, it was affirmed, stipulated ^expressly, 
that no duty should bse imposed on malt in Scotland, during 
the war,* and the war, they contended, was not yet finished, 
Spain not being included in the treaty, that had so lately been 
signed. And, even though the war had been really ended, as, by 
the Tery words of the proposed act, the money raised by it, was 
to be applied to pay 'debts contracted the previous year, it was 
alleged, that it might with equal propriety, have been raised 
within that year, which nci one would deny, would have been a 
manifest breach of treaty. It was also, from the alleged in- 
feriority of the Scotish malt, stated to be unequal and op-, 
pressivcf and from the poverty of the country, such as it could. 

tbem, they insisted upon the enjoyment of theif former privileges. The in- 
habitants of Barcelona, being summoned by^he duke of Popoli to eurrender 
to king Philip, answered, ' That though they would rather die than be slaves, 
yet, if their ancient liberties were confirmed, they would open their gates acd 
receive him with joy.' But the Catalans being abandoned both by the 
emperor and by England, the court of Spain would be absolute. What 
happened afterwards ; how vigorous and heroic a defence the Catalans made 
against the joint eflbrt« of France and Spain ; what miseries they underwent ; 
how many of thrm perished by the sword ; how many of them were hanged 
or shot to death ; and how many persons of figure were thrown into dungeons^ 
there to lead out the remainder of their lives, will appear in the sequel. And 
here we cannot forbear laraeoting the fate of a brave unfortunate p^ple, who 
fought and suiered merely for their liberties and privileges, and have im- 
mortaliMd their namet liy the noble though unsuccessful stand they made 
^^dnst usurpotioa and arbitrary power.'**— Life of the Duke of Berwick, Noie, 
pp. 985, 586. 

* So their speeches are reported by the most of our historians. For our 
parts, we have looked ^gain and i^ain, oret the articles of the treaty of Union, 
and have not been able to discover this stipulation. 

f Lockbart has depicted in strong ^colours the selfish motives th^ actuate^ 
those who chiefly opposed this measure, though he was probably not aware 

199 »iavoHT or scoiXAWDi 

not pootbly bear. Many of tbe EoglMi MMibm iViftte 
satisfied with the equity of those grounds, the Scotish milUJlma 
went upon, but a majority were of a oonMLtf opifiiim, Add the 
bill passed. 

The debates upon, and the passing of thiabiU, awdiened m 
the bosoms of Scotishmen, all those neMkual pi^dieetf and 
animositiesy that had as yet, been only patdally kid ml^tip^ and 
the membetiB for Scotland, of both ho>itsei^ aftar mature deitiK 
eration, determined, that laying aside all patty dttCiaeiioii^ Aierjr 
should unite in carrying through the legislatore^ a l^al but an 
immediate dissolution of the Union. In prOMCotion of this do- 
sign, the, duke of Argyle, tbe earl of Marr, LocUert of Cam«^ 
wath, and Mr« Cockburn of Ormiston, two peers, and two eon«> 
monersof each party, were deputed to laje their grievance be^ 
fore the queen, and request her concitrrence with m meaeorc^ 
which they.stated to be absolutely ^^necessaitj fei'the welfiire 
and honour of her aneiem kingdom*'' Her oMJesty listened to 
their terbal remonstrance with evident sorprise. *^ She tma 
sorry,** she said, ^* thai the Scots bellered they bad reason to 
complain, but she was of opinion, they were driving thcar 
resentments too far, and wished they might hot have reason te^ 
repent their conduct;'* at the same time, with her characteristic 
good nature, she promised to endeavour to make all things 
easy.* In tbe meantime, every artifice was employed, ta 
bring over to their views, the leaders of the different parties* 
among the English, and especially to inflame the minds of the 
people of Scotland, that they might be ready for any desperate 
enterprise in behalf of the pretender, for whose sake, princi- 

ihat he rrtti doing bo. ** The Scots," says he» " represeBted thst tfak tax, 
though « e(i!iy and 'eo«teniefit for Bnglfind, as any othsr, which raiieik wo 
great a mm, in so far as it came directly off the former, and behig thereby di£i 
fused into many other parts, became less burdensooie aad Mnable, yet was 
quite otherwise in Scottand, where a great part of the renis, bemg paldm UmI, 
It fell heavy, and hnmediately on the heritors, who oeeld get no nelitf bf 
nusing the price, because, in that case, the brewers must raise the price ef 
their eal, which brought them out of the frying-pan hito the fire, for tHen 
they must pay the high excise, though in truth, the eal wee no betler than the 
English small beer, according to which, it t& new valnedl and tailed.'* Lock- 
hart Papem, p. 415. 

* Lockhert Papen, vol. i. p. 469. 


pally all this uproar was created ; and 6n the first of June, a 

motioD for dissolving the Union, waa made, in the house of 

lords, by the earl of Findlater, at that time chancellor for 

^ Scotland. His lordship had been one of the cotnikiissioners 

for the treaty of Union, which be* was particularly! active in 

accomplishing, and for his zeal and services tbe^ei^ ^ad a 

pension allowed him, out of the post-office, of three thousand 

a year. Scotish independence, he valned so little, that at the 

rising of her last parliament, he jestingly ei^daijiie^) *^ Now 

there is an end of an old song.^'* Lockhart may therefore 

be folly credited, wh^ he affirms, that *^ it is impossible to 

express his lordship'd uneasiness during. his speech; he made 

so many apologies for what he was to do, that it quite spoiled 

the grace of it, there being no appearance of that zeal and 

earnestness which a subject of this nature did require, and 

seeming more like a party motion and measure, than that it 

proceeded from a real conviction and sense of the calamities 

and injuries he complained of."f 

His lordship's conviction of these injuries, could not be 
deep, as they were in a great measure imaginary, some of 
them, indeed, benefits of no ordinary magnitude. The whole 
he reduced to four heads. The want of a privy council — ^the 
being subjected to the treason laws of England — the incapaci- 
tation of Scotish peers for being peers of Great Britain ; and 
the extension of the malt tax, which he contended would be 
a most intolerable burden to the poor in Scotland, and 
would confine them entirely to water for their drink, which 
he ought to have known had been efiectually done already, 
by their own lords and lairds, who had but very rarely 
allowed them any thing else. 

The motion was seconded by the earl of Marr, and sup^ 
ported by the duke of Argyle, the earls of Hay, Eglinton, 
Nottingham, and Sunderland, the lords Townsfaend, Halifax, 
Powlet, Scarborough, and Scarsdale ; the principal speakers 
in opposition to it, were the lords North and Gray, the earl 
of Peterborough, the lord chief justice Trevor, and the lord 

* Douglas's Peerage of Seetland, vol. t. p. 586. 
t Lockhart Papers, vol. i. p. 435. 
I. 2 B 


treasurer Oxford. Argyle supported the motion with great 
warmth, and had he not in the course of his speech, thrown 
out some severe reflections upon the pretender, it had certainly 
been carried. Two bishops particularly, who possessed three 
proxies, took so much ofience at some of his expressions, that 
they left the house before the division, and it was negatived 
by a majority of Cour voices. This debate affords a re- 
markable example of political inconsistency, and shows with 
what facility, statesmen frame plausible pretences to justify, 
or to forward their own selfish purposes. The whigs, who 
had with so much persevering diligence accomplished the 
Union, were now perfectly willing to give it up, while the 
tones, who had opposed it with the most determined inveter- 
acy, held it fast One of the most ostensible objects, too, of 
that treaty, was the security of the protestant succession, now 
the security of that succession was the principal argument 
brought forward for dissolving it !* 

Being thus, happily for their country, disappointed in their 
object, the Scotish members held a general consultation next 
day, when it was resolved, not to move the question in the 
house of commons that year, lest it should there meet with 
a more unfavourable reception, but that in the meantime, they 
should procure addresses from all parts of Scotland, and, now 
that they had a precedent in the house of lords for enter- 
taining the subject, endeavour bringing their purpose to the 
desired issue in the course of another year. No addresses, 
however, were procured, except from the shires of Edinbnrgh 
and Lanark,f and these probably through the influence of 
Lockhart of Carnwath-— the most inveterate and the most 
subtile of all the Scotish Jacobites, who possessed considerable 
property in both these shires — and in the course of another 
year, new and unexpected events put a bar, probably for ever, 
to any such proposal. 

The only thing further that occurred in this parliament, 
that particularly regarded Scotland, was a bill brought in by 
Mr. Lockhart, and passed, to restrain the splitting of free- 

* Somroeryille's History of the reign of Queen Anne, 
t Lodchart Papers, vol. i. p. 437. 


holds, and granting rights of estates, redeemable upon pay- 
ment of small illusory sums, for the purpose of multiplying 
votes at elections of members to serve in parliament for the 
Scotish shires, a practice that had been carried on to a great 
extent, particularly by the iriends of the revolution settlement, 
on which account it excited, in a high degree, the indignation 
of the tories ; the motive of course was bad, though the object 
was praiseworthy ; and its effects were trifling, corruption 
being then as now, too strongly intrenched behind the cir- 
comvaliations of corporation influence, and the less formidable 
to appearance, but really more impregnable lines of individual 
interests, to be overthrown by the irregular and tumultuous 
attacks of party feeling. Till there be a moral amelioration 
breathed through the body politic, soothing the rage of party, 
and disposing all to the love of truth and the practice of 
charity, the hydra may have a head now and then accident- 
ally cut off, but another instantly springs up in its place ; and, 
while there may be a momentary relief from some trifling 
inconveniences, the radical evil remains, accumulating respect 
with its years, and strength from every partial conflict. 

To all who had drunk into the spirit of freedom, and 
wished well to the best interests of mankind, the presumptuous 
conduct of the pretender, and the unwearied, though often 
foolishly directed zeal of his friends, were constant sources of 
inquietude, and, in the course of this session, two addresses 
were presented to the queen, one by the lords, and one from 
the commons, beseeching her to use her influence with the 
duke of Lorrain, and all the other princes in amity with her, 
not to suffer the pretender to reside in their dominions. In 
the house of lords the address was opposed by nobody but 
the lords North and Gray, who asked where they would have 
that person to reside, since most, if not all the powers of 
Europe were in amity with her majesty? He was answered 
by the lord Peterborough, ^ that as he [the pretender] had 
begun his studies at Paris, the fittest place to improve himself 
was Home." In the house of commons, it was opposed by 
Sir William Whitlock, who remarked, that the like address 
had been made to Oliver Cromwell for having Charles Stuart 
removed out of France, notwithstanding which, he was some 


time afier restored to bis father's throne. To these addresses, 
whatever might be her feelings respecting them, her majestj 
replied with courtesy, though it does not appear that her 
ministers, took any decisive steps in consequence of them.* 

On the sixteenth of July the parliament was dissolved, 
with thanks from the queen for the good service they had 
done the public. To the commons especially, she acknow* 
ledged particular obligatioDs for their a£Fection and duty to 
her, by which they had shown themselves the true represen- 
tatives of a loyal people, which was understood as an indirect 
though earnest recommendation of them, and such as adhered 
to their principles on the ensuing election. *' She doubted not, 
at the next meeting, the affairs of commerce would be so 
understood, that the advantageous conditions she had obtained 
from France, would be made effectual for the benefit of the 
British trade ; and she hoped to meet her parliament next 
winter, resolved to act on the same principles, and with such 
vigour, as should enable her to support the liberties of Europe, 
and reduce the spirit of faction at home."f 

In the interval between the dissolution of the old and the 
meeting of the new parliament, and during the elections, the 
forward insolence of the Stuart faction demonstrated that they 
considered the victory won, and every thing nearly ready for 
their complete triumph^ ^ while the universal dispersion of 
pamphlets written in defence of the pretender's title and 
character, with the open appearance of many who had been 
outlawed, as his friends, gave ample proof of the confidence 
they had in the present managers as their friends. 

The office of secretary of state for Scotland, which had Iain 
vacant since the death of the duke of Queensberry, was now 

* Supplement to the History of the reign of Queen Anne, p. d54. 

f Ibid. p. 237. 

X At the election of Lockbart of Cami»ath» the popoJaee of the Sootish 
metropolis assembled round the statue of Charles IL in the Pftrliament Square* 
where, with tumultuous joy, they drank to the health of the queen, the dis- 
solution of the Union, and the hereditary descent of the crown. In the 
same riotous mood they proceeded to the market cross, filling the city with 
the deafening noise of their treasonable acclamations. Vide Publications of 
that time. 


bestowed upon the earl of Marr, through the joint concurrence 
of Oxfard and Bolingbroke, both of whom con6ded in him 
as a irery proper person to manage the election of the Scotisfa 
peers, in which it was determined, if possible, to prevent the 
re-election of lord Ilaj. In this they succeeded, but by their 
success, they lost for ever the favour of Argyle, who had been 
of late very much at their service. 

The new parliament, after many prorogations on account 
of the queen's health, was opened, by commission, on the six*- 
teeoth of February, 1714, and thoiigb the tory party was not 
quite so strong in point of numbers as in the last parliament, 
it consisted, according to Lockhart, *' of a set of gentlemen 
very tight, and more zealous for the king's : restoration, there 
being a great many young members, keen aod wanting only 
to be led on to action, so that, although the tories had not 
so great a majority as before, they consisted of a much more 
united hearty set of men than had been assembled together 
for many years preceding, and were willing and sufficiently 
able to have acted their parts, had not the court tricked them 
with dilatures till the golden opportunity was past/'* Their 
hopes were, however, very much damped in the outset, by the 
nomination of Sir Thomas Hanmer to the speaker's chair. 
He had acquired great popularity by the bitterness of his op- 
position to the commercial treaty, and was recommended by 
some of the leading whigs as a person every way qualified for 
the situation, and being a pretty high tory, though a Hano- 
verian one, the party could not object to him, and he was 
elected without opposition.! This circumstance excited great 
jealousy of the ministry, and no small degree of enmity against 
them, on the part of the Jacobites. 

Peace was proclaimed with Spain on the first of March, 
and, on the day following, the queen went to the house of 
lords, and addressed the new parliament. She expressed her 
satisfiiction in being able to announce the ratification of the 
treaties of peace and commerce with Spain, promising that 
no exertion should be wanting, on her part, to complete the 

* Lockbort Papers, vol. L p. 439. 

t Supplement to the History of the reign of Queen Anae, p. 25$. 


settlement of Europe. She congrattiiated her subjects upon 
their deliverance from a consuming war, accepted of the 
general joy expressed for her recovery, as a grateftil return 
for the tenderness and afiection she always exercised towards 
her people, and wished that more effectual care had been taken 
to suppress seditions writings, and factious rumours, by which 
public credit had been depressed. She spoke with great 
warmth on the malicious intentions of those who talked of 
the protestant succession being in danger under her govern- 
ment, and hoped they would all agree with her, that attempts 
to render the crown uneasy to her, could scarcely be the 
means of strengthening that interest. She concluded with 
asking supplies for the service of the current year, and claim- 
ing the parliament's assistance in procuring .such fruits from 
the peace, as might render it a blessing to the present age 
and to posterity.* 

Addresses from both houses were returned every way such 
as her majesty could have desired. The lords testified the 
highest indignation against the authors and dispersers of 
seditious papers, and at all who insinuated that the protestant 
succession was in danger under her majesty's government, 
and the commons, while they expressed astonishment at such 
malicious surmisings, declared their entire satisfaction with the 
securities by which that succession was established. The 
value of this unanimity in loyal zeal, however, may be esti- 
mated, from the circumstance of both houses hastening to the 
discussion of these very topics, upon which they mustered all 
the strength of their respective parties, and poured out upon 
each other all the bitterness of the most rancorous hostUity. 

Among the squadron of pamphleteers, which the adminis- 
tration kept in constant pay, by far the ablest and the most 
conspicuous was the celebrated Dr. Swift, who had lately 
published a most acrimonious attack upon the Scotish nation, 
which he entitled The Public Spirit of the Whig%^ and in which 
he indulged, in a more than ordinary degree, that scurrilous 
sarcasm, for which he will probably be remembered as long as 

* SomnierTille's History of Grent Britain, &c. p. 549. Supplement to the 
History of the reign of Queen Anne, pp. 256, S57. 


English literature. This pamphlet, under the authority of her 
majesty's refereuce to libels, the lord Wharton complained of 
the very day the address referred to was voted by the lords ; 
aDd, a few passages being read, it was immediately voted to 
be a false and malicious libel; and Morpbew, the printer, and 
Barber, the publisher, together with their servants, were 
ordered into custody. After undergoing separate examina- 
tions, however, they were discharged without having made 
any discovery of the author. The author was, indeed, safely 
concealed under the care of the ministers themselves, some 
of whom there was good ground for believing had been, if 
not art and part in the writing his pamphlet, at least privy to 
its publication, but, by professing great zeal against the author, 
and showing apparently great alacrity in adopting measures 
for his discovery, they succeeded in screening him from that 
vengeance which his enemies had hoped to inflict upon him.* 
A more successful attack was, at the same time, made 
in the house of commons upon Sir Richard Steele, a member 
of that house, an author of great merit, and a distinguished 
champion of the whigs, on account of three several pamphlets. 
Hie Engliskmany The Crisis, and A Letter to the Englishman^ 
each of them subscribed by his name. Of some of these 
pamphlets Sir Richard was not the author, but instead of 
revoking or attempting to soften any thing in them, he added 
to the provocation, by the most pointed declamation against 
the measures of administration, and declared that he had 
written and published these pamphlets with the same cheer- 
fulness and satisfaction with which he had abjured the pre- 

* The queen herself went most cordially into the measures adopted for 
discovering the author of this pamphlet, from a strong prejudice which she 
entertained against Swift. This prejudice she had imbibed from Or. Sharp, 
the late archbishop of York, who, when some one recommended Swift for a 
bishopric, advised her majesty first to make him a christian, and it was strength- 
ened daily by the datchess of Somerset, who supposed hersdf to have been 
ridicaled by Swift in his Windtor Prophecy, Dr. Sharp was not alone in his 
view of Swift's character. Dr. Smalridge, when Sacheveral attempted to flatter 
him, by supposing him the author of Tlie Tale of a Ihtb, answered with indig* 
nation, *' Not all that you or I have in the world, nor all we ever shall have, 
should hire me to write 77ie Tale of a 7V6.*' — Sheridan and Johnson's Lives 


tender. He was supported by all the eloquence of the whigs, 
particularly by Mr. (afterwards Sir Robert) Walpole, who 
denounced, in a strain of the keenest invective, the lord treas- 
urer Oxford, as the patron of all the seditious publicatioDS, 
that, to the endangering the protestant succession, had of late 
inundated the nation. The tories, confident in their numbers, 
spared themselves the trouble of elaborate replies, and th^ 
motions, finding the pamphlets seditious, and expelling Sir 
Richard the house, were carried by sweeping majorities. 

Though the tories were thus upon the whole still tri- 
umphant, from the now but ill dissembled enmity of Oxford 
and Bolingbroke, the interests of the pre^nder, it was (eared 
by his friends, and by none moi'e than the Scotish Jacobites, 
were not attended to with that watchful diligence which was 
necessary to bring them to a speedy and a favourable con- 
clusion; and when they reflected upon the state of the queen's 
health, and the little probability of its being restored, they 
were filled with the most painful misgivings. It was, there- 
fore, determined that lord Bolingbroke, for they began now 
to despair of Oxford, should be conversed with upon the 
subject, and urged to more energetic measures, which, if 
he declined to adopt, he was to receive the support of the 
party no longer. Mr. Lockbart of Carnwath and Sir John 
Packington were the deputies employed on this occasion. 
They were to represent particularly the shameful neglect of 
the army, that had hitherto been officered only by men of 
dangerous principles, and to insist upon its being purged 
with all convenient speed, and placed under the direction of 
persons known to be well aflected to the church and the 
crown, '* all which was done," says Lockhart, ^^ in as plain 
and simple a manner as possible." 

Bolingbroke confessed *^ he was sufiiciently sensible that a 
great deal of precious time had been lost, and many good 
opportunities neglected, and, for his own part, he was inno- 
cent thereof, and the whole blame lay upon lord Oxford ; 
what that lord's private views might be, he could not divine; 
but he believed he had now, in a good measure, convinced 
the queen, that they were not such as she wisht and approved 
off and would terminate in her own and her family's ruin, and 


he hoped that lord would not have it in his power to retard 
business as be had done/'* At the same time) his lordship 
stated, that the utmost degree of prudence was necessary with 
the queen, who could not easily be persuaded to lay aside the 
good opinion she had entertained of my lord Oxford, and, 
therefore, they behoved still to have a little patience, lest he 
should fly off, and, joining with the whigs, add to the many 
difficulties that already lay in the way of their favourite object. 
His lordship's apology, however reasonable, was not at all 
palatable to the deputies, who either did not understand, or 
did not sympathize with him under bis already multiplying em- 
barrassments ; and they threatened his lordship, though they 
would not desert the queen, with the adoption of such meas- 
ures as they thought most conducible to their purposes, with- 
out regard to the views either of himself or lord Oxford. 
When they applied to their brethren, however, *< they found 
so many, even honest, well-designing persons, wheedled over 
by my lord Bolingbroke, that they were constrained to sus- 
pend the execution of several material projects which they 
had formed/'f 

One of these projects was another attempt at dissolving 
the Union, which we find Lockhart pressing upon his four 
associates — of whom we have already taken notice, as so 
successfully prosecuting their enterprises against the Scotish 
church — as what was necessary for compelling the ministry to 
greater activity, and as what, in the present state of parties, 
with prudent management, they might easily obtain. Three 
of these gentlemen, however, Mr. Murray, Mr. Carnegy, and 
Sir Alexander Cuming, in prospect of advancing their own 
personal interests, '^ had been at a good deal of pains to in- 
gratiate themselves with the lord Bolingbroke; they fawned 
upon and flattered him to an intolerable degree, and devoted 
themselves absolutely to him; which suiting with his vani^, 
they became his particular favourites, and, looking upon him 
as the rising sun, they expected mighty things from him, and 
gave themselves prodigious airs, as if nothing relating to 
Scotland should have its rise and proceed but from and by 

• Lockhart Papers, vol. i. pp. 441, 442. f ^Wcl. p. 442. 



themselves.'' The consequences of so much expectation were 
such as every reader will readily anticipate: *' they opposed 
what Lockhart aimed at with a great deal of warmness ; they 
said that my lord Bolingbroke was a good man and a wise 
roan, and knew what was fit to be done and when to do it ; 
that for any private set of men to pretend to drive the ministry, 
was taking too much upon them ; that, for their parts, they 
would have no concern in such measures, and, if others did 
pursue them, they did not doubt but they would repent it."* 
An union of views, that had continued for so many years, 
was thus at once broken up; and that, too, at a time when 
unanimity was of the last importance. After a few weeks, 
however, they agreed to make one e£Port more in behalf of 
the Scotish episcopalians; and Lockhart, who had already 
given abundant proofs of his zeal, was again employed as the 
framer of a bill to be brought into parliament, ** for resuming 
the bishops' revenues in Scotland, and applying the same to« 
wards the relief of the episcopal clergy, and the support of 
such ministers as should accept of, and lay claim to the benefits 
of the toleration act." Lockhart was at first rather shy; but, 
after being assured that the queen was sincere and hearty in 
the measure, looking upon the application of these revenues 
to other uses as nothing less than sacrilege, and that he might 
expect the hearty concurrence of both Bolingbroke and Marr, 
he seems to have entered upon the project with his usual 
warmth, and without any loss of time or trouble, as he had a 
bill lying by him to that effect, that he had intended to have 
brought forward several years previous to this. A difierence, 
however, happily arose among them, respecting the extent of 
the resumption, some of them wishing, for the sake of their 
friends who enjoyed salaries there, to spare that which had 
been granted to the universities, while others, among whom 
was Lockhart himself, insisted that it should be an unlimited 
and unconditional resumption, very justly, in their own way, 
regarding that part which was bestowed upon the universities 
the most mischievously applied of the whole, ** seeing these 
universities at present were seminaries of rebellion and 

• Lockhart Papers, vol. i. p. 444. 


schism."* Owing to this di£Perence of opinion, some of the 
party became, first scrapulous abont the propriety of pro- 
secuting the subject, then cold supporters of it, and at last its 
avowed enemies^ Some of the nobility, too, had, in the mean* 
time, represented it to the queen as a measure fraught with 
danger to the internal tranquillity of the country, which 
awakening her fears, she declared she would withold her 
assent to the bill, should it even pass both houses, and it was 
droppe<l, though with great reluctance. 

A plan was also brought forward for new modelling the 
Scotish militia, and assimilating it exactly to that of England. 
This also met with violent opposition from many of the 
Scotish members, who, by dexterously taking advantage of a 
thin house, succeeded in postponing the discussion to a day 
so distant, that the parliament was prorogued before its ar- 
rival, and the measure, of course, fell to the ground. 

During this session, the subject of the succession was often 
inlroduced, and addresses were carried in both houses, for 
having the pretender removed from Lorrain, where he had re- 
sided since, in terms of the peace, he had been obliged to leave 
France. It was, at the same time, proposed to set a price 
upon his person, dead or alive, which was violently opposed 
by the party supposed to be his friends ; yet, not long after, 
the queen, of her own accord, and without any previous notice, 
moved in the council that a reward of five thousand pounds 
should be ofiered for his person, should he attempt to land in 
any part of her dominions ; which the house of commons next 
day voted should be made one hundred thousand.f What 
moved the queen to take such a course has never been fully 
explained. The probability is, that amidst the clamour of 
faction, which was every day becoming more appallingly ter- 
rific, and the extreme avidity manifested by both the aspirants 
to the succession, she was seized with the terror of having 
them both in England at the same time ; in which case, she 
seems to have thought, that her own authority would be of 
very little consequence. It is impossible, indeed, to conceive 

• Lockbai't Papers, vol. i. pp. 447, 448. 

t Supplement to the Hi^ory of the Reign of Queen Anne, p. 303. Lock- 
hart Papers, vol. i. p. 471. 


of any situation more anhappy than that in which her majesty 
was now placed by this struggle of contending factions. With 
a degree of prudence, which forms the brightest lineament of 
her character, she laboured to conceal her partialities, though 
they were most certainly not in favours of Hanover; and 
while she was agitated with conscientious scruples, in pos- 
sessing a throne to the exclusion of the legitimate heir, and 
solicitous to make compensation by securing to him its rever- 
sion, she was not less solicitous for the welfare of her subjects, 
and the preservation of the protestant religion, to which, with 
all her weaknesses, there is every reason to think she was a 
true convert. Her attachment to this religion she had made 
known to her brother, the pretender, as he was styled, and 
she had made hb conversion to it the term upon which alone 
she could really and efiectively befriend him. This term he 
had obstinately rejected, and, by so doing, had deeply offended 
her. Now, however, there appeared, on his part, some dis- 
position to relent. Either by chance or choice the most part 
of his popish followers were absent from his court; the famous 
nonjuror, Lesley, was sent for to officiate to those protestants 
that were with him at Bar-le-duc, and he himself wrote a letter 
to a person in England, highly recommending the doctrines 
of the episcopal church, and promising to give every reason- 
able security in its behalf, all his desire for his subjects being 
" to make them a flourishing and happy people."* This, 
while it tended to sooth her vanity, and to re-invigorate her 
declining affection, by inflaming the zeal of all who felt in- 
terested in the protestant succession, and exciting their efforts 
for its preservation, awakened her fears, and threw her into a 
state of indetermination, that every day became more dis- 
tressing. The natural vacillation of her temper was also, at 
this time, greatly aggravated by the efforts of the persons 
about her, in whom she placed the greatest confidence. On 
the one hand, lady Masham wrought on all her family par- 
tialities, and was the agent of continual representations firom 
the courts of St. Germains and Versailles ; on the other, she 
was assailed by the dutchess of Somerset, who, like the 

* Stuart Papers, 1714. 


datcbess of Marlborough, no less artfully wrought on her 
dread of popery, and zeal for the protestant &ith.''* But 
whatever were the motives which prevailed with her majesty 
to issue the above proclamation, the eiiects were greater than, 
perhaps, either party could have anticipated. Lockhart says, 
^' that whilst the Jacobites solaced tbeiBselves with the hope 
of the speedy restoration of the king, and were impatient for 
the word, to fall on and effectuate what they had so long 
desired and aimed at, their wine was suddenly mixed with 
water, and they met with what vexed and surprised them ex- 
ceedingly," [viz, the above proclamation]. *' The whigs,'' he 
adds, ** looked on this as so mighty a turn in their a^airs, 
that 1 heard the earl of Stair say, in the court of requests, he 
looked upon this as the most glorious day Britain had seen 
of a long time.''t 

Though the prospects of the Jacobites, previous to this un« 
expected act of the queen, were thus cheering in England, they 
do not appear to have been mending much in Scotland for a 
considerable length of time. The warning emitted by the 
commission of the General Assembly against popery, and the 
increase of Jacobitism during the preceding year, appears to 
have awakened a very general interest throughout the country, 
and to have called forth the exertions of the friends of the 
Hanoverian succession in no ordinary degree. This warning, 
the General Assembly, which met at Edinburgh, on the sixth 
day of May, 1714, took care particularly to approve, *^as 
seasonably impressing the minds of the people, with loyalty 
to her majesty, firmness to the protestant succession in the 
house of Hanover, and just aversion to the pretender, which 
they followed up, by an address, containing a very plain state- 
ment of sundry grievances, of which, the encroachments of the 
nonjuring episcopalians appear to have been none of the least ; 
and in replying to her majesty's customary assurances, ^^ of 
her care to promote true piety and godliness, by employing 
such persons, as shall be faithful, in duly executing the laws, 
against profaneness and immorality," they observe with no 
little point, ** We humbly presume to persuade ourselves, that 

* Coxe's Life of Marlborough, vol. Hi. pp. 558, 554. 
t Lockhart Papers, vol. i. pp. 471, 472. 



your majesty will, in your royal wisdoro, find out such means 
as shall be most proper for making your religious purposes 
more efiectual, than, to our deep regret, they have hitherto 
been !"• 

This assembly presented a congratulatory address to her 
majes^, upon her recovery from sickness — passed an act, for 
the better execution of the laws against pro&neness — for 
further regulating the trial of probationers — ^for discouraging 
unworthy bursars, and for restoring and preserving unity in 
this church. They also published an act and recommendation, 
in favours of the society for propagating christian knowledge, 
which is stated to be already maintaining seventeen schools, 
in some of which, there were not fewer than one hundred and 
eighteen scholars, and an act for procuring the better exe- 
cution of former acts against popery, and for preventing the 
growth thereof. This assembly, also ** confirmed a sentence 
of the synod of Lothian, appointing Mr. James Webster, or 
any who will join with him, in charging Mr. John Simson, 
professor of Divinity at Glasgow, with error, to table their 
complaint before the presbytery where he lives, and allowing 
any person, or persons, that are willing to assist Mr. Webster 
in that pursuit, in point of form, to give him their assistance, 
and declaring, that by so doing, they shall not be accounted 
libellers, unless they engage in the cause."f 

Great progress was, in the meantime, making in the change 
of persons who held offices of trust, both in Scotland and in 
England. Thomas Kennedy and John Carnegy of Boisack, 
two notorious Jacobites, were appointed, the former lord 
advocate for Scotland, and the latter, solicitor general. The 
former of these offices, had been in the possession of Sir 
James Stuart, from an early period, in the reign of king 
William, till a little after the Union, when it was conferred 
on Sir David Dalrymple, who, as we have already stated, 
was removed, on account of the pretender's medal, presented 
to the faculty of advocates by the dutcbess of Gordon. 
The office was again bestowed upon Sir James, who held 

* Acts of Assembly, 1714. 

f Index to Unprinted Acts of Assembly, 1714. 


it till his death, which happened somewhat more than a year 
previous to the appointment of Mr. Kennedy. The ministry^ 
according to Lockhart, had determined on letting the office 
fall, and applying the money to their own purposes; but 
the outcry of the people, seconded by the earl of Marr, at 
whose instance Mr. Kennedy was appointed, altered their 
determination. The place of solicitor, had been filled by 
Sir James Stuart, son to the late lord advocate, who was 
equally obnoxious with his father to the Scotish Jacobites, 
and they had long laboured to have him displaced, but with- 
out efiect, till now, that, by a speech in the house of commons, 
he so exasperated the whole party, that a peremptory message 
was sent to lord Oxford, immediately to dismiss him, or they 
would move the house to address the queen to that effects 
With this request, Oxford thought it prudent to comply, and 
the place was, at the instance of lord Bolingbroke, bestowed 
upon his friend and dependant, Mr. Carnegy.* 

It was about the same time that the duke of Argyle was 
under the necessity of selling his troop of Scotish horse 
guards, and the earl of Dundonald, being well affected in 
a certain quarter, was pitched upon as a proper person to 
buy it. The earl of Stair, who was known to be zealous for 
the protestant succession, and whose influence in Scodand 
was greatly feared by the tories, was also called upon to sell 
his regiment of Scots Greys to the earl of Portmore, in 
whose hands, it was thought, they would be in safer keeping. 
It had also been the intention of Bolingbroke and Marr, to 
have all the lord lieutenants of Scotland appointed from 
among their own creatures, and thus they would have had 
the whole militia of Scotland entirely at their own disposal ; 
but it failed, as did the whole project at last, from the want 
of cordiality, or rather from the inveterate selfishness of the 
parties, who could never so far master their individual pro- 
pensities, as to bring their united strength to bear upon the 
grand objects of their ambition. 

It cannot be denied, but that, at this time, the prospects 
of the Jacobites were of the most flattering description, yet 

* Lockbart Papers, voL i. pp. 458, 459. 


there were dark shades in the distance, indicating a storm, 
that would require to be met with prudence and unanimity. 
Among the mgb of England, the cant of the king and the 
church had been pretty generally diffused. ^^ Men were 
almost openly enlisted for the service of the pretender, and 
his health, as James VIII., was as openly pledged, at nu- 
merous meetings and clubs, held by Jacobites of all ranks 
and denominations in the metropolis/'* But loyalty i^nd de- 
votion, by a warm fireside, oyer a good dinner, and plenty of 
wine, and the same qualities in the tented field, where all 
that the many can reasonably expect is hard fare, hard 
blows, and unprofitable honour, are very different things, as 
the friends of James found to their cost, when they afterwards 
made the experiment. There was also a numerous and 
powerful party, equally ambitious with themselves^ who were 
set upon maintaining the liberties of the kingdom, and the 
protestant succession, whatever it might cost them, and who 
were equally zealous in their preparations, and in as much as 
the law was yet upon their side, could do so» with far more 
effect. They possessed also great advantages over their op- 
ponents, in case of coming suddenly to ei^tremities, in having 
the principal military characters in the kingdom, Marlborough, 
Argyle, Cadogan, Stanhope, and Stair, entirely of their party. 
In Scotland, where the pretender's friends^ if not the most 
numerous, were always understood to be the most forward, 
and being less accustomed to the sweets of a peaceful and 
luxurious life, and having less to lose, were more likely to 
come forward in his behalf with the first opportunity, matters 
were scarcely more favourable. The consultations of the dis- 
affected had been long openly, though artfully carried on, 
under the cover of hunting matches, and horse races, where 
the orgies of dissipation were probably as much attended to as 
those of rebellion.t On the contrary, the well-affected met 

* Coxe's Life of Marlborough, vol. iii. p. 559. 

f The following is an account of one of the^e masked meetings, from a pub- 
lication of the time : — 

** Upon Saturday, the 29 th of May, there was a great confluence of gentle- 
men and country people, at Lochmaben, on the occasion of a horse race there ; 
two plates, which were the prizes, had peculiar devices; the one had a woman 

pppujy wd ftvpwildly, fpr M^ parpose of su}^rting the dignity 
of th^ l#w^ «p4 jQWPterm^tipg tbiese ^eoret n^acbinatipn^ — 
pabli3be4 their re#plpti^Df to th§ lyorlflf P^Hpg PPW »U tb^ir 
jSMlpw ^^j($ct«, jtp vnif» V) dpfeatiog ^bfr iotrigue3 ef a restjej^s 
gpd Abw^ne4 f4Pf^P> wbi^f in the p^try bopi^ gf personal 
sggraiidj^^^iaenl;, w^ about to plunge th^ nation iotp ^ll the 
borFpr^ pf civi] i^^^r^ ip ord^r tp i^ubject it, in the issue, to th^ 
mi^rvle ^ ^e eipi^arMs« of ¥199/^ nd pf Rooie. Nor did 
dl^y ^?PPti^ th^iQsdy^ i^ith bo]4ipg publics meetiiigs and 
publifbing resolu(;io9fl. They ^IsQ set about providing ^rms 
a9d mM^witiPOs plenty of whieb they pbtaiped from Holland) 
tbroMlsb th<e ficmnwf^m^ of tb« c^stooi-bouse officers, all of 
nrhom, ]U>ekbart iofprips us, wjsrte ^^ notoriously disaffected to 
the qne<3P'<» present odoinistr^jtipn/'^ 

A^png tbqse who distiogNisb^d tbemsely^ in this pi^ipuer^ 
the Hanoverian club at Ediaburgb deserves to b^ luenjtiop^ 
wkk peculuur hpppiar, Tbi« club w%s fpreoed by the eairl of 
BcMcban, his brothers, Thomas and Charles ikskint^s, M^' 
Gi^org^ Drui^ipond, Mr^ Alexander Campbell, commissary 
of aHiikryy Robert Stivirt, on» of the regeuts of the college 

vitfa balances in her hand^ the einblem of justice, and over the bead was 
JustiHa (Justice), and at a little distance, Suum Ctdque (to every man his 
own). The other, had seirend men with their heads downwards, in a tumbling 
posture, and one ottioeiit porsen «re^ted aibove the rest, ^n^h that soripture, 
Esefc. sxisy. "i villoyertiirs,oTeitur9«ovarturnit;«ad^«hti|[lhe9Piii9i)& 
UPOJ be come ; wbose light it ;s and I will give i( hin^." A^W ;tbe jracc^ the 
popish and Jacobitfs gentiy, such as Francis Maxwell pf Tinwallj John M^xweU 
his brother, Robert Johnston of Wamphrey, Robert Cairvthers.ofRampaers- 
scaleSy the master of ^urieigh (who is under the sentence of death, for murder, 
and made bis qseape oat of the tolbooth of Edii4>ttf^h, a little before he was 
to bare been execate^)b with seaeral others | eoiiW Qai9e» went «9 ^ 
crofs, where, ia a very lolem^ maaaer, before biinidreds of wit,Qesi^ wi(h 
drams beatii^, and colours displayed, they djd upon tl^ei.r knees^ d^nk .their 
king's health. Thp master of Burleigh, began the health, with a jGod damp 
them that would not drink it, &c. The year before, they had another such 
meeting, on the like oecasion, in the s«me placet And their plate had the kiQg 
Id the royal oak, with this ioscoiptiOD, ** Ged will rettore f and medals were 
produo^, with U»e prd^odar's head on ^ one «de|^ witb this pjgtto, 4^^^ 
pti (whose righ^ it is), ^nd on the reverse^ Britannia or tlie Itflarids of Grei^t 
Britain, with this inscription, reddite, (return). But yet the eovernment took 
no notice of them.** Ra^s History of the Rebellion, pp. 49, 50. 

* Rae^s History of the RebelKon, pp. 4 1 , 42. Lockhart Papers, vol. i. p. 46$, 

I. 2d 


of Edinburgh, Mr. James Nfmnio, John Martin of Ayres, 
&c. &c. and was of singular use in discovering, by its watch- 
ful vigilance, every motion of the Jacobites and their friends^ 
whether at home or abroad, and by the vigour of its corre- 
spondence, keeping alive the zeal and spirit of the people in 
e^ery quarter of the country, especially in the south and in 
the western shires, where, in particular places, the Jacobites 
were numerous and powerful. In consequence of the advice 
and information of the above gentlemen, a meeting was held 
at Dalmellington, in Kyle, in the month of March, where it 
was unanimously resolved, that the imminent danger to which 
the civil and religious liberties of the nation were exposed, 
from '* the growth of popery, and the insults of papists and 
Jacobites upon our laws and constitution," it was become ne- 
cessary, ** for strengthening one another's hands," to lay down 
measures for their joint security. 

In pursuance of these measures, particular meetings were 
kept in the several districts for training the people to the use 
of arms, that so they might be in a condition to defend them- 
selves, their religion and liberty, by whom, or whensoever 
they might be attacked. Considerable sums of money were 
also advanced by the well disposed, with whom the ministers 
of the gospel generally concurred, for providing arms and 
ammunition for such as had not the means of providing 
themselves with these now necessary articles; and, as they had 
nothing in view but the preservation of that succession which 
had been established by act of parliament, and for which the 
ministry had hitherto made her majesty, in all her public 
speeches, express the highest deference, they supposed them- 
selves to be performing nothing more than the duty of nfiec- 
tionate and loyal subjects. Had they been acting for the 
pretender, they had certainly been overlooked, if, like the 
highland clans, they had not been rewarded for their dili- 
gence ; but the army had occupied too much of the attention 
of Bolingbroke and his associates of late, and excited their 
fears too sensibly, for them to suffer such formidable pre- 
parations in aid of it quietly to take effect. Orders were 
instantly sent down to seize upon their arms and ammunition, 
and these orders the Jacobites showed an extreme avidity to 


execute. Few discoveries of either arms or ammunition, how- 
ever, were made; and, though a serjeant belonging to the 
castle of Edinburgh, named William Scott, was discovered 
training some young men in a malt loft, and thrown for a few 
weeks into prison, he was no sooner liberated, than he was 
sent for by the gentlemen and ministers of Penpont, with 
whom he continued, assisting them in training their depen- 
dants, till the decease of the queen, after which, the govern- 
ment rewarded him with a pair of colours.* 

The trying crisis had now, however, arrived with the 
ministry. The session of parliament had been purposely 
shortened, in order to allow them to pay undivided attention 
to the vast project they were pursuing. The daily decaying 
strength of the queen, too, admonished them to quicken their 
progress if they meant to be benefited by her assistance. 
Their principal leaders were Oxford and Bolingbroke, the 
former, a man of popular manners, and of considerable talents 
for business, but vacillating in his views, feeble in forming 
combinations, and tardy in drawing conclusions ; too ambitious 
to be at rest, and too timid to run the risk of new and untried 
measures ; the latter, a scholar and a wit ; celebrated for a 
fine person, a courtly bearing, a free vein of poetry, and 
beautifully classic speeches; but to judgment, a mere pre- 
tender, vain, superficial, sophistical, and silly. A freethinker 
in religion, and a libertine in morals, he yet, by his zeal for 
the church, which seemed to know no bounds, and had been 
particularly displayed in forwarding the schism bill, had 
attached to him all the Jacobites and the high tories, and his 
vanity, or his ambition, led him to think he could accomplish 
singly, what had certainly been too hard for him and his 
colleague, though in counsel and in eflPort they had been per- 
fectly united. 

Oxford had attained his present elevation through the in- 
fluence of Mrs. Masham, a needy relation of the dutchess of 
Marlborough, whom she introduced into the queen's service as 
her tiring woman, and he had carried along with him Boling- 
broke, then only Mr. Henry St John, as an useful auxiliary, 

* Use's History of the Rebellion, pp. 4l» 43. 


whom he hoped to serve hindself by^ and» at the same timei 
keep in a state of bumble d^petidimte. But Mr* St John had 
a far higher opinion of his own abilities, than to act Iti a sub- 
ordinate capacity any longer than necessity required it, imd the 
weakness of his mastei*, which, though he had no great degree 
of pedetration, he knew enough of the world readily to discoveri 
the nature of the business he was employed to transact, and 
the good graces of the then medium of political power, Mrs* 
Masham, which, partly by fluttery, and partly by more solid 
services, he very soon obtained, gave full scope to his am- 
bition, gratified his vanity, and made him little solicitous to 
conceal those ideas of gigantic superiority that had Aow taken 
possession of his Whole sotd. This, in the nature of things 
could not fail to be peculiai-ly galling to Oxford, who, no 
doubt, fancied that he was entitled to a far diflferent return^ 
and, if it had been possible for him to have accomplished ft, 
would gladly have induced his ungrateful dependant, and now 
Hval peer, to plain Mr. St John, leaving him to find office and 
influence iii the best manher he could. But this was now im- 
possible. St John had beeil his principal agent in all the dirty 
work which the demoh of party had led him to undertake^ 
He had negotiated for him — ^in a very bungling style it is true^— 
by tbe asststanc!e of Matthew Prior, a man, like himself, of loose 
morals, biit a poet and a wit, those treaties^ which at once com*- 
promised the interests and the honour of the nation ; he was 
acquainted widi nil the intrigues carried on with tlie French 
king, and his puppet, tfie pi*etender^ and for Oxford now to 
have shaken him ofi*, would have been td throw him into the 
arms of the dfe^ed whig^ to have encountered an immediate 
impeachment, and perhapfe^ to have puid for his imprudence 
with his he&d. 

But Oxford, though he was, fi'om motives of interest, pre*> 
vented from btenking with his cdle&gue^ hud not fiiiled to t^e 
prudential measutte for his own safety, and, probably for fear 
of the worst, had, ftotA the outset of his career, been averse 
ftojh driving the Whigs to extremity. To the schism bill he 
^v^ most certainly averse ; and> to the purging of the armyv «fc 
it was called, he showed great reluctance. He had, indeed, 
all along, incurred no small degree of reproach from the 

HlSltokT OF 8CCITLAMD. 218 

Jacobite^ for aUowing 90 mtftiy places of trust, to be filkd by 
men avowedly friendly to the protestant Boccessian^ Nay, Imi 
had again and again gone the length of proffering his best 
services, and expressing his devout veneration and respect to the 
illusttioiis house of Hanover, all which, though in the issu^ 
highly advantageous to the interests of liberty and the aggran* 
dizement of that noble family, did not, in the slightest degree, 
answer the end he had in view*-^the preser^auon of his own 
power. The artful duplicity of his character he had indulged 
io long, and exercised so successively upon all parties, that to 
all he was become alike contemptible. At the court of Haoover^ 
his depressions of veneration and respect were considered as 
artfully titkred to conceal his views, and divert their attention 
from that quarter where his real services were more efifective 
Tlie whigs were too sharpsighted to be duped by any thing he 
eould say, and too inveterate to be joined with him in any 
thing he might do. His associates, sick of his procrastinating 
policy, and terrified every day on acoount of the increasing ill*- 
ness of the queen, were resolved, at all events, to act withont 
him, if they could not prevail on her majesty to dismiss him. 
Her majes^s affection wa&ruow, indeed, his only dependanoe^ 
and that he possessed it at one time, in a very high d^ee^ can- 
not be doubted ; but, even in this quarter, every thing was now 
against him. The queen was in the dotAge of a mortel diseaae; 
she was beset by lady Masham, whose afiections Oxford had 
alienated, by his opposition to the grant of a pension, and ocher 
emoluments, which that lady was anxious to obtain $ uid, in 
return, she lost no opportunity of representing him, as *^ the 
most worthless and the' most ungratdul of men.''^ Her ma^ 
jesty was also wrought upon by Bolingbroke, with all the arts 
of courtly cunning which he could command. This crafty and 
disiDgenuous politician, artfully affected to develope the intr^ues 
of Oxford with the court of Hanover, and even accused him of 
caballing with the duke of Marlborough, who appears to faav« 
been an object of peculiar terror to her migesty. Habit, how- 
ever, and the remains of affectionate partiality for the minister 

• Vide Swift's Letters. Letter from Lady Mavhatn to Swift, 89th July, 


who bad delivered her firom the control of the whigs, together 
with the natural indecision of her majesty's character, pro- 
tracted his fall, and it was not till sentence was passed upon 
him by the courts of Versailles and St (jermains, that she 
consented, and even then, not without a violent struggle, to 
dismiss the lord Oxford from her service.* 

Bolingbroke, full of himself, goaded on by the Jacobites, who 
now regarded him as the sun of all their hopes, and flattered 
by Mrs. Masham, the agent of the French court, though con- 
cealed under the name of that of St Germains, with the idea 
of holding in his hands the destinies of two kingdoms, seems no 
sooner to have learned the queen's determination with r^ard to 
Oxford, than he was eager to have it put in execution, and 
^* it was not long before he found means to let him [Oxford] 
know, that it would be taken kindly if he would resign." Ox- 
ford was, however, far too fond of place and power, and had 
too much contempt for the person who was supplanting him in 
the royal favour, to attend to any such innuendo. Accordingly, 
as he himself informs us, ^' There being no other method, they 
were at length obliged to let him know, that it was her majesty's 
pleasure he should resign."f In consequence of this notice, 
Oxford repaired into the presence of the queen, July twenty- 
seventh, 1714, to deliver up his badge of office, when an in- 
decorous altercation ensued between the two principal rivals 
for power, Oxford and Bolingbroke, which, regardless of their 
own characters as courtiers of the first rank, or of tlie royal 
presence, bowed down with sickness and pain, was continued 
till two o'clock in the morning, with every circumstance of 
vulgar insult, and confirmed animosity. 

In this war of words, however, Oxford appears to have been 

• " These courts [St Germains and Versailles] finding that Oxford con- 
stantly eluded their demands for a restoration, and deceived them by repeated 
promises, which were never fulfilled, made lord Bolingbroke the agent oi their 
schemes, and the channel of their communications, and hoped through his 
ministry to gain the object of their wishes. We learn from the authentic 
history of the duke of Berwick, who managed the secret correspondence 
with the Stuart party, that this was the real cause of Oxford's removal, and 
that his disgrace excited the most sanguine hopes of success.** Coxe's Life 
of Marlborough, vol. iii. p. 578. 

t Secret History of the White Staflf. 


much the greatest proficient, and probably made a very great im- 
pression, both on the feelings and the sentiments of the queen. 
He first expressed to her majesty, the entire satisfaction he felt 
in laying down <* what he never, but with a view to her majesty's 
interest, enjoyed with any comfort. That the only grief he 
felt in his removal, was the assurance he had, that those who 
pretended to succeed him, would embark her in impracticable 
schemes, which, if her majesty's own wisdom did not prevent, 
it would be her ruin." He artfully took the whole credit to 
himself, of having brought her safe through four tempestuous 
sessions of parliament, and into the view of that general tran- 
quillity of Europe, which he knew had lain so near her heart, 
and which the men she was about to employ would prevent her 
subjects firom ever enjoying ; and while he expressed his full 
conviction of her majesty's settled resolution to preserve the 
succession in the house of Hanover, declared it to be unalter- 
ably his opinion that the safety of her majesty's person and 
reign, as well as the peace of her dominions after her decease 
depended upon preserving that succession inviolable. These 
statements were certainly admirably calculated for working 
upon her majes^s fears, out of which, it must he confessed, 
the best measures of her government had been elicited, and 
had life and health been prolonged to her majesty, might have 
been followed with the most beneficial results; but when he 
turned upon those who, but a few minutes before, had been 
his brethren in office, and, with that ef&ontery, which seems 
to have formed a principal ingredient in his character,* told 
them plainly how unequal they were to the burden they now 
pretended to take upon them; how disregardful they were 

* The well known anecdote of Rowe the poet, sets this part of Oxford's 
character in a very strong light. Nicholas Rowe was a gentleman of fortune 
originally, at least, equal to Oxford, and, in talents natural and acquired, 
.nuch his superior, though he never rose to be a minister of state. Having 
been advised to apply to Oxford for some public employment, Oxford asked 
him if he understood Spanish ? Answering in the negative, he was enjoined 
by the great man to study it. Having spent six months in acquiring it, the 
poet returned, thinking himself sure of some honourable situation. Well, 
said the great man, have you acquired Spanish ? Yes, said the poet. Then 
you will have the pleasure of reading Don Quixote in the original, and it is 
the best book in the world, was all the reply 1 

816 HI9TO^Y ow ^QcnhA^U 

of the public truquUljiy, in oomparispn mth th^ii* private 
adwitagBs ; that tbey hazarded potbingy thair lives and fortune? 
not being to be named in the same hour wjth the repose oS 
their sovereign, whom they were drawing into inextricable laby- 
rinths'^-and especially, when be b^an to reckon, up the sever^ 
exigences tfaey bad by their {nrecipitant counsels brought tbiiigs 
to in their former management, the sceodal of whjich lay upon 
him^— and bow often he had extricated themi vhen they were 
ready to desert both their country and themselves for fear of 
public justice; ridiculed their new sdieme$, and the impolicy 
of their measures, telling them to what distresses tfaey would 
speedily reduce themselves^ what a debt they would owe to the 
national justice at lasi^ and how unwilling they would be to 
pay it;* the conclusion is irresbtible^ that hi^ vanity was 
greater than hb judgment, and his profligscy equal to botli. 

What effect such a scene must have had upon the queen, a 
iimid woman at best, and now weakened by long and painful 
sUness, may be much easier eonceived than described. Most 
probably it altered those views whM^h she had been supposed for 
aome time to have entertained, for BoMngbroil^e did not succeed 
$0 the treasurersbip as had been expected^ It was bestowed tem- 
porarily^ as has been supposed, upon tb<e duke of Shrewsbury, 
which was at once a di»th blow to the expectations of the 
lacobkes. However* every thing afl^r this with regard to the 
political views of her nu^esty is inere conjecture, as she retired, 
if nol actually in fits, in a ata|e of the most pitiable agitation, 
which subsiding into a lethargy, was onjy broken at intenvals 
by strong .convulsions, till, on the third day after, August the 
first, 1714, she died, about half-past seven o'clock in dje mioirn- 
ing, in the fiftieth year of her age, and thirteenth of her reign. 

In the person of Anne, may be said to have terminated the 
kingdom of Scotland, one of the most ancient monarchies in 
Europe, and the ill-fated dynasty of the Stuarts; for though 
the race was prc^nged for a few generations, and though they 
were still by courtesy styled royal Stuarts, they were to the 
last sojourners in a strange land, having no certain dwelling- 
place, nor any certain means of subsistence, save what their 

* Secret History of /the White Stafi^ pp. 55^$$. 


mfefartiines extorted Smn the compassion of their friendii or 
the generosity of their rivah.* 

Like erery other pnUic character, that of queen Anne has 
been represented in yery opposite colours, accordingly as the 
writers were actuated by particular passions, or under the in-* 
fluenoe of certain prejudices. From the histoiy of her actions, 
which we have attempted to delineate with the strictest impar-^ 
tiality, it is evident she had no very marked character, and 
cannot, with strict propriety, be denominated either a very good, 
or a great woman. 

In her person, she was well made, of the middle stature^ dark 
haired, of a sanguine oomplexion^ with strong but not irregular 
features, and her ooiintenance upon the whole rather dignified 
than pleasing. In acquired abilities she seems net to have 

* James VTl. died at St Gennains in the month of September, 1701, leavii^ 
one son, James, born in the year 1688, who died at Rome, January first, 1766 
leaving two sons, Charles, the Pretender, as he has more commonly been styled 
in dds country, and Henry, mho entered into orders, and obtained a cardinaPA 
bat at the age of twenty-two, from his hoiiaesa, Benedict XIV. He became 
afterwards bishop of TrascaUt and chancellor of the church of St. Peter. 
He had also two rich livings in France, the abbeys of Anchin and St Amand, 
and a considerable pension from the court of Spain, all of which he lost at 
the French Revolution. In 1 790, in order to assist Pope Pius VI. in making 
up the sum imposed upon him by the government of France, the cardinal 
disposed of all the family jewels, among others, an uncommonly rich ruby, 
valued at fifly thousand pounds, thus depriving himself of the last means of 
an independent subsistence, and was, in consequence, reduced to great distress, 
lo this situation, old, infirm, nnd poor, he emigrated to Venice, where Sir 
John Hippesley Coxe was made acquainted with his circumstances, and com^ 
municated them to the British goremment His late majttty Geoi^e III. 
with that goodness which so eminently distiogiiisbed his character, imme* 
&tely ordered hb minister at the court of Venice, to ofler the cardinal, 
with all possible ddicacy, a fiension of four thousand pounds per annum, 
which was accepted with gratitude, and regularly remitted till the cardinal's 
dpath, which happened at Rome in the year 1807, in the eighty-second year 
of hb age. 

The cardinal dying the last of hit race, bequeathed to the royal family of 
Great Britain, the Englbh stars and garters which had been in hb fiimfly, to- 
gether with certain papers relative to the monarchy of that country ; and hb 
present majesty Geoi^e IV., during the time he was prince regent, closed the 
scene by a liberal donation, for erecting, in Italy, a monument to the memory 
of the last of the unfortunate race of the Stuarts ! Annals of Gla^w, by 
Dr. Jamci Cleland, toL i. pp. 74, 75. Dooglail' PeeMfe^ to1» L p. 54. 

L 2 £ 


been deficient, especially when we consider that her natural ta- 
lents were Few, and those few not of a very brilliant order. She 
understood music, loved painting, and recited her own speeches 
with a melodious propriety that seemed generally to charm her 
audience. The most marked feature of her mind was extreme 
timidity, whence, in many instances, flowed a kind of insipid 
compliance, which has, we think, been pretty generally mistaken 
for good nature. The general tone of her feeling seems to 
have been querulous and peevish. Fond of being flattered 
with professions of warm and lasting attachment, she was ready 
to make the most extravagant declarations in return; but 
once ofiended, she appears to have been obstinately irrecon- 
cilable. In her assumed character of Mrs. Morley, we find 
her writing thus to the dutchess of Marlborough, who was at 
that time her favourite, " My dear Mrs. Freeman," the name 
she bestowed upon the dutchess, ^* I beg it again for Christ 
Jesus' sake, that you would not do so cruel a thing as leave me. 
Should you do it without my consent, which, if ever ^ I give 
you, may I never see the face of heaven, I will shut myself up, 
and never see the world more, but live where I may be for- 
gotten of human kind." This is certainly sufficiently strong 
language, but may be found an hundred times repeated in 
these letters, and yet how impossible it was for the dutchess to 
find the least favour with her majes^ a few years afterwards, 
all the world knows.* 

Her religion, though it is to be hoped it was sincere, like 
that of all her family, was strongly tinged with superstition, and 
zeal for the church, with her eclipsed all other merit. Hence 
she patronized and promoted such incendiaries as Sacheveral, 
Higgins, and Greenshields, while with characteristic obstinacy, 
she could scarcely, with all his merit and attachment to her 
interests, bear to hear Dr. SwifPs name mentioned before her. 

Her views of prerogative were of the very highest order ; 
and though she had no title to the throne excepting an act of 
parliament, Kstened with avidity to the tale of legitimacy, and 
felt highly flattered by the jargon of indefeasible hereditary 
right. She even ventured occasionally upon sayings from the 

* Vide Coxe'f Life of Marlborough. Letters of Mn. Morley, && 


chair of authority, not unworthy of James VI., whose conceits 
procured him, from the flattery of his own age, what the con- 
tempt of all succeeding ones has perpetuated, the appellation 
of die British Solomon ; but, like his, the pusillanimity of her 
character rendered them harmless, and happily she did not, like 
him, find a successor that was disposed to improve upon them. 

In her expenses she was moderate, and even economical. 
She was on some very rare occasions generous, sometimes liberal, 
but never profuse. 

If we consider her in the relations of domestic life, her char- 
acter is more amiable than as the ruler over a great nation. 
As a child, perhaps, her conduct can scarcely be held up as an 
example that can be generally instructive. But in this respect 
her situation was singular and extraordinary. As a wife and 
a mother she afforded a bright example, wortliy of being fol- 
lowed by all. Though encumbered with the cares of royalty, 
and often depressed by bodily infirmity, she attended carefiilly 
to the minutest conjugal duty, and waited upon the sickbed of 
her husband with a tenderness and a respect, which is but seldom 
exhibited in the higher walks of life. Her children she loved 
With the fondest aflfection, and their health and education were 
the objects of her most assiduous attention ; but she was bereaved 
of them all in in&ncy, and her mind was clouded witli the dark 
idea, that this was the hand of retributive justice stretched out 
against her, for having deserted her father in the hour of his 
extremity, and possessing herself of a throne, of her title to 
which, it does not appear that at any period of her life, she 
fully assured. 


Book III. 

OomMqtitmeei of the death of the Qneen-^Lorde Jtuftoe^-Owryt L Pnelaimed Pn^ 
camihnt for prciemut^ the jpmbtie peaee~-Pariiament is OMeembled—'Proroguedt om 
aeoount of the Qtieen'i Funend^Ii further Prorogued, and JInaIfy i» diseohci^ 
VtgonmM proceeding </ the Begemcjf towarde JSmtden and Sptnt^^Omdmet ^ lA« 
^teMimittr^ towardt the Catakme-^Prinee Royal created Prince of WaJee-^^BoUn^ 
brohe dieearded—Jacohitei in Scotland — A reward offered for the Checalier-^Kinjf 
prepare* fbr leaving hit Oerman dornk do ne M hnomrtAfy received bg the ZHrfci 
Anrioee in Mng i an d ^ J hif^ cf JforOofvi^iA— ^fiiy takee (ft« obA for eecurimg At 
dureA of Scodand^New Privy Council^ Coronations^ Congratnlatory Addreeen 
Proceedinge of the Toriee-^The Chevalier de St. Oeorge^Papiett^Ifew ParHament 
-^Criminate the iate JUtnietf^^Torp mobe^Seodth JaeOriie^-' General AeicmNy 
Mr. Carstaree^sJniriguea with the Prench'^Suepention of the Habeae (Jmpne 
Britieh fleet pnte to tea — Attittanee it demanded from the Statet Cfeneral — Seotith 
loga litt B A ctivity of the C^evaHer—JBari cfMan^Sruie tib« ^tamdard ofBMB&m 
--* Attempt on the cattle of J^nburgh^Mebd IHeUtration^Flx their HeadguaHert 
at Pert^^Clant attempt Inverhchy--m2>etpatchfrom the Chevalier^-^Death of Lotdt 
XIV.^Earl of Argyle tahet the command in SeaOanA^CaUt forth the Vchmteert 
--^Sneampe at StirUng-^^Bebeb levy eotdribtUiont^Si^ffmf^t and exertia^ of the 

Th£ unexpected death of the queen, put an end at once to 
all the delusive dreams, with which her ministry had been 
amusing themselves, during the four last years of her reign, 
and they were, by the pressure of circumstances, compelled to 
do every thing for the new succession, that its best friends, 
had they held the same situations, could have done. The 
bitter animosity, which subsisted between the lords Oxford 
and Bolingbroke, had, from the very beginning of their career, 
grievously obstructed their progress, and, upon the resignation 
of the former, the appointment of the duke of Shrewsbury to 
the treasurership, involved them in still deeper perplexity ;* 
but the dukes of Argyle and Somerset, on the alarming 
report of the queen's illness, going into the council chamber, 

* Secret Hittory of the White Staff* pp. 6S— 68. 


witfaoat waiting to be aent for, and prevailing to have all the 
privy counsellors in and about London, called in without dia- 
tinctioDt rendered their whole previous preparationa nugatory, 
and made aoy» even the least display of disloyaltyt next to 
iospoaaible. Measures were accordingly adopted, with the 
utmost promptitude, for securing the public tranquillity. 
Orders were issued to the lord miyor of London, to provide 
for the peace of the city, by summoning the lieutenancy, 
who ordered out the trainbands, the militia of the Tower 
hamlets, and of Westminster ; aod the lords of admiralty, by 
order of the council, issued directions for fitting out ships of 
war, with all possible despatch. An express was also sent, on 
the day before the queen's death, to the elector of Hanover, 
to assure him of their inviolable duty in the prospect of that 
event, and to request his presence in England without loss of 
time. Orders were at the same time forwarded to the earl of 
Strafford, to lay the state of matters in Britain, before the 
states of Holland, and to demand the performance of the stipu- 
lations in the treaty of guarantee, for the protestant succession. 
All the military officers in Great Britain were ordered to repair 
immediately to their respective po&ts. 

The demise of the queen was no sooner known than 
Teniiisoo» archbishop of Canterbury, the chancellor Harcourt, 
the lord treasurer Shrewsbury, Buckingham lord president of 
the council, and Dartmouth lord privy seal, five of the seven 
justices or regents,'on whom the administration of the govern- 
ment, during the king's absence, devolved, by acts of parliament^ 
of the fourth and fifth of queen Anne, assembled at St. James', 
together with the dukes of Somerset, Ormond, Northumberland, 
Argyle, Roxbuigh, and Kent, the earls of Poulet, North- 
ampton, Sunderland, Radnor, Rochester, Orford, Marr, 
Loudon, Ferrers, Oxford, and Portmore, the viscount Boling- 
brake, the lord bidiop of London, the lords Lexington, Berkely 
of Stratton, Guilford, Somers, Guernsey, Cowper, Maasel, 
Lansdown, and Bingley, William Bromley, Esq. Henry Boyle, 
Esq. Sir William Windham, chancdlor of the exchequer, Sir 
John Trevor, Sir John Holland, Sir John Hill, Sir Richard 
Onslow, and John Smith, Esq. The earl of StraflFord, and Sir 
Thomas Parker, lord chief justice of the court of the queen's 


bench, two of the lords justices, appointed by the above act, were 
necessarily absent 

By the above mentioned act, the successor to the crown, was 
impowered to nominate as many persons, as he or she, should 
think fit, to be joined to the seven lords justices above named; 
and accordingly, the archbishop of Canterbury, the lord 
chancellor, and Monsieur Kreyenberg, as directed by the said 
act, produced before the council, three instruments, under the 
hand and seal of the elector of Hanover, by which it appeared, 
that th^ persons appointed bgr his highness, as lords justices, 
were the archbishop of York, the duke of Shrewsbury, then lord 
high treasurer, and so one of the seven justices before mentioned, 
the dukes of Somerset, Bolton, Devonshire, Kent, Argyle, 
Montrose, and Roxburgh, the earls of Pembroke, Anglesea, 
Carlisle, Nottingham, Abingdon, Scarborough, and Oxford, 
lords viscount Townshend, Halifax, and Cowper. 

The following proclamation was immediately emitted by the 
council. " Whereas, it hath pleased Almighty God, to call to 
his mercy, our late sovereign lady queen Anne, of blessed 
memory, by whose decease, the imperial crowns of Great Britain, 
France and Ireland, are solely and rightfully come to the high 
and mighty prince George elector of Brunswick Lunenburg. 
We, therefore, the lords spiritual and temporal of the realm, 
being here assisted with those of her late majesty's privy council, 
with numbers of other principal gentiemen of quality, with the 
lord mayor, aldermen, and citizens of London, do now hereby, 
with one full voice, and consent of tongue and heart, publish 
and proclaim, that the high and mighty prince George, elector 
of Brunswick Lunenburg, is now, by the death of our late 
sovereign, of happy memory, become our lawful and rightful 
liege lord, George, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, 
France, and Ireland, defender of the faith, &c., to whom we 
do acknowledge all faith and constant obedience, with all hearty 
and huihble affection, beseeching God, by whom kings and 
queens do reign, to bless the royal king George, with long and 
happy years, to reign over us," &c, &c.* 

Pursuant to this proclamation, his majesty was immediately 

* Rae's History of the Rebellion, p. 59. 


proclaimed by the heralds at arms with the usual solemnities, 
before the gate of the royal palace at St. James', at Charing- 
Cross, at Temple-Bar, at the end of Wood Street, in Cheapside, 
and at the Royal Exchange. Vast numbers of the nobility and 
principal gentry attended in their coachiis during the whole 
solemnity, as did the lord mayor and aldermen within the city. 
The joy of ihe people appeared to be boundless. Many of 
them were deeply sensible how narrowly they had escaped being 
again brought under the yoke of the infatuated Stuarts, and 
even those who had been straining every nerve to advance that 
unfortunate family, either were, or feigned themselves to be, 
highly satisfied with his majesty's peaceable accession, and 
paraded as proudly, and swelled the joyful acclamations as de- 
liberately, as the most devoted of their brethren. The park 
and tower guns were fired, all the flags displayed, and in the 
evening there were bonfires, illuminations, ringing of bells, with 
every demonstration of joy, without any thing tumultuous or 

A proclamation was also issued the same day, ordering 
prayers to be offered up for his majesty king George and the 
royal family, in place of queen Anne and the elector of Hanover^ 
and the baron de Bothmar, his majesty's minister, despatched 
his secretary express to Hanover with tidings of the queen's 
death, and of his majesty's peaceable proclamation. The earl 
of Dorset was also^ by the lords justices appointed to carry the 
same advice to his majesty, to report specially the state of the 
nation, and to wait upon him in his progress thither. An ex- 
press was also sent to the lords justices of Ireland, with direc- 
tions for proclaiming the king, an4 disarming the papists and 
Jacobites — and, finally, orders were sent to Scotland, directed 
to the earl of Ila, lord justice general, and to the lord provost 
of Edinburgh, for proclaiming his majesty there without loss 
of time, and with all due solemnity.* 

These orders did not reach Edinburgh till Wednesday the 
fourth of August, about twelve o'clock at night, which, con- 
sidering the state of the roads, and the manner of travelling at 
that period, wo? as early as could have been expected, and 

* Rae*s History of ihe Rebellion. 


though the hour was somewhat wiseasonable, Ua lost not a 
moment in requesting the servants o( the queen to attend 
him by eight o'clock in the morning, whidi they did, and, 
along with his lordAip^ . waited upon his grace, the duke 
of Montrose, whom they found attended by the marquis of 
Tweedale, the earls of Rothes, Morton, Buchan, Lauderdale, 
Haddington, Leren, Hyndford, Hopetoun, and Boseberryj with 
the lords Belhaven, Elibank, Torphichen, Polworth, and Bal- 
gony, general Wightman, and a considerable number of the 
principal gentry, officers of the army, and chief inhabitants of 
the city. ' 

Every thing being in readiness, and the streets lined with 
the city trainbands, hb grace of Montrose, with the above 
mentioned retinue of nobility and gentry, proceeded to the 
town-house, where the lord provost, magistrates, and town 
council, the lord president, and lords of session, the lord chief 
baron, and other barons of exchequer, the commissioners of 
the revenue, and many other gentlemen, waited to receive them, 
and having in readiness a proclamation of the same tenor with 
that we have already mentioned as issued in London, it was 
signed by oil present to the number of one hundred and twelve. 
Tlie city trainbands now formed a double line from the town- 
house to the cross, below which there was a theatre erected for 
the accommodation of tlie nobility, and Mr. Henry Maul^ 
depute lord lyon king at arms, ushered by six trumpets, the 
heralds and pursuivants in their coats, by two and two, mounted 
the cross. These were followed by the lord provost, magistrates, 
and town council, in their robes, ushered by sixteen city officers 
in their liveries, with the sword and mace borne by the proper 
officers, all bareheaded. The lord provost with the sword and 
mace mounted the cross, but the town council proceeded to the 
tlieatre erected for them, where they received his grace the 
duke of Montrose, and his attendant nobility and gentry. The 
depute lyon king at arms now, with solemn sound of trumpet, 
the lord provost reading to him the words of the proclamation, 
proclaimed the high and mighty prince George, elector of 
Brunswick Lunenburg, king of Great Britain, France, and Ire- 
land, 8cc. &c. This was followed by a discharge of the great 
guns from the castle, three vollies from the city guard, answered 


by the artillei-y and small arms in St. Ann'^ Yard, hard by the 
palflce of Holyrood-hodse, where the regular troops had en- 
camped, to prevent any disturbance on account of the queen's 
illness. In the meantime, acclamations of joy burst from the 
cross, the theatre, and the sti'eets, which, with the windows 
overlooking them, were crowded with innumerable spectators. 
The duke of Montrose, with the nobility and gentry, the lord 
provost, magistrates, and town c6uncil, now returned to the 
townhouse, where they drank the health of his majesty, and 
other toasts of loyal import, after which they went down to the 
camp in St. Ann's Yard, where they were received at the head 
of his troops by general Wightnian, who conducted them to 
his tent, where an elegant entertainment was prepared for them, 
and where they drank to the health of his majesty, with other 
loyal and appropriate toasts, under discharges of cannon and 
small arms. The day was concluded with ringing of bells, illu^ 
minations, discharges of great guns, and all the other demon- 
strations of extraordinary joy. 

This sudden change of affairs, so unexpected and so complete, 
struck the Jacobites dumb with astonishment, and, for the 
moment, they scarcely ventured a whisper of disapprobation. 
However, for the greater security, the wooden bridge before 
the castle gate was cut, and a part of it made to draw up. An 
intrenchment was also cast up betwixt that and the castle wall, 
behind which, i^oldiers were placed with small arms. The 
general alsi> called in from Dundee, and other places of the 
kingdom, such of his majesty's troops as were quartered there, 
who all aiTived in the camp within a day or two, and every 
precaution was taken which the occasion seemed to demand. 

His majesty wi^ also proclaimed with all due solemnity, and 
every possible demonstration of joy in Dublin, and in all tlie 
other cities, towns corporate, burghs of reality, &c. &c. 
thrbughout the three kingdoms, and the dominions thereto 
Monging, more universally than any of our kings had been 
before him, and without a shadow of opposition, the mass of 
the people every where regarding his accession as a surprising 
deliverance from a great and impending calamity. The lords 
justices, however, into whose hands the care of the kingdom for 
the time had fallen, took all prudent precautions for securing 


the public tranquillity at home, and for being respected abroad 
Their first care was to select and to appoint officers in whom 
they could confide to take charge of the more important stations. 
Portsmouth they found totally unprovided for resisting an 
enemy, having neither men nor military stores: thither they 
despatched, on the instant, a reinforcement^ under colonel 
Pococke, to which they added five hundred out-pensioners of 
Chelsea college, under the command of captain Jones. A bat* 
talion of the earl of Orkney's regiment of fiisileers, on its arrival 
from Flanders, was also appointed to that important place^ 
which, as one of the principal keys of the nation, had been 
purposely thus dismantled by the late ministry, that it might 
be surprised by the French, and made a place of arms for the 
chevalier and his party.* 

Moreover, the lords justices, though they had received re- 
peated assurances from bis most christian majesty, *^ that he 
would inviolably maintain the treaty of peace concluded at 
Utrecht, with relation to the setdement of the British crown in 
the house of Hanover, and do all in his power to maintain a 
good intelligence and amity between the crowns of France and 
JBritain ;" and though he bad ordered the chevaliar, who^ imme- 
diately upon the queen's death, had come to Versailles, to quit 
hb territories, did not think it prudent, under all the circum-* 
stances of the case, to trust entirely to these professions, but 
despatched vessels to examine the French harbours, to observe 
accurately what was going on in them, and to report accord- 
ingly. That they might not be imposed upon by any of those 
who had been the tools of France in the late reign, they also 
made choice of the since so much celebrated Joseph Addison, 
at that time member of parliament for Malmsbury, to be their 
secretary, to whom all despatches directed to the secretary of 
state were to be sent. They, at the same time, directed the 
justices of the peace for London and Westminster, to takei*up 
exact lists of the popish recusants in these two cities, and to 
seize their horses and arms, according to the statute provided 
in that case; and, to prevent insurrections in places where the 
disafiected were known to be numerous, their excellencies re- 

• Rae'f Histoiy of the Rebellion, p. €5. 


moyed the lords lieutenants, and appointed others in whom 
they could place more confidence ; and thus, under providence^ 
kept, for a time^ every thing in a state of calm and peaceful 

The parliament^ pursuant to an act of the fifth of the late 
queen, convened on the afternoon of the day she died, and, the 
q>eaker being in Wales, it was moved by secretary Bromley, 
that the house should adjourn tiU the Wednesday following; 
but it was answered by the friends of his majesty, that time was 
too precious for any of it to be lost at so critical a juncture | 
and they adjourned only till the next day. In the meantime, 
such members of both houses as were present qualified them-> 
selves by taking the oaths appointed by law. The members 
who came to town did the like in their respective houses, on 
the second and third — ^the speakei*, being come to town, did 
the same on the fourth, and on the fifth of August, the lords 
justices issued a proclamation, according to the act of the sixth 
of queen Anne, ^ requiring all persons, being in oflBce of au- 
thority or government, at her decease, to proceed in the execu- 
tion of their offices, and to take the oaths mentioned in that 
act, and to do all other acts required by the laws and statutes 
of this realm, to qualify them for continuing in their respective 
places." Their excellencies came afterwards to the house of 
peers, when the lord chancellor, in their name, made a speecl) 
to both houses of parliament, stating what had been done in 
consequence of the queen's death, and what remained yet to be 
done in the necessary absence of his majes^, and to prepare 
every thing for his comfortable reception— concluding, *^ My 
lords and gentlemen. We forbear laying before you any thing 
that does not require your immediate consideration, not having 
received his majesty's pleasure. We shall only ex^iort you to 
a perfect unanimity, and a firm adherence to our sovereign's 
interest, as being the only means to continue amongst us our 
present happy tranquillity." 

Tlie commons being returned to their own house, it was 
resolved nemine eantradicente that an humble address should be 
presented to his majesty, the heads of which, after soma 

* Rao's Hifloiy of the RebelKon, pp. 65 S6. 


reasoning, were agreed upon, and a committee appointed to 
draw up the same, and report to the bouse next day. The 
peers agreed upon an address the same day, and requested the 
lords justices to transmit the same to his majesty with all con- 
' venient speed. The parliament proceeded on the sixth to 
make provision for his majesty's household, and otlier necessary 
matters, which having arranged, on the twenty-first both houses 
adjourned till Wednesday the twenty-fifth. 

This adjournment took place in consequence of letters from 
the king respecting the late queen's funeral, which was intended 
for Sunday the twenty-second, but, his majesty desiring that it 
might be as splendid as was consistent with privacy, it was put 
off to the twenty-fourth, when she was interred with great 
solemnity in king Henry the seventh's chapel, in the same vault 
with Charles IL, king William, queen Mary, and George, 
prince of Denmark. 

On the twenty-fifth, the parliament being again met, the 
lords justices went to the house of peers, and the commons 
being sent for, the lord chancellor, in name of their excellencies, 
made the following speech to both houses : — ^^ My lords and 
gentlemen. Having, since your late adjournment, received his 
majesty's most gracious answer, under his sign manual, to your 
several addresses, and, by his majesty's command, ordered them 
to be delivered to you respectively ; we do now, in his majesty's 
name, prorogue this present parliament to Thursday the twenty- 
third day of September next,** &c. Thus ended the second and 
last session of the fourth parliament of Great Britain, and the 
last of queen Anne ; for, upon the twenty-third of September, 
it was prorogued to the twenty-first of October, then to the 
thirteenth of January, and thereafter dissolved, and writs issued 
for calling another.* 

While the lords justices were thus careful of the public 
tranquillity at home, they were no less careful of the national 
honour abroad. The Swedes, at this time a warlike people, were 
daily making prizes of British vessels in the Baltic, to put an 
end to which, the most prompt measures were adopted. The 
king of Spain also, though he had so lately signed a treaty with 

* Rae*! History ot the Rebellion, pp. 72» 75. 


Great Britain, which had been highly applauded, as affording 
great facilities for promoting her commerqal interests, was yet 
demanding of such of her merchants as were unfortunate 
enough to trust themselves in his ports, what he called a don* 
ative, or free gift, amounting, in some cases, to one hundred 
and twenty-five pieces of eight, which, when they refused, as 
contrary to treaties, unjust in itself, and dishonourable to the 
British nation, he enforced compliance, by placing guards in 
their houses, and doubling them daily, at the rate of one half 
dollar per day, till the sum originally demanded was liquidated. 
The publication of these facts raised the public indignation in 
a Iiigh degree, and called forth the keenest resentment against 
the late ministry and their treaty of peace, which seemed, from 
such procedure, to have no firmer foundation than the will of 
a despotic prince. Upon the news of the queen's death, how- 
ever, and the vigorous proceeding of the r^ency, the orders for 
exacting the donative were recalled, and the treaty of com- 
merce was next year set upon a more sure basis.* 

The regency also, exerted themselves, though without effect, 
in behalf of the Catalans, whom the British government had 
engaged in the war for Charles, afterwards emperor of Germany, 
against Philip of Spain, and whom the late ministry, in their 
haste to obtain the treaty of peace, not only shamefully 
abandoned, but had latterly sent admiral Wishart with a fleet 
of twenty-four sail of the line to assist Philip in blocking up 
Barcelona, one of their cities, which, at this very time, was ex- 
hibiting prodigies of desperate valour, little, if at all inferior to 
what Saragossa displayed in latter times. Philip was resolved, 
at all events, to deprive the Catalans of their privileges, and 
the very circumstance of their standing up to defend these 
privileges, was, in the estimation of Louis — ^who had just suc- 
ceeded in destroying, by perfidy and cruelty, the most famous 
protestant church in Europe — a crime in itself amply meriting 
extermination. Admiral Wishart, however, was now, by the 
lords justices, forbidden to take part in the quarrel, or to molest 
the inhabitants of Barcelona in any shape whatever.f 

• Rae's History of the Rebellion, p. 75. 

f Memoin of the duke of Berwick. Parker's Military Memoirs, &c. This 


On the twenty^eighth of August, the lords justices reo^ved 
aeveral orders by express, from the king, particularly for pre- 
paring a patent to create the prince royal, prince of Wales^ 
and for removing the lord Bolingbroke from his office of secre- 
tary of state. Lord Bolingbroke was accordingly removed from 
his office on the last day of that month, and the dukes of 
Shrewsbury and Somerset, with lord Cowper, having, by order 
of the r^ency, taken the seals from him, locked and sealed up 
the doors of his office. Lord viscount Townshend was, by his 
majesty's order, sworn one of his principal secretaries of state 
some weeks after. 

In Scotland, where the public feeling was still far from 
being such as could have been wished for, especially in the 
north, the friends of the chevalier began soon to recover from 
that consternation into which the unexpected turn of public 
af&irs had thrown them, and parties of armed men being 
observed marching towards the Highlands, an insurrection from 
that quarter began to be suspected. The lords justices, as a 
measure of precaution, ordered a number of half«>pay officers, 
principally belonging to Scotish regiments, to that quarter, that, 
in case of necessity, they might head the militia, under the 
direction of the commander-in-chief there, major-general 
Wightman ; for the present, however, the Jacobites there made 
no appearance that could reasonably create any serious alarm. 
A few Highlanders appeared in a body at Inverlochy; but the 

latter writer remarks, that though Barcelona was to be blocked up by sea, 
there was no necessity for sending a British fleet for that purpose, either of 
the powers, France or Spain, being competent to have done it themselves. 
The real design, he affirms, was to bring over the duke of Berwick, with the 
Irish regiments in the service of France, all of whom were along with him at 
the si^ge of Barcelona, and to land them surrq)titioiisly at Portsmouth, which 
had been put under the command of the lord North and Gray, a notorious 
Jacobite, who, some time after this, went over to the continent, abjured his 
reli^on, became papist, and entered into the service of Spain. This nobleman, 
the same author affirms, had for his garrison only two hundred Scotch guards, 
all of whom, officers and men, drank the health of the pretender, by the title 
of James III., every day. The citizens of Barcelona, however, held out beyond 
all expectation — ^the queen died — lord North and Gray, with his Jacobite 
garrison, was displaced, and admiral Wishart recalled, before Berwick had 
time to fulfil what he had promised to the lord Bolingbroke, and thus the 
nation was happily saved from a scene of bloodshed, anarchy, and confusion. 


goyemoT of that place» sending a detaohraent against them, they 
instantly dispersed. In some places, too^ there were foolish 
people, who, in their cups, took it upon them to proclaim the 
chevalier during the night, and prosecutions were ordered 
against them for their riotous behavioun It was also judged 
prudent to confine a few of the chieftains to particular places, the 
duke of Gordon to the city of Edinburgh, the marquis of 
Huntly to his own house, and lord Drummond to Castle 
Dmmmond. Lord Drummond was aflerwards ordered to be 
apprehended, but he escaped to the Highlands, whence he wrote 
a letter to the regency, offering lecuri^ for his good behaviour. 
Campbell of Glendaruel, who had been conmiissioned by the 
late ministry to raise an independent company in the Highlands, 
was taken at Inverlochy, and, with Sir Donald Macdonald of 
Siait, by orders from the regency^ sent prisoner to Edinburgh 

It was about this time also, that a great hunting match was 
spoken of in the Highlands, to which the popbh and Jacobite 
nobility of the south were repairing, which gave the regency 
ground to suspect some sinister design — Shunting and horse 
racing having been often of late employed, to cover the most 
desperate contrivances^ and it was accordingly prohibited, the 
duke of Athol at the same time» being ordered to his castle of 
Blair, to preserve the peace of that countiy. Disappointed in 
their insurrectionary views, several of the gentlemen of tKunfries 
and its vicinity, made application immediately to be taken into 
the commission of the peace, offering to take all the necessary 
oaths, no doubt that they might be, as Lockhart has expressed it, 
" in a condition more effectually to serve the king," [James 
VIIL] but, through the diligence of some of the more loyal 
of tlieir neighbours, they were prevented from getting into 
office, though they took all the oaths, and proved with what 
sincerity they had sworn them, by appearing openly in the re- 
bellion a few months afterwards* 

As a last preventional measure, the lords justices, on the 
fidcenth of September, issued a proclamation, promising a 
reward of one hundred thousand pounds sterling to any pers(Mi, 
or persons, who should seize and secure the chevalier, whenever 
he should land, or attempt to land in Great Britain. Nothing, 


indeed, seems to have been omitted that could be thought in 
any way to contribute to the security and peace of the kingdom ; 
and the conduct of the regency appears to have been highly 
acceptable to his majesty, and approved of, by the most 
numerous and best part of the nation.* ^ 

In the meantime, his majesty was busily employed in making 
preparations for leaving his paternal dominions, and the deep 
interest which the continental states, particularly the protestant 
part of them, took in his majesty's advancement, was strongly 
marked by addresses of congratulation, which poured in upon 
him from all quarters. In tlie United Provinces, where religion 
was yet a powerful principle, and the love of liberty still strong, 
the interest was peculiarly deep, and seems to have been uni- 
versally felt The baron de Bothmar's secretary no sooner ar- 
rived at the Hague with tidings of the queen's death, and the 
peaceable proclamation of the king, than monsieur Klingraef, the 
Hanoverian resident, presented to the states general a memorial, 
which had been lodged in his bands to be in readiness, by which 
his majesty required of the states the performance of their 
guarantee of his succession to the crown of Great Britain. 
The states assembled that same night, and returned the follow- 
ing answer : ^^ That as soon as their high mightinesses were 
informed of the sickness and death of her said majesty of Great 
Britain, of glorious memory, they immediately bethought them- 
selves of the engagements they had entered into for the guaranty 
of the succession to the crown of Great Britain in the pro- 
testant line, so as it is settled by acts of parliament ; and, at the 
same time, they considered, not only how much it concerns the 
kingdom of Great Britain, that the settlement of the succes- 
sion in the protestant line should have its entire effect ; but 
also, how deeply the protestant religion, the safety of this state, 
and the liberty of all Europe, are interested therein; that 
therefore, they unanimously resolved to perform tlieir engage- 
ments, and to execute all that, by the treaty of mutual 
guaranty they had promised; whereto, they are the more 
readily induced by the firm assurance which his majesty, in the 
said letter, is pleased to give them of his good will towards 

♦ Hae's History of the Rebellion, pp. 76—79. 


this State; that as they received the account of the death of 
her majesty with grief, so it was very acceptable news to them, 
that his electoral highness, as next heir in the protestant line, 
was instantly proclaimed king by the unanimous advice of tlie 
council, and witli the acclamations of the people; tliat they 
most heartily congratulate his majesty tliereupon, and wish him 
all further happy success in a prosperous reign ; that from this 
good beginning, they hope his majesty will take peaceable pos- 
session of his kingdoms without any opposition ; that, never- 
theless, their high mightinesses are willing and ready to perform 
their engagements, and to take all proper measures with his 
majesty for that end; that, it being likely his majesty will 
speedily go for England, their high mightinesses will be very 
glad if his majesty will please to take his journey through their 
dominions, that they will endeavour to facilitate his majesty's 
passage with all that is in their power ; that they will at all 
times show the high esteem they have for his majesty's person 
and Criendship; and that they have his interest as much at 
heart as their own !" 

This was immediately put into the hands of the resident, 
Mr. Klingraef, to be sent to his majesty, and a qopy was sent 
to M. Van Borsselen, envoy extraordinary to the court of Great 
Britain, to be delivered to the regency in England upon his 
arrival there. Their high mightinesses also, sent letters to the 
states of the several provinces, desiring them forthwith to pro* 
vide the necessary funds for fitting out a strong squadron of 
men of war, of which twelve, designed for the Baltic, were 
already nearly fit for sea. They also appointed a deputation 
of five of their most honourable members, to wait for, and re- 
ceive his Britannic majesty on the fix)ntier of their territories; 
and, a few days after, the states of Holland, named deputies of 
their 'own to receive his majesty at the entrance into that pro- 
vince, and to conduct him to the Hague ; they also ordered the 
equipment of eight men of war, to be joined with the British 
squadron appointed to convey the king over to England. 

The king of Prussia also took a lively interest in the matter, 
and lost no time in notifying, by his ministers, to all the courts 
with whom he corresponded, and particularly to the court of 
London, ^ That as his majesty had constantly declared himself 

I. 2 G 


in favour of the succession of the house of Hanover to the 
crown of Great Britain, so now he was affected with peculiar 
joy, to hear that the settlement of that crown had, in its due 
time, actually taken effect, by the proclaiming of king George ; 
the rather because it visibly tended to the promoting the pro- 
testant religion, and the true interest and welfare of the British 
nation ; and that, in case of need, he wa45 ready to employ all 
the power which God had put into his hands, in assisting to 
maintain that succession against all who might offer to dispute 
it." His minister in Holland also, in the name of the king his 
master, invited his Britannic majesty to lodge in the old court 
at the Hague, which had fallen to the king of Prussia by the 
death of king William. This invitation the king of Great 
Britain politely accepted, and the palace was instantly fitted 
up for his majesty's reception. 

His majesty king George's preparations for leaving his paternal 
dominions, which, owing to the immense concourse of deputa- 
tions that crowded his court, occupied the month of August, 
being finished, on the last day of that month, he set out from 
the palace of Herrenhausen, followed by the prince, the inhab- 
itants of the country expressing the deepest sorrow for the 
departure of a sovereign under whose mild government they 
had enjoyed so great a degree of happiness. His majesty and 
the prince arrived the same day at Doepenau, where they 
lodged for the night, and next day proceeded to Ippenburg. 
On the second of September they came to Twickel, a seat 
belonging to count de Wassenaer d' Opdam, who entertained 
ihem for the night, and the next day they proceeded to Voorst, 
where they were elegantly entertained and lodged by the earl 
of Albemarle, who, at that time, had his residence there. 
On the fourth, the deputies of the states general received and 
complimented his majesty on their frontier, and that same day 
he advanced to Utrecht Here his majesty and the prince 
were complimented by the deputies of the states of the pro- 
vince, after which, they went aboard a yacht of the states, 
and the same night reached Woerden, where they were re- 
ceived by the earl of Albemarle, and the other deputies of 
the states of the province of Holland, under discharges of 
cannon, a gun being fired for every year of his majesty's life. 


On the fifth, his majesty, in lord Albemarle's coach, followed 
by six others, and attended by a detachment of horse guards, 
proceeded to Leyden, where the same number of guus were 
discharged as at Woerden, and, about five in the evening, 
arrived at the Hague, amidst the acclamations of a vast con- 
course of people.* 

His majesty's reception at the Hague, was of the most 
flattering description. He was complimented by all the de- 
puties, followed wherever he went by an immense concourse 
of people, who expressed in his presence such rapturous joy 
as if he had been their natural sovereign. He was attended 
by the national guards, and had ^* a company of grenadiers, in 
goodly apparel, and richly embroidered caps, assigned him 
to wait around his table, so long as he remained in the 
country." Here he had the satisfaction of learning that his 
accession to the British throne had had the effect of quicken- 
ing the progress of all the treaties pending in Europe, the 
treaty of peace between the emperor and France having been 
signed at Baden upon the twenty-fifth of August, and the 
treaties of peace and commerce between the states general 
and the king of Spain, much about the same time, ratified 
by that monarch without any restrictions. Here also he was 
waited upon with congratulatory addresses by all the foreign 
ambassadors, to whom he gave private audiences ; and here 
he bad a letter ,from his secretary of state for Scotland, the 
earl of Marr, soliciting his particular notice, and promising 
the most dutiful obedience, and faithful service in whatever 
his majesty might be pleased to employ him.f 

• Rae*t Histoiy of the RebeUion, pp. 79--85. 

f The following is a copy of Marr** letter to hit majoty, and of an address 
of one hundred and t¥fO chief heritors and heads of clans in the Highlands of 
Scotland to George I. upon his accession, sent to the earl of Marr to be pre* 
tented, but which, by court intrigue, he was prevented from delivering, copied 
from the original, in the routeum of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland :— 


" Having the happinett to be your majetty't subject, and also the 
honour of being one of your servants, as one of your secretaries of state, I 
beg leave by this to kits your majetly't hand, and congratulate your majesty's 


On the fourteenth of September, his miye8ty*8 baggage was 
sent down tbe Maese to the Briel^ and on the sixteenth, 
the king and prince, having taken leate of the states' deputies, 
who, with a great number of nobility and gentry, waited 
upon them to the sea side, embarked at Orange Polder, about 
one o'clock in the afternoon, his majesty aboard the Peregrine, 
and the prince on board the William and Mary yacht, and, 

happy accession to the throne, which I would have done myself the honour 
of doing ^oner, had I not hoped to have the pleasure of doing it ere now. 

" I am afrafd I may hare had the misfortune of being misrepresMCed as 
your merjeity, and my reason of thinking so la^ because I was, I believe, tbs 
only one of the late queen's servants, whom your ministers here did not visit; 
which I mentioned to Mr. tiarley and the earl of Clarendon, when they went 
from hence to wait on your majesty; and your ministers carrying so to me^ 
was th6 occasion of my receiving such orders, as deprived me of the honoor 
arid satisfoction of waiting on them and being known to them. 

** I suppose I had been misrepresented to them by some here, upon account 
of party, or to ingratiate themselves by aspersing others, as our parties here 
too often occasion ; but I hope your majesty will be so just, as not to give 
credit to such misrepresentations. 

" Tbe poft i acted in bringing about and making of the Union, when the 
succession to the crown was settled for Scotland on your majesty's family, 
where I had the honour to serve. as secretary of state for that kingdom, doth, 
I hope, put my sincerity and faithfulness to your majesty out of dispute. 

*' My family bad the honour, for a great tract of years, to be faithful ser- 
vants to the crown, and have had the care of the king's children (when king 
of Scotland) intrusted to them. A predecessor of mine was honoured with 
the car6 of your majesty's grandmother when young ; and she was pleased 
afterwards to express some concern for our family in letters^ which I stUi have^ 
under ber own hand. 

" I had the honour to serve her late majesty, in one capacity or other, ever 
unce her accession to the crown. I was happy in a good mistress, and she 
was pleased to have some confidence in me, and r^rd for my service ; and 
since your majesty's happy acc^sion to the crown, I hope you will find that 
I have not been wanting in my duty, in being instrumental in keeping things 
quiet and peaceable in the country to which I belong and have some in- 
terest m. 

** Your majesty shall ever find me as fahhfol and dtftilUl a sobjea and 
servant, as ever any of my fiunily have been to tbe crowo) or as I hare been 
to my late mistress the queen. And I beg your majesty may be so good not 
to believe any misrepresentations of me, which nothing but party hatred, and 
my zeal for the interest of the crown doth occasion ; and I hope I may pre- 
sume to lay clftira to your royal fttvour and prottetioni 

" As your accession to the crown hath been quiet and peaceable, raayyouf 
umjeity's reign be long and prosperous $ and that your people may aaon have 

HlflTORY OF 800TLAND. 2B7 

havii^ joined the squadron of Datch and BriUsh men of war 
that waited for them, under the command of admiral Berkely 
at tbe month of the Maese, sailed for England with a fair wind. 
Next day, about nine in the evenings they arrived safe at the 
Hope, near Ghravesend, where they anchored till next mom^ 
ing, when, there being a thick fog, the yachts did not go up 
the river till the afternoon. The magistrates of Gravesend 

the happiness and sadsfiiction of your presence among them, is the earnest and 

fervent wishes of him who is with the humblest duty and respect. 


Your majesty's most faithful. 

Most dutiful, and most obedient 

Subject and serrant, 

Whitehall, Auguit 30ih, O, S. 17 U. 

The following is the address of the Highland chieftains above mentioned : — 

" May it pltfase your majesty, 

*' We of the chief heritors and others in th« 
Highlands of Scotland under subscribing, beg leave to express the joy of our 
hearts at your miyesty's happy accession to the crown of Great Britain. Your 
majesty hss the blood of our ancient monarchs in your veins, and in your 
family ; may that royal race ever continue to reign over us. Your majest/s 
princely virtues, and the hope we have in your royal family of an uninter- 
rupted succession of kings to sway the Britbh sceptre, must extinguish these 
divisions and contests, which in former times too much prevailed, and unite 
all who have the happiness to live under your majesty, into a firm obedience 
afid loyalty to your m%jesty*s person, family, and government ; and as our 
predecessors have for many ages had the honour to distinguish themselves by 
thdr loyalty, so we do most humbly assure your majesty, that we will reckon 
it our honour stedfastly to adhere to you, and with our lives and fortunes to 
support your crown and dignity agiUDst all opposers. 

** Pardon us, great Sir, to implore your royal protection against any who 
labour to misrepresent us, and who rather use their endeavours to create mis- 
understandings, than to engage the hearts of your subjects to that loyalty and 
cheerful affectionate obedience which we owe, and are ready to testify towards 
your migesty. Under so excellent a king, we are persuaded, that we, and all 
your other peaceable faithful subjects, shall enjoy their just rights and liberties 
and that our enemies shall not be able to hurt us^ with your majesty, for 
whose royal favour we presume humbly to hope, as our foreiatheri were hon- 
oured with that of your majesty's ancestors. Our mountains, though under- 
vsiucd by some, are neverUidess acknowledged to have, in all times, been 
fruitful in producing hardy and gallant men, and such we hope shall never be 



embraced the opportunity of watting upon his majesty, with 
a loyal address, congratulating him on his accession to the 
throne, and his safe arrival in Britain ; they were graciously 
received, and had the honour of kissing hands on the occasion. 
About noon the yachts weighed anchor and sailed up the 
river. After sailing some miles above Gravesend, the king 
and the prince went into a barge, which landed them at 

wantiog amongst U8, who shall be ready to undergo all dangers in defence of 
your majesty's, and your royal posterity's, only rightful title to the crown of 
Great Britain. Our behaviour shall always witness for us, that, with unalter- 
able firmness and zeal, we are. 

May it please your majesty. 

Your majesty's most loyal, 

Most obedient, and most dutiful 

Subjects and servants,** 

Alex. M'DoneU of Glengarie 

Maddntoah of that Hk 

J. Cameron of LocheiU 

Jo. Stewart of Ardsheall 

Farq. M'Gllleray of Dnnmsgl— 

Donald M«DoneIl of Lundie 

Alex. M*Donell of Ardochie 

John M<DoneIl of Gandarge 

Normand M'Leod of Drynacb 

Normand M*Leod of Gnaeroisb 

John M'DoneU of Ardnabie 

Hugh'Fraaer of Giuachan 

John M'Tayiah of Little Garth 

Thomas Fraser 

D. Mackdonald 

Rod. Chisholm of Comer 

Jo. Stewart of Appine 

Jo. Grant of Glenmoristone 

A. McDonald of Glenco 

Jo. M'Donell of Shienne 

Alex. M«Donell of Kytrie 

Alex. M<Donell of Easter Cullachy 

Rod. M*Leod of Ullinish 

Will. M'Leod of Vaterstein yoooger 

WiUiam M<Leod of Husdniah 

Kenneth M*Leod of Kallisaig 

Wm. Fraser of Cullidace younger 

Simon Fraser of Crochel 

John Fraser of Innerchannish 

Dun. Campbell of Lochlnell 

Ang. Mantosh of Kellachie 

J. M'DoogaU of Dnnollich 

D. M'Pherson of Cluny 

La. M'Pheraon of Noid 

Alex. M'Donell Leick 

Jo. M*Donell of Oberchalder 

WilL M<Leod of Hamer Junior 

John M'Leod of Gesto 

Ro. M'Leod of Ensay 

Alex. M<I.«oid Han^rearich 

John Chiiholme of Knockiine 

Tavish M'Taviah Pdlelyne 

Aene M*Donell of Muckeracb 

Hugh Fhiser of Aberskie 

Tho. Houstoun of Dulchirachan 

James Campbell of Auchinbrek 

Anneos M*I)onneU of Dranichaiia 

Ro. M<Leod of Uamer 

D. M<LeodofSaadeok 

Don. M'Leod of Ebost 

Will. M<Leod of Skarbost 

Lachlan M'Kinnon of Breddnah 

Thomas Fraser of Eskedell 

T. Fraser of Koklanie 

Alexander Phaser of Glennakie 

Hugh Fraser younger of Erogy 

Hu^ Fraser of Bethrabine 

Jo. F^raser of Borlime 

MaoLeane of that Ilk 

Jo. M<Lennon of that Ilk 

Do. M<Leod of ContaUch, tutor of M^ 

Donald IVf'Leod of Talaaker 
Alex. M* Donald of Cleonag 
Ae. M<DoneU of TuUoch 
AL McDonald of Achnackoichine 
Alex. McDonald of Bohuntin 
Jo. M'Donell of Inveroy 
W. Fraser of Kilbackie 
James Fraser of Belladmm 
Alex. Fraser of Kinapuntach 
Ha. Fraser of Dunchea 
Jo. Fraser of Kijibrely 
John Fraser of Drumond 
Alexander M*Kenzie of Fraserdale 
W. MacDonell of Keappoch 
Ro. McDonald of Trinadrish 
J. M< Donald of Fersett 
Ronald M*Donald of Coronsie 
Ro. McDonald of Muraaie 
Hugh Fraser of Kinneries 
Ja. Fraser of Kiliik 



Greenwich about six o'clock in the evening. The duke of 
Northumberland, captain of the lifeguards, being in waiting, 
with the lord chancellor, at the head of the lords of the re- 
gency, received his majesty at his landing, and complimented 
him on his safe arrival. His majesty thereafter walked to 
his house in the park, accompanied by the most of the nobility, 
and a vast number of the principal gentry, and an incalculable 
multitude of people, who rent the air with their joyful ac- 
clamations, and the night concluded with bonfires, illumina- 
tions, and other demonstrations of public joy. 

The duke of Marlborough, who, under the malevolent 
influence of the faction that misgoverned the nation during 
the last years of the queen, had been necessitated to go into a 
kind of voluntary exile, returned to England the very day 
the queen died, and, as the tories were in the wane, was re- 
ceived by the people of England with a warmth of affection 
somewhat proportioned to his extraordinary merits ; and now, 
appearing at court with his usual splendour, was looked upon 
as already commander-in-chief, in room of the duke of Or- 
mond. The duke of Argyle was also particularly distin- 
guished, and was made groom of the stole to the prince, as 
an acknowledgment for his firmness to the protestant suc- 
cession. There were also some others advanced to places of 
honour and profit, while his majesty had yet advanced no 
further than Greenwich. 

On Monday the twentieth, the king and the prince passed 
from Greenwich, through the city of London, to the royal 
palace of St. James, with great magnificence, preceded by 
more than two hundred coaches of the nobility and gentry, 
each with six horses, the juniors marching first.' The pro- 
cession was met in Sonthwark, by the lord mayor, aldermen, 
recorders, sheriffs and officers of the city, on horseback, all 

Tbo. FraMT of DnnlMlloch 
WilUam FriMer of Kilkehule 
Ja. Fraser of Newton 
Hugli Fraser of Little Stmie 
Alex. Fraeer of Belnain 
John Fraser Gartmor 
Alex. Fraser of Farr^iclmie 
Alex. Fraser of Easterheadshaw 
Hugh Fras*r of Easter Ardachie 
James Fraser of Mfliidire 
Don. M<Lean of Broloss 

Hector MacLean of Coll 

D. M<Lene of Tarbart 

Ang. M*Leane of Kenlodialine 

Allan M*Leane of Inrerscadle 

T. M<Lean of Mingarie 

Lach. M<Leane of Achure 

Don. MacLean of Drimgigha younger 

Allan MacLean of Reddel 

Lauchlaa M*Lean of Drimgigha elder 

Lauohlan M*Leane of Kilmory. 


in their robes, forming a splendid addition to the already 
gorgeous pageant His majesty was welcomed to bis palace 
by diree discharges of the park guns, and the evening con- 
cluded with all the usnal demonstrations of public joy. 

On the twenty-second the court was numerous and brilliant) 
and several foreign ministers, particularly those of France* 
Poland, Prussia, and Sicily, took that opportunity to compli- 
ment his majesty upon his happy succession and safe arrival. 
The council convened the same day, and the members present 
were, the lord chancellor, the dukes of Somerset, Northum- 
berland, Bolton, Devonshire, Marlborough, Montrose, Rox- 
burgh, and Kent, the marquises of Lindsay, Dorchester, and 
Annandale; the earls of Sunderland, Clarendon, Anglesea, 
Carlisle, Radnor, Rochester, Abingdon, Oxford, Wharton, 
Cholmondely, Marr, Loudon, Findlater, Orkney, Hay, Ox- 
ford, Portmore, and Oorery; the lord viscount Townshend, the 
bishop of London; the lords Paget, Berkeley, Guilford, Somers, 
Guernsey, Mansel, Trevor, Lansdown, Bingley, and Con- 
ingsby; secretary Bromley, the vice-chamberlain Coke, the 
chancellor of the exchequer, the lord chief justice Parker, 
Sir John Holland, Sir Richard Onslow, Mr. Smith, Mr. 
Vernon, Mr. Erie, and Mr. Hill. 

Coming into the council his majesty declared, that he 
understood the law required him at his accession to the erown 
to take and subscribe the oath relating to the security of the 
church of Scotland, which he was ready to do this first op- 
pcH-tunity. His majesty accordingly took the said oath with 
the greatest cheerfulness, in the following words : ** I George, 
king of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, defender of the 
faith, 8tc. do faithfully promise and swear, that I will in- 
violably maintain and preserve the settlement of the true 
protestant religion, with the government, worship, discipline, 
rights and privileges of the church of Scotland, as ^tablished 
by the laws made there, in prosecution of the claim of right, 
and particularly by an act, entitled, act for securing the pro- 
testant religion and presbyterian church government; and by 
the acts passed in the parliaments of both kingdoms, for 
union of the two kingdoms. So help me God." 

After taking, this oath, his majesty subscribed two instru- 


ments thereof, in presence of the eouncil,'one to be transmitted 
to the court of session, to be recorded in the books of sederunt, 
and afterward lodged. in the public register of Scotland; the 
other to be entered into the council book, and remain among 
the records of council. He was then pleased to make the fol- 
lowing declaration, which, at the request of the council, was 
made public: — ** Having, in my answers to the addresses of both 
houses of parliament, fully expressed my resolution to defend 
the religion and civil rights of all my subjects, there remains 
very litde for me to say upon this occasion. Yet, being 
willing to omit no opportunity of giving all possible assurances 
to a people who have already desei'ved so well of me, I take 
this occasion also, to express to you my firm purpose to do 
all that is in my power for the supporting and maintaining 
the churches of England and Scotland, as they are severally 
by law established ; which, I am of opinion, may be eflkctually 
done, without in the least impairing the toleration allowed by 
law to protestant dissenters, so agreeable to christian charity, 
and so necessary to the trade and riches of this kingdom. 
The good efiFects of making property secure, are no where so 
clearly seen as in this happy kingdom ; and I assure you, 
that there is not any amongst you shall more earnestly en* 
deavour the preservation of it dian myself." 

The same day the prince was, by his majesty's command, in-^ 
trodudsd into the privy council, as was also the archbishop of 
York, the earl of Nottingham, and lord Halifax. The great 
seal was, at the same time, delivered to William lord Cowper,; 
the earl of Nottingham declared lord president of the coundl, 
the earl of Wharton lord privy sea), and the earl of Sunderland 
lord lieutenant of Ireland. John, duke of Marlborough, was, 
shortly after, made colonel of the first regiment of foot guards, 
master^neral of the ordnance, and captain-general of his 
majesty's land forces. John, duke of Argyle, was appointed 
conmander-in-chief of bis majes^s land forces in Scotland, 
Charles, duke of Somerset, master of the horse, and the honouiv 
able Robert Walpole receiver and paymaster-general of all 
the guards and garrisons, and all other his majesty's land forces 
in Great Britain. The honourable James Stanhope was made 
secretary of state^ in the room of Mr. Bromley^ and the duke 

I. 2u 


of Montrose, in room of the earl of Marr. Tlie duke of Roac^ 
burgh was made keeper of the great seal of Scotland, in room 
of the earl of Seafield, and the marquis of Annandale lord pri^ 
seal, in rocmi of the duke of AthoL 

On the twenty-seventh his majesty, by letters pat&it under 
the great seal, was pleased to create his royal highness, George 
Augustus — ^formerly prince of Great Britain, electoral prince 
of Brunswick Lunenburg, duke of Cornwall and Bothsay, duke 
and marquis of Cambridge, earl of Milford*haven and of 
Carrick, viscount North AUerton, baron of Tewkesbury and 
Renfinew, lord of the Isles, Steward of Scotland, and knight of 
the most honourable order of the garter, prince of Wales, and 
earl of Chester. 

The same day his majesty dissolved the privy council, and 
appointed a new one to be sworn in on the first of Octobtt« 
Many alterations followed, and a long list of promotions, 
which we pass over, as having but a slender connexion with 
our history. 

. All these arrangements being completed, the twentieth oi 
October was appointed for his majesty's corcNQation, when all 
things being prepared, he proceeded, with the usual solemnities^ 
to Westminster abbey, where the bishop of Oxford, in an 
eloquent sermon from Psal. cxviii. 24. gave a striking delinea^ 
lion of the dangers the nation had been exposed to through 
the malepractices of the late ministry, and a glowing picture of 
the benefits that might reasonably be expected from the happy 
ilccession of his majesty. Afler sermon, his majesty was crowned 
and anointed, in the usual manner, by Dr. Thomas Tennison, 
archbishop of Canterbury; and all present, being asked, did 
publicly acknowledge his majesty as their king, and promised 
subjection unto him, crying out, God save the king. << Tlie 
day of his majesty's coronation," Rae, who was an eye-witness 
thereof, remarks, *^ was observed as a day of solemn r^oicing 
throughout his dominions. Cheerfulness appeared in the faces 
of all his good subjects, who were now in the peaceable pos- 
session of a protestant king, to the great disappointment of the 
popish and Jacobite party."* 

• Rm^ i Hktory of the RsbsUiQimi. 109. 


Ad dwMttt faMaAiDg the most ardent loyalty were presented 
to his nugeBty from all places of the kingdom. That from the 
royal boroughs of Scotland, before the Union the third estate 
of the kingdom, was particularly conspicuous for anticipating 
the preservatioB of religion, liberty, and presbyterial church 
government, as by law established, together with the prosperity 
of trader in consequence of being freed from tl^e encroachments 
and restrictions it had been laid under by destructive treaties 
of commerce^ thus expressing the most dedded disiq^probation 
of the late pacification, and of the whole administration, as it 
regarded Scotland. The commission of the General Assembly 
of the church of Scotland, in addition to their address, testifying 
the most lively joy at his majesty's happy and peaceful acoessioa 
to the crown, deputed, on this occasion, the Rev. principal 
Carstares, Mr. William Mitchel, and Mr. James Hart, ministers 
of the city of Edinburgh, Thomas linning, minister of Lesma- 
hago^ and Mr. James Ramsay, minister of Kelso, to wait 
personally upon his majesty, and make known to him the great 
joy felt by the church of Scotland on account of his elevation 
Id the throne of these kingdoms ; the active part that chiuxh 
had taken to promote hb interest; and the expectations she 
now cntertmned, not only oi being safe from future encroach- 
menlB, but of having those grievances^ which her constancy to 
the line of succession in his family had been a principal mean 
of bringing upon her, speedily and completely redressed.* This 
deputation did not arrive in London till the coronation was 
over, but they were introduced to his majesty on the first of 
November by the duke of Montrose, when principal Carstarea 
made a speech to the above effect, to which hb majesty made 
a most gracious reply; and the whole deputation had the 
honour of kissing bands on the occasion. Th^ were also in* 
trodttoed to the piince and princess of Wales, and were most 
gradoosly received by these august personages, who testified 
the most grateful .sense of the zeal and perseverance of the 
Sooddi church, with regard to the protestant succession, and 
sssured the commissioners that she might at all times dqiend 
apon their countenance and support. 

• 8se Mr. GsntWBiP ipsadi St Icngdk Bac^t ISitoiy, &c p. lOA. 


In. tbe meantime, the tones finding themselves fibut out finom 
all participation ■ in the favours of the new dynasty, were 
chagrined and enraged beyond measure, while their Jacobite 
brediren were reduced to the very verge of despair. They were 
not, however, idle^ though the course of events, so exceedingly 
difierfnt from any thing they had calculated upon, unhinged 
all their plans, and rendered for a time, their utmost efibrts 
abortive. It had been agitated among the leading tories, that 
they should wait upon his majesty, on his landing, in a body^ 
with the ministry at their head, when they might be introduced 
to his majesty's special notice, by the lord chancellor, and, from 
their number and the respectability of their appearance^ over- 
awe the whigs, and secure with his majesty, that ascendenqr, 
which they had enjoyed with his predecessor. The lord dian- 
cellor, however, was under the necessity of waiting in his place, 
at the head of the regency, among whom there was a great 
majoriQr of whigs. The tories found it impossible to keep 
together in the crowd, and were compelled to wait upon his 
majesty in the best way they could, or withdraw from the 
scene, which would have brought a suspicion of disloyally upon 
their characters, which they were not willing to incur. 

.Disappointed in this. first effort^ they yet hoped, under the 
duke of Ormond, to succeed better next day; but here again 
thqr.were equally unfortunate; for that very morning, his 
majesty, by the lord viscount Townshend, acquainted the 
duke that he had no longer any occasion for bis services^ as 
captain-general of the army, which dispirited die whole party, 
and the changes which followed in such rapid succession, 
left no room for their purposed eadiibition.* Nothing, there* 
fore, remained for tliem, but to submit quietly to the domi* 
nation of the whigs, which pride^ ambition, and perhaps con- 
science^t utterly forbade, or, by another powerfiil appeal to 

• Rae's History, &c pp. 89—91. 

f Conscience is often ^orant, often erriog,'and ai often as either, a mere 
pretence; but it is still true, that " conscience is a sacred thing," and whatever 
is put forth under its name, deserves at least a hearing. ** I never expect,** 
said one of these tory gentlemen," any thing but confusion, if the interest of 
the church, conies to be at the mercy of the low men and pretbyterkmt, the 
latter of whom, I always looked upon, as worse than tbe papist^; nor let the 


the church and the mob, bring themselves again into notice, 
thoi^ it should be at the expense of a general convulsion^ and 
a dml war. Pursuing this plan, they were able, even on the 
day of his majes^^s ccMTonation, to create most serious dis- 
turbances* Armed with .dubs, hangers, and in some places 
with swords, guns, and pistols, diey attacked his majesty's loyal 
subjects, in the height of their jollity, many of whom they 
womided, to the efiFiision of their blood, and the imminent 
hasaxd of their lives. At Bristol, they murdered a Mr. 
lliomBS, oiitr^t, merely for attempting to persuade them 
to denst from their lawless and outrageous conduct. In con- 
tempt of the occasion, they put the Maypole into mourning at 
Bedford; and at Frome, in Somersetshire, they dressed up, 
and carried about in procession in a fool^s coat, an ideot named 
George, for the same purpose. 

The danger of the church, was again the pretence for all this 
outrage, and ibis danger was supposed to arise from the change 
whidi his majesty had been pleased to make in the members 
of administration. Nothing had been more strenuously in- 
sisted upon by the tories, daring the last years of her late 
majesty, than the sacred nature of the royal prerogative, espe- 
cially with regard to the choice of servants to the crown ; but 
now that it was exercised against themselves, they seem to 
have had no longer any regard for it Gentlemen were 
found heading mobs composed of the most desperate raf-^ 
fians, taught again to re-echo the ridiculous cry of <* Sacfa** 
everal! God bless Dr. Sacheveral! down with the round 
heads ! down with the whigs ! no Hanover ! no Cadogan I but 
Calvert and Clarges! no king William! no traitor! Sach- 
everal forever! Who dares 'disown the pretender?^ There 
were even clergymen, who had the ropes taken from the bells 
of their churches, lest they should be profaned, by being 
rung in honour of his majesty's coronation ; and while doc- 

lew wten ever prateod to blame ni, if we joio with papists agmnst them, while 
they joio with presbyterians against the church. Nay, though it were come 
to the naming of successorSp if these men, or any they shall set op, take such 
measorei, as 1 am satisfied will destroy the church, I freely dedare myself 
ril be for any socoenor, rather than suffer the church to be orerwhelmed with 
finaticf ofanykind.". The Two Nights' Court at Oreedwich, p. 47. 


trines, higbly derogatory to the honour and the aathorily 
of government, were too generally preached, fcxxn many of 
the EQglish pulpits, loyalty, submission, and gONod order, 
could not be openly and publicly incalcated in many places, 
but at the hazard of being torn to pieces upon the spot for 
so doing* Even in the city of London^ Mr. Joseph Aire% 
Ticar of Blewbery, Berks, narrowly escaped with his life, for 
preaching a loyal sermon in Whitechapel church ; and when 
the murderers at Brbtol were put upon their trial, sucii was 
the violence of the p<^ular feeling in their favour, that the 
course of justice was completely obstructed) and though some 
convictions took place, the result was such, as rather to 
strengthen and irritate, than to allay the turbulent and re- 
fractory spirit of the people of that district** 

In order to encourage these hopeful beginnings, on the part 
of his friends, the chevalier, perfectly aware of all that was 
going on, issued, about the middle of November, a declaration, 
, dated at Plombiers, August the twenty-ninth, 1714^ in which 
be sets forth, not only the violation of his own hereditary right 
to the kingdoms of Britain and Ireland, but of the interests of 
all the sovereign princes of Europe, complains bitterly of the 
ruin of the English monarchy, and the sufferings of the late 
king his father, of blessed memory, by the unjustifiable re- 
volution of 1688, which he threatens, or predicts, will be a 
source of endless wars and divisions, till the succession is again 
settled in the rightful line. But as we consider this paper loo 
important to be abridged, the reader will find it entire at the 
foot of the page.f 

• Rae^s Hiftory of the Rebellioo, Ac. pp. lOS, lio, lis. 

f Jamef the third, by the grace of God, ki^g of Great Britain, Franco and 
Irdend, Defender of the Faith, &c. To all kings, princes, and potentates^ 
and our loving subjects, greeting. 

In such ane extraordinary and important conjunction, in which, not only 
our hereditary right to our crowns is so unjustly violated, but the interest of 
all the sovereign princes of Europe b so deeply concerned, wee oould not be 
sileDt without being wanting to ourselffi and them. 

Evnry body knows that the revolution in the year 16SS, rmned the Eq^ish 
jDonarcfay, and laid the foundation of a republican government, by devolitpg 
die sovereign power on the people, who assembled themsdfes without any 
authority, voted themselves a parliament, and assumed a c^t of i 


Copies of ibis declaration, were forwarded bj the French 
mail, to several persons of quality in England, by whom 
they were delivered into the bands of the government; and 
it appearing Aat the marquis de Lamberti, minister for the 

•od deeting kaogt^ oontniie to the fnadMnentaU bnrt of tbo land, aad the 
most ezprett and tolema oathot that dinitwni an capable of taking; aad 
nobody can be ignorant, how unjurtljr the late kiqg, oor fiidi«r» of bleiicd 
meoBoiy, suffered by this unjustifyable revolution. 

After his demise, his crowosy which the prince of Orange had usurped, bo- 
ng then rightfbUy ours, according to the fondamentril lavs of the land, wee 
inniediatciy claimed our righto to the sane, by a dedaiatioa under our gmt 
seall, dated at St. Gemams, the 8th of October, 1704. And as soon as il 
{leased diTine providence to enable ns to attempt the recovery thereofl^ wee 
readily embraced the occasion ; and *tis sufficiently known that the miscarriage 
of that expedition eonld not be imputed to us. 

Whea we found after this, that a treaty of peace was upon the point off 
hm^ CMMlttdedi wkboot any regaird had to us, we published our protestatioi^ 
dated at St. Germains, the S5th of Aprile, 1 7 is, in the most, solemn and 
aathentic manner our circumstances would then allow of; asserting thereby 
our incontestable right to our crowns, and protested against whatever might 
be stipulated in the smd treatie to our prejudice. 

Tho' we have been obliged since that tyme to remove from France to a 
move remof place, we have still contiaoed to have oor kingdoms and onr 
people in oor riew, to whom wee are oonvineed, that God in his mercy will 
sooner or later restore us; and, notwithstanding the malice and open rebellion 
of some, and the forced complyance of others, wee have never ceased to 
hope, that God would in tyme open our people's eyes, and convince them not 
only of the notorious injustice done to the crown and us, but of the dangeiw 
ens conseqoenees tbereoff iat themselves. It is not onr interest alone we 
are concerned for; our naturall and unalterable love for our people is such, 
that as wee could not see without grief, their blood and treasure iavisht in 
the late warr in opposition to our undoubted right, so wee cannot now with 
less sorrow see them exposed to be subjected to ane artutraiy power, and 
become a prey to foreigners. 

Besydes, that the elector of Brownswick is one of the remotest relations wee 
have, and consequently, one of the remotest pretenders to our crowns after 
us, it b evident that nothing is more opposite to the maxims of England in 
ad respects, than that unjust settlement of the succesnon upon his family. 
He is a fbrreinger, a powerful prince, and absolute in his own country, where 
be has never met with the least contradiction from his subjects. He b 
ignorant of our laws, manners, customs, and language, and supported by a 
good army of bis own people, besydi the asustance which a neighbouring state 
k obliged to grant him upon demand, and many thousands of aKeas refuged 
fa England these 50 years past, who having their depeadanoe wholly upoo 
Un, wHl be ready to stand by him upon all oocarions. 


duke of Lorrain at the court of London, had, by himself, or 
his retainers, been actively employed in circulating copies 
among the disaffected, in diJFerent parts of the country, he was 
given to understand, that he could not be admitted at court. 

Moreover, what can our nibiectt etpec^but endlett wan and divinons 
from Bubvertiag so sacred and iiudanientaU a constitution as that of heieditaiy 
right? which has still prevailed i^nstall usurpations, bow successful, and 
for how long time soever continued ; the government finding still no rest till it 
returned again to in own centre. And how can they be ignorant of the just 
pretensions of so many other princes that are before the house of Hanover, 
whose right after us will be as undoubted as our own, and who ndther want 
will nor power to assert it in their turns, and to entail a perpetuall warr upon 
our kingdoms, with a dvill warr in their own bowells^ which thdr divisions will 
make unavoidable. 

From all which it is plain, our people can never enjoy any lastipg peace or 
happiness, till they settle the succession again in the rightiyi Itne^ and reeall 
us, the immediate lawful! heir, and the only bom Rngjishwan now.le& of the 

This being certainly the trae interest of Great Britain, we had reason to 
hope, that a wise people Would not have lost so natural an occasion of re- 
calling us, as they have lately had, fiince they could not but see, by all the steps 
we have hitherto made, that we had rather owe our restoration to the good 
will of our people, than, involve them in a warr, though never so ju^; be- 
sides, that they know, or migbt have known, the reiterated inviolable assur- 
ances ve have given them under our hand, that whensoever it should please 
God to restore us, we would make the law of the land the rule of our 
government; and grant to our subjects a generall indemnity for whatsoever 
has been done contrary to the said laws ; and all the security and satisfisction 
they could desire, for the preservation of their religion, rij^ts, liberties^ and 

Yet, contrary to our expectations, upon the death of the princess our sister, 
(of whose good intentions towards us, we could not for some time past, well 
doubt, and this was the reason we then satt still, expecting the good effects 
thereof, which were unfortunately prevented by her deplorable death,) we 
found that our people, instead of taking this fkvourable opportunity of re- 
trieving the honour and true interest of their country, by doing us and them* 
selves justice, had immediately proclaimed for their king, a forreign prince, to 
our prejudice, contrary to the fundamental and incontestable laws of heredi- 
tary right, which their pretended acts of settlement, can never abrogate. 

After this height of iiyustice, we then thought ourselves bound in honour 
and duty, and indispensibly obliged by what we owe to ourself, to our posterity, 
and to our people, to endeavour to assert our right in the best manner we 
could. Accordingly, upon the first notice sent us, wee parted from our 
ordinary, residence* in order to repair, to some part of our dominions, and 
there to put ourself at the head of such of our la^iriiill subjects, as were di» 


till such time as be oould make it appear, that the chevalier 
was dismissed from the territories of his master. This order, 
Lamberti transmitted to Lorrain, and in the meantime, re- 
tired to his residence among the tories of Oxford, till he 
should receive an answer. An answer was speedily returned, 
but it was not such as to satisfy the British ministry, and 
the marquis, shortly after, left the country. 

To counteract this flood of disloyalty and disorder, the 
government exerted the most laudable and praiseworthy 
activity. A proclamation was issued on the second of No- 
vember, requiring all civil officers to use their utmost diligence 

posed to stand by us, and defend us and themselves, from all foreign invasion ; 
but in our passing thro' France, to the sea coast, we were there, not only re- 
fused all succour and assistance, upon account of tbe engagements, that king 
Is under, by the late treaty of peace ; but we were even debarred paseagd^ and 
obliged to turn back to Lornun. 

After meeting with such sensible disappointments on all sides, the only 
comfort left us, is» that we have done our part at least, to attain our just ends, 
and have nothing upon that score to reproach our&elf with ; and as our cause 
is just, we doubt not but God will, in his own due time, fumuh us with new 
means to support it; and that he will at last touch tbe hearts of our Bubjects» 
with a true sense of the crying injury that they have done us and themselves, 
and move them effectually to return to their duty. 

We likewise hope, that all christian princes and potentates, who are now in 
peace together, will reflect upon the dangerous example here given them, and 
y formidable effects they are threatened with, from such an united force, as 
that of England and Hanover; and that they seriously consider, whether the 
exorbitant power that now accrews to tbe house of Brunswick, be consbtent 
with the balance c£ power, they have been fighting for all this last war. And 
therefore, we call on them for their assistance, for the recovery of our 
dominions, which their interest, as well as honour, engages them to grant us, 
as far as they are able. In the meantime, in the circumstances we are in, wee 
have nothing left in our power to do at present, but to declare to the world, 
that as our right is indefeasible, so we are resolved, with the help of God, 
never to depart from it, but with our life. And therefore, we do here 
solemnly protest again, in the strongest manner we are capable of, against all 
injustices, that have been, or shall hereafter be done, to the prejudice of us, 
our lawful heirs and successors, reserving and asserting, by these presents, 
under our great seal!, ail our rights, claims, and pretensions whatsoever, which 
do, and shall remain, in their full force and vigour, declaring, that after tbii^ 
we shall not think ourselves answerable, before God or man, for the pernicious 
consequences, which the new usurpation of our crowns may draw upon our 
subjects, and upon all Christendom. 

Given at our court nt Plombaen, y* 99th August, 1714. 
1. 2 I 


.to bring the vktUter« of tb^ public peace, to merited piinuh- 
,meot; and commanding that, for the fuppreasi<m of tumults, 
all fidstiag statute*, from that of Henry IV., should be atrictlj 
«Dforced« The acts of the. tfairteeotb of Charles II., und the 
first of WiIUmi and Mary, were also ordered to be fully 
eHe^^^tad against aU papisja, oonjurorst iu^t ** by tendering to 
them the declaratiim and oaths therein mentioned, and taking 
:firom the refusers thereof, their horses, arms, and ammunition, 
]ind ouBg iheir endeavours to confine them to their houses, as 
•appointed by an act in the sixth of the lal^ queen. All popish 
reciifants, natives, or denizens, above the age of sixteen, were 
commanded to repair to their respective places of abode, and 
not to remove thence, or pass above the distance of five miles, 
unless thereunto licensed f^cpordlng to law." And to check the 
impertinenoe of the clergy, ^^ his nuyesty, by the advice of liis 
privy council, issued directions to the archbishops and bishops, 
for preserving unity in the church, purity of the christian faith, 
l^nd. the peace and quiet of the state, charging them strictly to 
publish themt and to see that they be accordingly observed in 
tlieir several diocesses." The Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity, 
a book written and published by Dr. Samuel Clarke, bad been, 
by the lower house of convocation, condemned, as containing 
assertions contrary to the Catholic faith, and his majesty ia 
these direption^ requires h'l^ bishops to take care, ^' that no 
preacher whatsoever, in his sermon, lecture, or writing, do 
presume to deliver any other doctrine concerning the blessed 
trinity, than what is contained in the holy Scriptures, nor to 
intermeddle in any affairs of state or government, or the con- 
Stit^itig^ of this realm, excepting only at such times, and in 
such manner as is more particularly expreased in these dif^o- 
tions."* All this, though springing directly from the royal 
supremacy, for which they professed the most profound venera- 
tion, was, by the high part of the church, regarded as an offi- 
o\pus intermeddling in her affairs, alike hurtful to her liberti^ 
as a public body, and to the feelings of her members as indi- 

The parliament being dissolved, and a proclamation issued 

mmtonr of sanxAim. ^-f 

for calling a new one in the montli of Jamiaiy 1715» noiiung 
was to be seen in En^and but the biisftle Of deCtioD^Bvin^ 
keightened at tliis tone by the vicdenoe of party feejingi so at 
to render tnanj places souies of the most shameful disorder* 
The measures adopted by the ministry, who had already sealed 
up the papers of the earl of Strafford, on his return from the 
Hi^gue, and leeaDed Friar from Frante^ skMfwed plainly that 
they had a design to make a judicial inquiry into the ccmduct 
of the late ministry, so soon as the new porliaiaent should ha 
eonvenedy and the proclamation issued by hi» majesly tar 
eidliiig thia parliament, left no room for any to question but it 
was the hope and the deaire cf the minbtry t^ have a parlia- 
mcait exactly to their own mind* ^ It having pleased Almighty 
God^" said his msgeaty, '^ by most remarkable stqps of hisprovi- 
dencse, to bring us in safety to the crown of this kingdom, not^ 
widistanding the de^ns of evil men» who showed tbemselvea 
daiaffeGted to our SDCoesMn) and ndw have since, with the uW 
mnst degree of malice^ misrepresented our firm resolution and 
uniform endeavour, to preserve and defeud our most excellent 
constitution, both in church and state, and attempted, by many 
iidae soggestioasE^ to raider us suspec^d to our people, we 
cannoft omit, on this occasion, of first summoning our parliar. 
ment of Great Britain, (in justice to ourselves, and that the 
miscarriagea of others may not be imputed to us, at a time 
when fake impressions may do the greatest and irrecoverably 
hurt before they can be cleared up,) to sigui^^ to our whole 
kingdom, that we were very much conqerned, on our accession. 
to the crown, to find the pnblic affairs of our kingdom under 
(be greatest difBcnlties, as wdi in respect of oar trade, and the 
interrupdon of our navigation, as of tjie great d^t$ of the^ 
nation, which, we are surprised to observe, h&rve been v^ry. 
much increased since the condusioa of the la^t war. We dc^ 
not, therefoie, doubt, that iS the ensuing dectioas shall b^, 
made by our loving subjects, with that safety and freei^mj^ 
which by law they arc entitled to, and we are firmly resolved to 
maintain to them, they will saad up to parliament the fittest 
peraons to redress the present disorders, and to provide for the 
peace and happiness of our kii^gdoms, and the ease of qui; 


people for the future, and therein will have a partieidar rqpud 
to such as showed a firmness to the protestant succession when 
it was most in danger. We have, therefore, found it necessary, 
as well for the causes aforesaid, as for other weighty considera- 
tions concerning us and our kingdoms, to call a new parliament; 
and we do^ aooorduigly, declare^ that, with the advice of our 
privy council, we have this day given orders," jtc &c. This was 
plain speaking, and too true to be flatly denied; but it awakened 
the utmost indignation in the whole body of the tones, and 
they met it by a charge of undue interference with the freedom 
of elections, which they themselves immediately violated in 
every instance where it was in their power. Sheriffi, in many 
places, they forcibly prevented from doing their duly, and 
many false returns were made, by which means a number of 
the ministerial tones were returned, and among others Thomas 
Forster of Bamborough, whom we shall soon meet at die head 
of an army, arrayed against his lawful sovereign, to whom he 
had sworn fealty, and in behalf of the chevalier, whom he 
had solemnly abjured. 

From the limited nature of the elective franchise in Scotland, 
it was impossible to carry on elections there with the same mis- 
chievous effect as in England, but nothing that could be thought 
upon, as tending to promote sedition, or forward rebellion, 
was neglected. The weight of taxation, occasioned by the 
Union, was strongly insisted upon as calling for the united ex- 
ertions of all who wished well to their country, for having that 
ruinous treaty, as it was still denominated, speedily dissolved ; 
and it was proposed that no one should be chosen as a repre- 
sentative, either for peers or commons, who was not known to 
be determined on the immediate prosecution of that measure ; 
and, for a moment, this seemed to be an almost universal feeling* 
It was soon, however, discovered that the Jacobites were every 
where exerting themselves with uncommon zeal, and the more 
moderate party, rightly suspecting that the ruin of the Scotish 
church, and the setting aside the protestant succession, so au- 
spiciously established in the person of George I., were objects 
which they had more at heart than the delivering of the country 
from any of its miseries, either real or pretended, wisely refused 


to concur with them. The elections of course went on for the 
most part smoothly, and the members returned were ahnost to 
a man firm friends to the succession as now established, though 
some of them were very desirous, could they have been certain 
of a proper time and a fair opportunity, to have seen a dissolu- 
tion of the Union, which, it must be oonfiessed, had not as yet 
realized the sanguine expectations either of its projectors or 

Inverness was, perhaps, the only place in Scotland where 
the Jacobites attempted to carry their purpose into effect by 
force, and they were utterly unsuccessful, from one of these 
singular combinations, which, we have already seen» and shall 
often have occasion again to see, attended the unfortunate pre- 
tender at almost every step of his progress. The government 
candidate was the honourable John Forbes of Culloden, a 
person of known loyalty, and universally beloved. He was 
opposed by Mackenzie of Prestonhall, who^ to compel the 
Frazers to vote for him, brought Glengary and a great assem- 
blage of papists in his train. Culloden, however, carried the 
day through the influence of his neighbour, brigadier general 
Grant, and Simon Frazer of Beaufort, the famous lord Lovat, 
who had just escaped from France, and was doing his utmost to 
obtain the countenance of the British government,* and by that 
means the estate of Lovat, and the chieftainship of the Frazers. 
Of the estate of Lovat, Prestonhall was at this time in posses- 
sion, and he laid claim to be head of the Frazers also, having 
married the baroness of Lovat, eldest daughter of Hugh, late 
lord Lovat, in whose person, it was decreed by the court of 
session in 1702, were the honours and dignity of Lovat. Pres- 
tonhall, in consequence, assumed the name of Frazer, and the 
title of Frazerdale ;f but the greater part of the Frazers refusing 
to submit to him, signed an address to the king, and made a 
full resignation of their clan to the duke of Argyle as their 
chief, at the very time when all the other clans were signing 
the address to his majesty in favour of high church and the 

* Memoirs of the Life of Lord Lontt, written bj himself, pp. 459, 45S. 
f Douglas' Peerage of Scot]aiid» by Wood, voL iL p. 159. 


tones, wfaidi was to have been laid before the king at hk ao- 
eession through the eari of Manr, [vide a preceding notel, but 
which a varie^ of drcumatances prevented him from being 
able to accon^>lish. Lord Ua and ihe duke of Argyle wese in 
the meantime exerting themaelves in behalf of Simon Fraaer of 
Beaufort, and Smon himself, always awake to whatever pro* 
mised to promote his sdbemes of aggrandiiement, threw the 
whole weight of his interest with the Frazers into the scale of 
Culloden, foe the douUe purpose of mortifying Prestoahall, 
who was more sincerely attadied to the pretender than be was 
himself and securing the powerful patronage of the . Forbese^ 
which he was fortunate enough to enjoy without lAterruplion, 
till he foolishly threw it away in the'year 1746.* 

* The following letters, &c throw some light upon the character of thU 
arch apostate and villain, and demonstrate to what a man may attain, even 
under regular government, among virtuous and wise men, by the exerciM of 
mere enimiDg and setfishneas, though be be possessed of scarcely one ma^ 
virtue. The first is directed to tbe laird of Colloden : — 

** Much honoured and D' Sir, 

" TuE real frdbhip y» I know you have 
for my person and family, makes me take the freedom to assure you of my 
kind service, & to intrcat of you to join w** my other friends betwixt Spy and 
Nesse, to sign y* address }*• court requires, id older to give me my re* 
mission. Your cousine James, who has geoeroiMly expos'd himself to bring 
me out of chains, will inform you of all steps & circumstances of my affairs 
since he saw me. I wish, D' Sir, from my heart, you were here; I am con- 
fident you would speak to tlie Duke of Argyle & to the Earl of Isia, to let 
them know their own Interest, and their reiterated promises to do for me: 
perhaps they may have, sooner than they expect, a meet serious oocasioa foe 
my service. But iti needless now to preach y* doctrine to tbem; they think 
yeiselves in ane infallible security ; I wish they may not be mistaken. Hower, 
I think its the interest of all those, who love this government, betwixt Spy 
and Nesse, to see me at the head of my clan, ready to join them ; so y* I 
believe, none of them will refuse to sign ane addrese to make me a Scotsman. 
I am persuaded, D' Sir, y* you will be of good example to y» on y^ head. 
But secrecy above all most be keept; without which aU may go wroqg. I 
hope you will be stirring for the parlmmem, for I will not be reconciled to 
you, if you let Prestonall outvote you. Bregadecr Grant, to whom I am 
inBnitely obliged, has written to Foyers to give you his vote; and he is ane 
ungrat villam if he refrises bim. (10 1 was at bome^ tbe Uttle pityful barens 
of the aird, durst not refuse you. But I am bopcfidl y^ tbe newt of my going 


Hie Jacobites* however, though generally foiled at the 
elections, were not by any means discouraged, but were 
acdyely and coolly, though secretly, at the very time making 
preparations for submitting their claims to the dedsioo of 

to Brittain, will hinder Frestonall to go north, for I may come to meet him 
when he least thinks of me. I am very impatient to see you, and to assure you 
most sincerely how much I am» w^ love and respect. 

Eight honourable, your most obedient. 

And most humble servant, 

7U 94th qf November, 1714. 

The next from Culloden to bis brother, Duncan Forbes, relates to and 
throws light upon thb same afiTair of Lovat*s : — 

* Dear Brother:-^! send you by this express, a packet, which, if ray lord 
Hay is at EdinS you yourself are to deliver to him, and if still att I^ndon, 
to forward carefully to him. It contains ane address from the Frasers to the 
king; and likewise a full resignation of their clan to Argyle as ther chie£ 
Ther dcmtg this at a jounctnro, when the other clans are forcing through ane 
other address in favours of the high church, and I truly think pairtly levelled 
St Argyle, ought not to be forgot; for I can assure you there was no stone 
left unturned by the other clans to divert them from it; even to that degree, 
that they were at daggers drawing about it. I, therefore, truly think the duke 
Aould take them heartily by the hand and support them, now that they have 
csst out with aU the Highlands on his grace's accoumpt. Our Aird Frasers, 
viz. Relict, Dunballach, Belladrum, Kinnarid's, and Dunballacb's brethren^ 
have subscribed the Hyiand address with Fraserdealls ; but Ahnagarn would 
not. Pray, fail not to speak to my lord Hay, that he cause Streachen, who 
is DOW at the colledge, or with my lady duches, at Diddeston, subscribe the 
Fnser's address before its sent up.** &c. &c — CuUoden Papers, p. 35. 

The following is the petition that was sent up for Lovat in the year 1714, 
>nd the grant that followed it, for his services to the government during the 
^e of the rebellion, taken from the Culloden Papers, pp. 536 — 3J8 :— ^ 

" We, yoor majesty's laost dutiful and loyal subjects under subscribing, who 
have always endeavoured to distinguish ourselves by our leal for the protestant 
■accession in your majesty's royal family, which has now taken place to the 
'^ppiness of these nations, and the disappointment of all the enemies to liberty 
•iHl the protestant religion, do humbly implore your royal mercy for one of 
your subjects, who, though banished and a prisoner, has now lately, when the 
Si^atest dangers did seem to surround us, by the influence he has over a 
nuneroiis daa, supported with us that cause, which, in defence of your 

• Cultodcn Taptn, iipk at, 91 


the sword) and by the end of February, their arrangements 
throughout the north were represented as nearly complete. 
A vessel had landed her cargo, arms and ammunition, in the 
island of Skye, whence several emissaries had dispersed them- 

majesty's undoubted title to the crown, wee have to the utmost of our power 
endeavoured to maintain. This unhappy nobleman, my lord Lovat, for 
whom, in all humility, we offer this petition, would not be so presumptuous as 
himself to make any request to your majesty ; but has appealed to those who 
are known to have openly and firmly devoted themselves to your majesties 
service. And his relations desireing us to be witnesses of the truth in his be- 
half, we could much less in justice than in compassion, refuse to bear this 
evidence to your majesty ; that by the assistance and power of those by the 
name of Eraser, who are almost all under his direction, we have strength- 
ened ourselves in the defence of the present happy constitution in church and 
state. These are the motives which have compelled us in the most humble 
manner to lay my lord Lovat's case before your majesty ; and we are so sen- 
sible, not only of his power, but of his sincere intentions to join with us, in 
the supporting inviolably the authoritie of your majesty's government in the 
north of Scotland, that if we can be so happy as to obtain the royall favour 
for him, we humbly make offer to become bound for his loyal, faithful, and 
dutiful! behaviour to your majestie, in whatever sum your majesty shall be 
graciously pleased to appoint." 

A list of the considerable persons of Inverness, Morray, and Naime, who 
signed this address to his majesty in favours of the lord Lovat ; and who are 
known to be zealously affected to the present constitution, and the most 
landed men in those shires :— 

Aleior. Grant of Invemess sh. M. of Part. Hugh Rose of Claver 
Alexr. Dunbar of Bishop Mill, Sheriff John Rose of Bradlies 

of the sh. of Morray Thomas Tullock of Faunochie 
Sir Henry Innes of thi^t Ilk. Baronet John Brodie of Windiehills 

Sir Archibald Campbell of Clunes James Brodie of WhiCehilla 

Hugh Rose of Killravock James Dunbar of Glebes 

Hugh Rose of KilraTock yor. John Roy, Baillie of Foresa 

James Brodie of Brodie John Finlay, Baillie 
John Forbes of Culloden, Member of Robert Logan, BiiilUe 

Part, for Inver. sh. Robert Ephlngton, Baillie 

Alexr. Brodie of Lethin Thomas Urquhart, Dean of Guild 

David Dunbar of Dunphaill Alexr. Paterson, Treasurer 

Thomas Brodie of Pitgavenie Robert Urquhart, Counsellor 

Lodwick Dunbar of Grange John Brodie, Counsellor 

Alexr. Cuming of Lm^ie William Dawson, Counsellor 

George Cuthbert of Castlehill Alexr. Piterkio, Couaselbr 

John Cuthbert of CastlehUl yor. Mr. WilUam Stewart, Minister of In- 
Robert Urquhart of Burdsyard vemess 

Alexr. Dunbar of Moy Mr. Robert Baillie, Minirter of Inverntn 

Lodwick Dunbar of Moy yor. Mr. Alexr. Fraaer, Minister of Croy 

Coline Campbell of Delnes Mr. Thomas Fraser, Minister of Stratk- 
John Rose of BlackhiUs erick 

James Sutherland of Kinsterie Mr. James Calder, Minister of Calder 

James Sutherland of Greenhall Mr. Georae Brodie, Preacher 

Jonathan Dunbar of Tulliglens George Mackay, Sheriff of Nairns 


selves over the country, and the cbevalier» it was confidently 
reported, would follow in a few days, accompanied by an. 
army of twelve thousand men. These reports do not appear 
to have made any great impression on the public mind, as 
they called forth, for the time, no greater preparations than 
the reviewing of a single regiment [Forfar's], and the moving 
of a few dragoons from Jedburgh, Kelso, and other parts on 
the borders, to the Links of Leith. 

- The new parliament, almost every individual member of 
which had been particularly instructed by his constituents in 
what manner he was to act,* was assembled on the seven* 

A list of the considerable persons of the shires of Ross and Sutherland, 
that signed this address to his majesty in favours of the lord Lovat ; and who 
are known to be zealously affected to the present constitution, and the most 
landed men in those shires : — 

Earl of Sutherland Hugh Munro of Tconlniah 

Lord Strath Naver Hector Munro of NoTar 
Hwh Rooe of KUlravock» Shiriff Prin- John Munro of Novar yor. 

aptl of Roflshire Alraor. Gordon of Ardoch 

Sir Robert Munro of Foulla Adam Gordon of KUlfeddcr 
Robert Monro yor. of Foully Member of John Gqrdon of Garthie 

Piu-lt. William Robertson of Craigmill 

George Munro of Cullraine William Roes of Eaater Feam 

John Sutherland of Oyne William Rote of Breatangaill 

J>aTid Roes of Kindeaa Arthur Roes of Torray 

Maloomb Roes of Pitcalny Alexr. Munro of Kilaehoan 

Thomas Ross of Aldy Farqr. Munro of Wanard 

John Roes of Achnailoich Hugn Munro of Ardullie 

Geoige Munro of CuUkaime Hugh Munro of Klllcaime 

An^w Munro of Westertoun Alezr. Gordon of Wnehper 

Goofge Munro of Newmor Hugh Roes of Folly. 

* The reader may take the following as a sample of what these instruc- 
tions were, and as a specimen of public fading at the time. 

* We, the citizens of London, who have cheerfully elected you to represent 
us in parliament, and thereby committed to your trust, the safety, liberty, 
property, and privil^es of us and our posterity, think it our duty, as it is our 
undoubted right, to acquaint you of what we desire and expect from you, in 
discharge of the great confidence we repose in you, and what we take to be 
your duty as our representatives. 

L ** We desire and expect that you will enquire by whose counsel it was, 
that after God had blessed the arms of her late majesty and her allies, with 
a train of unparalleled successes, she was prevailed upon, contrary to the grand 
alliance, and her repeated promises from the throne to both houses, to send 
to, or receive managers from France, to treat separately of a peace, without 
the knowledge or consent of our allies ? 

IL ** By whose advice the emperor's minister, the count de Gallas, was 
discfaaiged the court, for resenting and opposing these separate negotiations, 
I. 2 K 


teenth of March, ITld, with the usual solemnities* The 
honourable Spencer Compton was unanimoudy chosen speaker^ 
and, on Monday the twenty-first, presented to his majesty^ 
who was pleased to infi>rni die house from the throne, that he 
had ordered the lord chancellor to declare the causes for 

contrary, not only to the grand alliance, but to the queen's particular asrar- 
ances to hla master ? 

IIL ** By whose advice bis m^esty's memorial, deliyered by hn majesty*e 
minister, the baron de Bothmar, aganst thoae dandeatiae aad aeparate ncgo- 
tiatioat, was not only disregarded, taU called a libd, aad the siod mioktac 

IV. " By whose advice and management her majesty was preyaiied on, fint 
to come to a cessation of aims with our common enemy, and then so surpris- 
ingly to withdraw our troops from those of the allies, which was attended with 
such dismal consequences? 

V. " By whose advice and management all that had been gained by a pro- 
fusion of blood and treasure, in a glorious and successful war, was thrown up, 
just as we were seizing the prize of our conquest; and a fireebom people, 
brought within the view of slavery? 

VL " By whose advice and management our constitution was struck al^ by 
creating twelve new lords at once, to carry a vote in the upper-house? 

VII. ** By whose advice it was, that the treaty with the French for aeltling 
our common barrier in the Netherlands, and making them guarantees of the 
protestant succession, was enervated, and a new treaty which weakened both 
securities, made in itt place? 

VIII. '' By whose advice and management, we were modied with the 
assurances of being free from the danger of the neighbouring fortress of 
Dunkirk ; and whether the late minutry, or any of them did agree^ that the 
French king should make a new harbour at Mardyke, as part of the equivalent 
for demolishing the fortifications and harbour of Dunkirk ? 

IX. " By whose advice and management the best branches of our trade 
were exchanged for chimeras, aad the ruin of the whole endangered by a vile 
treaty of commerce with France? 

X. " How the expedition in Canada came to miacarry ; and by whose advice 
her majesty, contrary to her prodamationa published in New England, &c. 
for encouraging that expedition, caroq to allow the French to keep their in- 
terest in Canada, to sell that in Newfoundland, and to settie on Cape Breton, 
to the great detriment of our fishing trader and to the manifest danger of all 
our plantations in North America? 

XI. " By what advice it was, that the confederates were refosed to be in* 
vitad to be guarantees to the protesUnt succession, thoBfgh her majesty had 
promised it in her answer to the addresses of both houses, in 1708 ? 

XII. ** By whose advice it was, that hu now royal highness, Oeoi^ge prinoe 
of Wales, was dented the liberty to come and take his place in parliament, 
when the presence of one of the illustrious family of Hanover was so abao- 


ealling this pftflmtnent At the same time he deKTered to 
the chancellor the following, which his lordship read as bis 
majesty's speech to both houses of parliament : — *" My lords 
and gentlemen, This being the first opportunity that I have 
had of meeting my people in parliament, since it pleased 

lotdy necessary to quiet the miods of tke 6ubject9> and to secure us from the 
just apprehensions we had of danger from the chevalier? 

XIII. " By whose advice it was, that his majesty's minister, baron Schertx, 
was discharged the court, because he demanded a writ for the prince ? 

XIV. *' By whose advice. Sir Patrick Lawless, the chevalier's igeht or en* 
voy, was enftertained at court at the same time, and honourably conveyed 
beyond sea, soon after it was complained of in parliament ? 

XV. " By whose advice and management, our holy church was in danger 
of being given up to popery, our civil rights to tjTanDy, and the way prepared 
for the chevalier? 

XVI. ** By whose advice it was, that the Jacobite cbMs in Scotland were 
«med Mid kept in pay, and that levies of men for the chevalier in Great 
Britmn and Ireland, were so long connived at ? 

XVII. " By whose management it was, that the public affmrg of the kingdom 
are brought under the greatest difficulties, as weH in respect to our trade, and 
the interruption of our navigation, as of the great debts of the ration, which 
have been very roach increaied rinee lost war, as bis majesty has been graci' 
oaily pleased to infiMna ua, in bis proclamation for calling a new parliament? 

XVIII. " We alto desire and expect, that you concur in demanding an 
account bow the money raised by parliament has been expended since the 
change of the ministry, in 1710. 

XIX. ** That yon not only concur in such enquiries, but also in a pdrlla- 
neataiy way, to bring soch to jnatice aa shall be found guilty of those mismano 
^gomtnls ;. thia beiog a daty owing to ourselves as well as our confederates, 
and indifpenaably necessary for retrieving the honour of the nation, and 
restoring a due confidence and harmony betwixt us and our allies? 

XX. ** That you concur in making such laws as shall be thought necessary 
for the better security of the churches of England and Scotland, as seveftity 
ty law established ; and for s a ppre as ing and preventing these seditious and 
yooodJessi damoun^ of the church of England being in danger by his majesty's 

XXI. ** That you concur in giving the king such sums as shall be thought 
necessary for enabling bis majesty to defend the nation, to support and t^ 
trieve our trade, and tb keep (he balanee of Earope, which is thfcateacd 
with a new war, by the iatriguts of our common eaenries/' Publication of 

* His majesty Geoigf I. could not speak, nor could he read, English. 
Tliese circumstances were often urged against him by the Jacobites, and were 
sDpposed do afford very fair grounds fbr refusing to adtnoiKfVedge him as sove- 
reign of these realms. 


Almighty God, of bis good provideDce, to call me to the 
throne of my ancestors, I most gladly make use of it to thank 
my faithful and loving subjects, for that zeal and firmness 
that hath been shown in defence of the protestant succession, 
against all the open and secret practices that have been used 
to defeat it ; and I shall never forget the obligations I have 
to those who have distinguished themselves upon this occa- 

^^ It were to be wished, that the unparalleled successes of a 
war, which was so wisely and cheerfully supported by this 
nation, in order to procure a good peace, had been attended 
with a suitable conclusion. But, it is with concern, I roust 
tell you, that some conditions, even of this peace, essential to 
the security and trade of Great Britain, are not yet duly 
executed, and the performance of the whole may be looked 
upon as precarious, until we shall have formed defensive 
alliances to guarantee the present treaties. 

^^ The pretender, who still resides in Lorrain, still threatens 
to disturb us, and boasts of the assistance which he still ex- 
pects here to repair his former disappointments. 

" A great part of our trade is rendered impracticable. This^ 
if not retrieved, must destroy our manufactures, and ruin our 

^* The public debts are very great, and surprisingly in- 
creased, ever since the fatal cessation of arms. My first care 
was to prevent a farther increase of these debts, by paying off 
forthwith a great number of ships, which had been kept in 
pay, when there was no occasion for continuing such an 

" Gentlemen of the house of commons :— I rely upon you 
for such supplies as the present circumstances of our affairs 
require for this year's service, and for the support of the 
public faith. The estimates shall be laid before you, that you 
may consider of them ; and what you shall judge necessary 
for your safety, I shall think sufficient for mine. 

^^ I doubt not but you will concur with me in opinion, that 
nothing can contribute more to the support of the credit of 
the nation, than a strict observance of all parliamentary en- 


** The branches of the revenue, formerly granted for the 
sapport of the civil government, are so far encumbered and 
alienated, that the produce of the funds which remain and 
have been granted to me, will fall much short of what was at 
first designed for maintaining the honour and dignity of the 
crown ; and since it is my happiness, as I am confident you 
will think it yours, to see a prince of Wales, who may, in due 
time, sncceed me on the throne, and to see him blessed with 
many children, the best and most valuable pledges of our 
care and concern for your prosperity, this must occasion an 
expense to which the nation has not of many years been ac- 
customed, but such as surely no man will grudge ; and, there- 
fore, I do not doubt but you will think of it with that afiection 
which I have reason to hope from you. 

*< My lords and gentlemen : — The eyes of all Europe are 
upon you waiting the issue of this first session. Let no un- 
happy division of parties, here at home, divert you fipom pur- 
suing the common interest of your country. Let no wicked 
insinuations disquiet the minds of my subjects. The estab- 
lished constitution in church and state shall be the rule of 
my government ; the happiness, ease, and prosperity of my 
people shall be the chief care of my life. Those who assist 
me in carrying on these measures, I shall always esteem my 
best friends ; and I doubt not but that I shall be able, with 
your assistance, to disappoint the designs of those who would 
deprive roe of that blessing, which I most value^ the afiectious 
of my people." 

This was certainly a very extraordinary speech, and, taken 
in connexion with the instructions given to members of par- 
liament by their constituents, a specimen of which we have 
already given, proves that the country in general had a most 
decided feeling of hostility towards the late ministry, and 
laboured under a deep sense of disgrace and impending ruin 
accruing from their measures. The address, which, though 
violently debated, was carried by a great majority, showed 
that the feeling of the parliament was in perfect unison with 
that of the country. After thanking his majesty for his most 
gracious speech, his kind assurance that the constitution 
should be the alone rule of his government, and his tender 


coDcem ibr the loss to tbe nation of so i^any splendid «ci)ieve- 
ments by an illtimed and insecure peace ; they g9 ion to say, 
that they met together with hearts deeply sensibte of tke 
divine goodness that had brought his majesty with safety, anci 
at a juncture so critical, to the throne of his ancestors. 
They express their wonder, that a pretender to his crown 
should be allowed to reside so near to his dominions ; and 
while they admit that trade is rendered impracticable in its 
most valuable branches, they assure his majesty that nothing 
shall be wanting on their part to retrieve it; and they doubt 
not, but that his majesty, ^< assisted by this parliament, zeal- 
ous for his government, and the safety and honour of their 
country, will be able to secure what is due to us by treaty, 
ease our debts, preserve public credit, restore trade, extinguish 
the very hope of the pretender, and recover the reputation of 
the kingdom in foreign parts, the loss of which, they hope to 
convince the world by their actions, is not to be imputed to 
the nation in general." In expressing the same sentiments, 
the commons were still more explicit* They profess ^* the 
utmost astonishment to find, that any conditions of the lafie 
peace, essential to the security and trade of Great Britain, 
should not yet be duly executed, and that care wa^ not taken 
to form such alliances as might have rendered the peace not 
precarious. And as no care shall be wanting in your loyal 
commons to inquire into these fatal miscarriages^ so we entirely 
rely upon your majesty's wisdom to enter into smch alliances 
as you shall judge necessary to preserve the peace of Europe; 
atid we faithfully promise to enable your im^esty to make 
good all such engagements. It is with just vesentment we 
obaerve that the pretender still resides in Lc^rilain, and that 
he has the presumption, by declarations from thence, to stir 
«p your majesty's subjects to rebellion. But that which vaises 
the utmost indignation of your commons is, thalk it appears 
therein, that his hopes were built upon the measures that had 
keen taken for some time past in Great Britain. It shall be 
eur business to trace out those measures whereon he placed 
his hopes, and to bring the authors of them to* condign punish- 
aoent." In the course of the debate upon this address in the 
oommons, ^* Mr. Stanhope assured die house, that notwith- 


standing all the eodeaTom^ which had been used to prevent a 
discovery of the late mismanagements, bj conveying away 
several papers from the secretary's office, yet the government 
had sufficient evidence left, to prove the late ministry the 
most corrupt that ever sat at the helm. That those matters 
would be laid before the house, and that it would appear, 
that a certain English general [OroKmd] had acted in concert 
with, if not received orders from marshal Villars."* 

The late ministry had hitherto treated public opinion as of 
very little consequence, and carried themselves with a great 
deal of apparent unconcern* It was now, however, evident 
that a serious inquiry into their conduct was intended, and 
the most criminal began to look qut for secure hiding places, 
Bolingbroke, aware of the return of Prior from Paris, and, 
no doubt, of the evidence which it was in his power to give, 
escaped to Dover in the disguise of a servant, where be era- 
barked for France, and arrived the same day at Calais. He 
immediately joined the court of the pretender, was soon after 
attainted, lost his honours and an estate of two thousand 
pounds a year, and was an exile for several years.f Oxford 
was shortly after impeached and sent to the tower. The duke 
oF Ormond was also impeached, but, like Bolingbroke, fled 
to tlie pretender, in whose behalf his military genius was 
exerted with as little effect as it had formerly been for the 
British nation. These matters, however, do not come within 
the limits of this history, the space allotted to which, would 
be insufficient for giving a clear and discriminating view of 
them. After all the attempts that have been made to elucidate 
this portion of British history, it remains a greatly unknown, 
but rich field for exercising the patience, and displaying the 
jndgment and penetration of some future historian. 

While the parliament was thus labouring to correct former 
mismanagements, and to bring the peculators of the public 

* Annlt oC King G^orge^ p. S69. 

t The km to the fiunily waa repaired in 1 716, by his father, Sir Henry St. 
John, beiog created viscount Sl John and baron of Battergea. Mr. St John 
received, after a while, his majesty's pardon, and, in 1725, an act of paHia- 
ment was passed, enabling him to inherit hb father's bonoun and estate*. 
Memoirs of the Life and Mmhterial Conduct of Lord Bollogbrolie. 


to justice, the tories had again recourse to their old and 
favourite system of mobbiog, which they now carried to a 
greater height than upon any former occasion. Saturday the 
twenty-eighth of May, being the antiiyersary of his majesty's 
birthniay, was selected by the party for commencing a series of 
riotous proceedings probably without example in the history of 
ciyilixed kingdoms, proceedings that regarded neither life nor 
property, and trampled equally upon the humble individual, 
and upon the associated community. Some gentlemen at- 
tached to the constitution in and about Oxford, having met in 
honour of the day, a malicious report was circulated that it 
was their intention to bum in e£5gy, the late queen, the duke 
of Ormond, lord Bolingbroke, the Pope, Dr. Sacheveral, and 
the devil together; which, absurd and ridiculous as it was, had 
the effect of converting the inhabitants of that celebrated seat 
of science into one vast mob, by which the whigs were in- 
stantly driven into hiding-places, the presbyterian meeting- 
house pulled down, a bonfire made of the windows, pulpit, 
and pews, and Mr. Roby, the minister, burnt in effigy ; after 
which, they kept running about the streets like so many 
madmen, during the night searching for whigs, vociferating 
** an Ormond, an Ormond, a Bolingbroke, a Bolinglnroke, 
down with the Roundheads, no Constitution, no Hanover, a 
new Restoration I" The night following being the anniver- 
sary of the restoration of Charles II., they assembled again, 
and, that the presbyterians might not have the honour of 
being the alone objects of their detestation, demolished the 
meeting-houses of the baptists and the quakers. 

On the tenth of June, the anniversary of the birth of the 
chevalier, the Jacobites in London showed the most deter* 
mined attachment to the cause, by observing it as a day of 
the highest solemnity. All their windows were illuminated, 
and they had a mob sufficiently numerous, and sufficiently 
audacious to break all the windows that were not illuminated, 
not even excepting those of the lord mayor. Passing through 
Smithfield, this infuriated rabble burnt a print of king William, 
roaring out at the same time, *^ High church and the duke 
of Ormond," and, as there was not a force at hand to sup- 
press them, they rolled along, committing every species of 


aiisehieC tili they Ttftchted Ciieiipside, wh«P8 Aey mtre met 
and qmlkd by. the coostabks, and an asseaMaga of re> 
ipedaUc dtixenu who bad come forward to assMi tjbtm. 
Thir^ of the riotert ivcre iMre eeoared and committed ta 
prison. One Bournois, a professed French schoolmaster^ but 
in reality, a popish priest, was, the jsame evening, appre- 
hended in the act of publicly denying the king's right to the 
crowa, for which he was tried* seatenoed, and >()ubliclf 
whipped with m> mach severity as, in a few dnys, to ocoa«ion 
his death. This tenth of June, indeed, seems to have brought 
the mobbing system to perfection, and during the remainder 
of this and great part of the following months dissentera froai 
the church of Englaad of all descriptions, papists alone ex* 
oepted, were persecuted with the most anrelebUng ferocitf, 
their persons wantonly insulted, their meeting houses thrown 
down, and their dwelling houses rifled. In many places it 
became necessary to call out the militia, who were often un-* 
able to repress the mischief, which raged with unabated- 
nolenoe till the twentieth of July, when the parliament passed 
the famous riot act, which, vigorously executed, put an end 
to the evil, and to the lives of a number of the misguided 
rioters at the same time.* 

• TfaeibUBiirti^n« cipj of tfait ceieboratsd sc^ which, m itii alii the fanr 
uf the iao4, deserves to be kaoum by every indKnduaJ^ especially io citiai 
Mtete the iMhabittnU may he very limply aod veiy thougfadessly hroaght 
within its terrific grasp. 

" An Actfor preventing tunulfci and notana atteBbQes^ and ibr the more 
speedy end elfectoal punishing the nolens 

** Wheeeeiy «f kte, maey rehellieos rioti and tumultt heve been in diicfie 
fvts ef das kinj/dum, to the disturhenee ef the public peice, end endaiigerii^ 
of hit majesty's person and government; and the suae are yet continaed and 
thaif frd by pononi disdlbcted to hb majesty, presuming so to do, for that 
the puntduneats provided by the lews now Sn being, wpt not ayitqiiate to such 
faeinotts efimces: Jlssd hy audi riotem his majesty and his administration 
hmre been OKMt aalsdonsly and ftliely tradueed, with an intent to raise dtvi- 
aoo\ apd to alienate the aftctioos of the people firoen his juaietty ; therefore* 
£>r the paeven ti qg nad suppressing of such riots and tunadts,aDd fhr the bmiv 
^>eetlj and effectual punishsag the oAadcrs tbeieia, be it csmcecd by the 
kinig's moat ewrileat majaaty, by and with the advice and content of the 
loads spiritoal aad tempoial* and of the commaat in thb present pacrraaient 
I. 2l 


In Scotland^ die friends of the chevalier .were equally zealbas 
as in England, butt tbey conducted themselves more closely, and 
more systematically. Arms and ammunition they were care- 
fully providing, and by all possible means augmenting the 

assembled, and by the authority of the same, that if any persons^ to the 
number of twelve or more, being unlawfully, riotously, and tumultuously as- 
sembled together, to the disturbance of the pubKc peace, at any time after the 
last day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand seten handred and 
fifteen, and being required or commanded by any one or more Justice cv 
Justices of the Peace, or by the Sheriff of the county, or his under Sherifl^ 
or by the Mayor, Bailiff, or BailifiTs^ or other head Officer, or Justice of the 
Peace of any City, or Town corporate, where such assembly shall be, by Pro- 
damation, to be made in the King*s name, in the form herein after cfirected, 
to disperse themselves, and peaceably to depart to their habitations, or to 
their lawful buuness, shall-, to the. number of twelve or more,(notwithstaadiiig 
such proclamation made,) unlawfully, riotously, and tumultuously remain, or 
continue together, by the space of one hour after such command or request 
made by proclamation, that then such continuing together, to the number of 
twelve or more, after such command or request ma^e by proclamation, shall 
be ac^dged felony, without benefit of clergy, and the 'offenders therein' shall 
be adjudged felons, and shall sufier death, as ia case of felony; without benefit 
of clergy. 

" And be it farther enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that the order and 
form of the Proclamations that shall be made by the authority of this Act, 
shall be as hereafter followeth, (that is to say,) the Justice of the Peace, or 
other person authorised by this Act to make the said Proclamation, shall, 
among the said rioters^ or as near to them as he can safety come^ with a loud 
voice command, or cause to be commanded silence to be, while ]ftt>ckunatioB 
is making. And after that, openly and with loiid voice,' make, or cause to be 
made, proclamation, in these words, or like in effect;— 

" Our Sovereign Lord the King,, chargeth and conunandeth all persons, be- 
ing assembled, immediately to disperse themselves, and peaceably to depart to 
their baUtations, or to their lawful business, upon the pains contained in the 
Act made in the first year of King George, for preventing tumults and riotous 
assemblies. God save the King. 

" And every such Justice and Justices of the Peace, Shertf, under Sherifl^ 
Mayor, Bailifi^, and other head officer aforesaid, within the limits of their re- 
spective jurisdictions, are hereby authorised, empowered, and required, on 
notice or knowledge of any such unlawful, riotous^ and tumultuous assembly, 
to resort to the place where such unlawful, riotous, and tumultuous assembly 
shall be, of persons to the number of twelve or more, and there to make, or 
cause to be made, proclamation in manner aforesaid. 

" And be it farther enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that if such persons 
so unlawfully, riotously, and tumultuously assembled, or twelve or more of 


nrnnber of their adherents; but, with the exoeptioiL <^ John 
M^AUeOy an oflBoer of excise at Crief, in Perthshire, whom^ 
during the night, they attacked in his lodgings, and after 
beating Um most inhumanly, cut. off one of his ears, saying 

them, after proclamation made lo manoer aforesaid,* shall continue together, 
and not disperse themselves within one hour, that then it shall, and may be 
lawful to, and for eveiy Justice of the Peace, Sheriff, or under Sheriff of the 
County, where such assembly shall be, and also to and for every high or petty 
Constable, and other Peace Officer within such County, and also to and for 
every Mayor, Justice of the Peace, Sheriff, Bailiff, and other head Officer, 
high or petty Constable, and other Peace-Officer of any City or Town cor- 
porate, where such assembly shall be, and to and for such other person and 
persons as shall be commanded to be assisting unto any such Justice of the 
peace. Sheriff, or under Sheriff, Mayor, Bailiff, or other head Officer aforesaid, 
(who are hereby authorised and empowered to command all his Majesty's 
subjects of age and ability, to be assisting to them therein,) to seize and ap- 
prehend, and they are hereby required to seize and apprehend such persons so 
unlawfully, riotously, and tumultuously continuing together, after proclama- 
tion made as aforesaid i and forthwith to carry the persons, so apprehended, 
before one or more of His Majesty's Justices of the Peace of the County or 
place where such persons shall be so apprehended, in order to their being pro- 
ceeded against for such their offences, according to law ; and that if the 
persons to unlawfully, riotously, and tumultuously assembled, or any of them, 
shall happen to be killed, maimed, or hurt, in the dispersing, seizing, or appre- 
hending, or endeavouring to disperse, seize, or apprehend them, by reason of 
their resisting the persons so. dispersing, seizing, or apprehending, or endea- 
vouring to disperse, seize, or apprehend them, that then every such Justice of 
the Peace, Sheriff, under Sheriff, Mayor, Bailiff, head Officer, high or petty 
Constable, or other Peace Officer, and all and singular persons, being aiding 
and assisting to them, or any of them, shall be Tree, discharged, and indem- 
nified, as well against the King's Majesty, his Heirs and Successors, as against 
all and every other person or persons, of, for, or concerning the killing, maim- 
ing, or hurting of any such person or persons, so unlawfully, riotously, and 
tumultuously assembled, that shall happen to be so killed, maimed^ or hurt, as 

•« And be it farther enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that if any persons 
unlawfully, riotously, and tumultuously assembled together, to the disturbance 
of the public peace, shall unlawfully and with force, demolish or pull down, 
or begin to demolish or pull down any church or chapel, or any building for 
religious worship, certified and registered according to the statute made in the 

• Although U la necc«ary that* the charge for diipenlng be resd, and one hoar cx|ilre, befora 
the cMl IfAffMrate wn legally uie fiMroe for dl«periing a mob or crowd, when more than twelve 
penooi fhall bare aMembled. while they do not ooromit any outran } yet, the Tnoment that any out- 
rage la oominltted, although the xnrib may not amount to twelre personi, the dYil Magbtrate may 
lawfaDy uie taimedUte flute, to maiming or killlnig,- without rcoding the Riot Act 


liief kad asrked him fiir Hanover, it dom not appoar tkat 
dicgr gave way to any thing like a spirit of outage^ either 
agdnst indiTtdnab or public bodn. Even his majesty's birth* 
day, iriiieh was prDdnctive of so muck tomnlt in Ei^^aod^ i 

fint year of the reign of the late King William and Qpeen Mary, eotituled, 
an Act for exempting their Majesty^ Protestant subjects dissenting from Che 
Church of England, from the penalties of certidn faws, or any dwelling-hoase, 
bam« stable, or other out-bouse, that then every such demolishing or palKng 
down, or beginning to demolish or pull down, shall be adjudged felony^ with- 
out benefit of clergy, and the offenders therein shall be adjudged felons, and 
shall suffer death, as in case of felony, without benefit of clergy. 

" Provided ahvays^ and be it farther enacted by the authority aforesatdy that 
if any person or persons, do or.shalT. with force and arms, wilfhlTy and kiow* 
ingly oppose, obstruct, or in any manner wilfiilly and knowingly let,huider, of 
hurt any person or persons that shall begm to proclaikn, or go to prodBiit, 
according to the proclamation hereby directed to be made, whereby sadi pro- 
clamation shall not be made, that then every such opposing, obs tr uctiB g, le^ 
ting, hindering^ or hurting such person or persons, so beginning, or going* to 
make such proclamation, as aforesaid, shall be adjudged felony, witbotit benefit 
of clergy, and the offenders therein shall be adjudged felons, and thril siifl^ 
deaih, as in case of felony,, without benefit of cleigy; and that abo, every 
such person or persons, so being unlawfully, riotousfy, and tumultuonsFy a»* 
sembled, to the number of twelve, as aforesaid, or more, to whom pTocIaam- 
tion should, or ought to have been made, if the same had not been hindered, 
•a aforesaid, shall likewise, in case they, or any of them, to the ninober of 
twelve or more, shall continue together, and not disperse themselves wtthiir 
ene hour after such let or hinderance so made, baving knowledge of such let 
or hinderance' so made, shall be adjudged felons, and shall' suffer deatft, as in 
case of felony» without benefit of clergy. 

" And, be it farther enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that, if after the 
^ Hf^ last day of July, one thousand seven hundred and fifteen, any such church 
or ehapel» oe anji such buildings for religious worship, or any such dweUing- 
hou5e,^ barn^ stable^ or other out-house, shall be demolished or pulled down 
wholly, or in part, by any persons so unlawfully, riotously, and tumultuousfy 
assembled, that then, in case such church, chapel, building for rdigious wor- 
ship, dwelling-house, bam» stable^ or out-house,, shall be out of any City or 
Town^ thai is, either a County of itself, or is not within any Hundred, that 
then the inhabitaats of the Hundred, in which such damage shall be done» 
shall be liable to yield damages to the person or persons injured and dam- 
nified by such demolishing or pulling down whoUy or in part; and such 
damages shall, and may be recovered by action to be brought in any of Ifis 
Majesty's Courts of Beoord at VV«tmiaster, (wheriein no essoign, protectioo, 
or wager of law, or any hnparlanee^sbaU be altowed,) by the penam or p e w ona 
damnified thereby^ against any two or more of the inhabitants of mch 
Hundred ; such action for daau^ges to any dbureh. or ebapd to be brought in 


to have been pretty generally edcbfaied in Scodttid, witkoul 
any very Yiolent opposhion. Tbe (own of Dttadee, iadeed^ 
which was at the time ruled bj a Jacobite mag^racyi waa 
fbrbiddeii, by tuck of inuof uoder a penalty of ibrty pounds 

the name of th^ R^ctor^ Vicor^ or Curate of such church or diapel, that shall 
be so damnified, in trust for applying the damages to be recovered in rebuild- 
log or repairing such cbarch or chapel'; and that judgment being given for 
the pfaifltflP err plaintifis io such ac^n, the damages so to be recovered shal^ 
al the request •f amh plaiBiiff or plaioti&, his or their executors or adminlsc 
traton^ be raised and kevied on the inhabitants of such Hundred^ and paid to 
nich pUdati£r or plaintiffs^ in such manner and form, and by such ways and 
means, as are provided by the statute made in the seven-and-twentieth year 
of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, for reimbursing the person or persons oa 
whom any money nscovered agaiast any Hundred by any party robbed, sMi 
be levied ; and in cue any such daircfah cbapel,, building for religious, wor- 
di^, dvelKng-house^ barot stable^ or out-house, so damnified, shall be ia any 
Ci^ or Town that is cither a County of itself, or u not within any Hundred, 
that then such damages shall, and may be recovered by action, to be brougtkt 
in manner aforesaid, (wherein no essoign, protection, or wager of law, or any 
impariance, shaH be allowed,) against two or more inhabitants of such City or 
Town ; and jadgmeot being given for the pkiiiaiff'or j^ain^fis, in sucb aeUo%. 
the damage so to be recovered* shall, at the request of such plaiatiflr or 
pbmtifl^ hit or their executors or administrators, made to tbe Justices of the 
Peace of such City or Town, at any Quarter Sessions to be holden for the 
Mid City or Town, be raised and levied on the. inhabitants of sud^ Chy or 
Town, and pud to inch plaintiff or plaintiffs, in such manner and form, and . 
by such ways and means, as are provided by the said statute, made in the 
seveo-aod-twentieth year of the rc%n of Queen Elizabeth, for reinbarM^ 
the person or penons on whom any money, recevered againsC any Haadrad 
by any party robbed, shall be levied. 

* And be it finther enacted by the authority aforesaid, that ihk Act shall' 
be opeidy read at every Quarter Sessions, and at every leet ot law day. 

" Provided alwayii, that no person or persons shall be pioseeated by virtue 
of thb Act, for any offence or ofibnces committed contrary to tbe same, oup 
less such prosecution be commenced witbm twehre months after the offenoa 

" And be it farther enacted by die outborily afereaaid, that the SheriiS^ 
and their Deputies, Stewards, and their Deputies, Baillies of Regalidiefl^ and 
their Deputies, Magistrates of Royal Burghs, and all other inferior Judges anJ 
Magistrates, and also all high or petty Constables, or other Peace Officers o9 
any County, Stewarty, City, or Town, within that part of Great Britadn calted 
'Scotland, shall have the same powers aad authority for putting this presenfi 
^tl ui execution within Scotland, as the Justices of the Peace and othcv 
Magistrates aforesaid, respectively, have by virtoe of this Act, within aad foa 
the other parts of this Kingdom ; and that all and every person aad penonsi 


Scots for every individual found disobeying, to make any public 
demonstrations of joy in honour of the day ; but the effect was 
only to render the loyalty of the well a£Pected more ardent, aad 
its display more imposing^ The prtebyterians, determined to 
show their loyalty to their king, and at the same time, yield 
obedience to their own magistrates, went to Dudhope House,^ 
without the. precincts of the town, where, in a body, they drank 
his majesty's health, a healtli to all his friends, and confusion 
to his enemies,' under discharges of small arms, after which, 
they returned each to his own habitation, without any disorder, 
to the no small mortification of the magistrates. The magistrates, 
however, revenged themselves next day, by celebrating with 
great pomp the anniversary of the restoration of Charles II.* 

For this difference of conduct, on the part of the Sootish and 
the English Jacobites, various reasons might be assigned. In 
the first place, the English Jacobites were only tories, the mere 
slaves of tyranny and superstition; it mattered little to them 
who was king, if he submitted to them the direction of his 
measures, and the emoluments of his government. The Scotish 
Jacobites were, the greater part of them, admiring enthusiasts, 
willing to do all, or to suffer all, for a man, whose right to their 
allegiance was laid in the most remote ages, had been sanctified ' 

who shall at any time be convicted of any the offences aforementioned, within 
that part of Great Britain called Scotland, shall for every such offence incur 
and suffer the pain of dea^, and confiscation of moveables. And also that 
all prosecutions for repairing the damages of any church or chapel, or any 
building for religious worship, or any dwelling-house, barn, stable, or out- 
house, which shall be demolished, or pulled down in whole or in part, within 
Scotland, by any persons, unlawfully, riotously, or tumultuously assembled, 
shall and may be recovered by summar action, at the instance of the party 
aggrieved, his or her heirs, or executors, against the County, Stewarty, City, 
or Burgh, respectively, where such disorders shall happen, the Magistrates be- 
ing summoned in the ordinary form, and the several Counties and Stewarties 
ealled by edictal citation, at the market cross of the head Burgh of such 
County or Stewarty respectively, and that in general, without mentioning their 
Qaroes and designations. 

** Provided, and it is hereby declared, that this Act shall extend to all 
places for religious worship in that part of Great Britain called Scotland, 
which are tolerated by law, and where His Majesty King George, the Prince 
and Princess of Wales, and their issue, are prayed for in express words." 

* Rae's History of the Rebellion, p. 14S. PamphleU of tlte time, &c. 


by the suffrage of many generations, and was how rendered 
doubly sacred by the misfortunes that had overtaken his house, 
and the exile and sorrow to which errors and crimes not his 
own had subjected him. The English Jacobites were abetted 
by a powerful body in the church, which at this time, foolishly 
fcr itself, sanctioned all their absurdities. The Sootish Jacobites 
had the whole weight of sacerdotal authority against them, with 
the exception of a few vagabond priests, two or three revenue- 
less bishops, and as many curates, as obscurity or insignificance, 
had protected from the ruin that had already overtaken their 
brethren. The Scotish church had distinguished herself all 
along, for zeal in behalf of the protestant succession, and now, 
when that succession had been so far secured, and she was in 
hopes of being rewarded for her constancy, by the redress of 
those grievances, which, in consequence of that very constancy, 
she had been made to endure, to have stopped short in her 
career, would have been, if not a neglect of duty, a miserable 
want of policy. She was Iiappily, however, not so disposed, 
and if she had, the kind attentions of his majesty, could 
scarcely have failed to awaken her to better feelings, and a 
higher sense of duty ; for we find him thus addressing the 
General Assembly, which met at Edinburgh, on the fourth day 
of May, 1715, by his commissioner, John earl of Rothes: — 
*^ Right .Reverend and well beloved, we greet you weD. We 
are so well satisfied with the proo& the church of Scotland 
have given of their steady adherence to the protestant suc- 
ces^on in our family, the loyalty and affection they have shown 
to oar person and government, and their constant zeal for the 
protestant interest, that we very willingly countenance with 
our authority, this first assembly of our reign. We cheerfully 
embrace this opportunity of assuring you, that we will in* 
violably maintain the presby terian diurch of Scotland, her rights 
and privileges, . as we engaged to do, upon our accession to 
the crown, and will protect her from any illegal insults and 
encroachments being made upon her, of what kind soever. 
Nothing can be more acceptable to us, than the promoting of 
true piety, suppressing of vice and immorality, and preventing 
the growth of popery, as we have declared in our royal pro- 


damation, «Dd we doubt not, but 700, on 3KNir parts^ will do 
every thing that can contribute tfaereunta''* 

The answer of the assembly to these cheering prafisssions is 
too long to be inserted here; but the first pan^^raph is too 
striking and important to be omitted:—- *< May it please your 
loajesty — It was with a parricnlar joy and satisfiu^tioo, tliat wm 
i«c3etyed the gracious letter, with which your roqes^ was pleased 
to honour us. We esteemed your peaceable accession to the 
thixMie of these nations, upon the demise of our late sovemign, 
queen Anne, so great a blessing, that we were fervent in our 
prayers to God for it; and we can never be thankful enough, 
finr the merciful return he hath given to our lequests, for it is to 
your m^esty under God, we owe the preservation both of our 
holy religion, and our Taluable dvil liberties; and we must have 
been betrayers of both, if we had not been zealondy concerned 
for tlie sucoession in your royal fisunily ; and though your majesty 
in your great goodness, is pleased to express a kind resentment 
of our firm adherence to it, yet we presume not to plead merit 
upon the account of that, to which both duty and interest dad 
oblige us; but your majesty's countenancing us with your 
authoriQr, gives us no small comfort, and engageth us to thaidiful 
acknowkdgmenls of your royal favour to us, and to ije con^ 
oemed to manage ourselves^ so as not to fese the happiness ef 
the good opinion your majesty is pleased to have of us. 

*^ The solemn engagement your majesty did cheer&illy come 
under, at your first accession to the crown, to maintain in-* 
violably the rights and privileges of the presbyterian church of 
Scothmd, of which you have the goodness to give us renewed 
assurances, as also protecting us against «11 illegal insults cuid 
encroachments being made upon us, of wliat kind soever, leaves 
us no place for doubts and fears, as to any success thnt our 
enemies may have in their designs i^inst us, under your 
majesty's happy government, and obUgeth us to all the returns 
of gratitude and duty that we are capable df/'f 

The assembly proceeded to record his majesty's oath for 

• Printed Acts of Aaaerably, 171^. 

t AdUresf of Uie OeDeral Assembly to hb Majefty, 1715. 


maintuning the church of Scotland, with the names of all the 
noblemen and gentlemen, who were witnesses of this his majest^s 
royal act. At a future sederunt, they passed an *^ act concerning 
the grievances of this church, from toleration, patronages," &c. 
with a memorial on behalf of the church of Scotland, which, 
unhappily to this day, in all its most material points, remains 
unattended to.* This assembly also found it necessary to make 

* Ai £dimbmrgh. May 14(A, 171^ Stu. 10. 
Tbe committees for initructioDft and overturesi having had under considera* 
tioD die grievances this church lies under from patronages, fVom the tolera- 
tioQ as it stands, the hardships imposed upon Scotsmen in office in England 
and Ireland* and the prejudice done to this church, by the difierences that 
have ariaeo about the oath of abjuration; and having also consideied what 
the commission of the late General Assembly had done with respect to these, 
and particularly a memorial which they had drawn about the same^ and sent 
to members of parliament; the committee for overtures gave it as thdr 
ophuoD, that the said memorial did fully express all that was necessary upon 
these heads; and, therefore, they laid the said memorial before the General 
A«eably» with an overture as to the management thereof. And which 
memorial and overture being heard and considered by the General Assembly, 
they did approve thereof, and agree thereto, and ordained it to be held as the 
deed and mind of this assembly, as follows ;— 
MenSorial for the church of Scotland, by the General Assembly. 
The church of Soothmd being restored at the happy revolution, was, by 
the daim of right, and acts of parliament following thereupon, established in 
its doctrine, worship, discipline, and government; and that this legal consti- 
tution and establishment might be unalterably secured, it was declared to be 
a fundamental and essential condition of the Union, and accordingly ratified 
in tbe parliaments of both kingdoms : but the aseal of the established church 
of Scotland for, and thdr steady adherence to the protestant succession, did 
expose them to the resentment of a disaffected party ; and likewise they ac- 
count themselves aggrieved by some acts past in the parliament of Great 
Britain; as Imo, by the act granting such a large and almost boundless toler- 
ation to those of tbe episcopal persuasion in Scotland, while the liberty 
allowed to protestant dissenters in England, who had always given the most 
satisfying proofr of their undoubted zeal and good affection to the protestant 
succession, was retrenched; and though the church of Scotiand hath an equal 
security in a legal establishment with that of England, yet there is a vast 
inequality, as to the toleration of the respective dissenters. In Scotland, the 
toleration doth not restrain the disseminating the most dangerous errors, by 
requiring a confession of fiuth, or subscription to the doctrinal articles of the 
eslablisbed church* as is required of dissenters in England ; it also weakeneth 
the discipline of tbe church agamst the scandalous and profane, by with- 
drawing the concurrence of the civil magistrate. It is also an inequality 
I. 2 m 

1874 HlSTOttT or BCOTLAKH* 

ABodier act for preventing divirioti in the churdi, reBpecting 
the oftth of abjuration, which waa probably equally ine&bctive 
as those that had preceded it They also appointed a com- 

aid batdship ap6a the ttteMidbcd chundi tyf S6otteli(]| that thoie of her 
Qonunnaion, who are emplqjed io hit mljaBty^ semce in Eagland or Ire- 
hadt should be obli^ged to joia in coumuaioD and coDformity with the 
church of England; whereas, conformity to this church is not required (nor 
do we plead that it should be) of members of the church of England, 
when called to serve his majesty in Scotland, who here enjoy the full liberty 
6t disBeaters iiMout molestation; and the iH>mmon and equal privileges 
of the subjects of the united kingdom, stipulMed by the Union, claim the 
same libelty to the members of tlie church of Scotland, when employed 
in his majesty's serrice in England or Ireland. «do, By the act restoring the 
pow6r oF pnisentMion to patfons, the legally estabhshed constitution of this 
ohufch was Altered in a tery knportaiit point, and while it appean equitaUa 
in itself, mid Agreeable to the liberty of chHsdans artd a fi^ people^ to haine 
interest fn the dioice of those to whom they intrust the care oJP their souls, it 
is an hsrdship to be imposed upon in so tender a point; and that frequently 
by patrons, Who have no property n^ residence in the pari«tieS( nod chit, 
besides the snares of simonaical pactions, and the many troubles abd tiowmai 
aiising iram nte power, of patronages, and the Anises thereol^ by disaflfeeted 
patrons putting their power in other hands, who as effectually serve their 
purposes: by patrons competing for the right of presentation in the same 
parish ; and bf frequently presenting ministers, settled in eminent posts, to 
mean and small pidrishes, to elude the planting thereof; by a& vAuch, parishes 
are often kept long vacant, to the great hindenmce of the progress of tlie 

The General Assembly, considering the circumstances of the church of 

Scotland, with respect to the oath of abjuration, as they are fully represented 

in the faumble addresses of the commission and General Assembly held in 

aonmo l712,copies whereof are herewith transmitted, do hunMy and earaestly 

' entfekt, that suitable remedies may be thought of. 

W. CARSTARES, Moderator. 

And the General Assembly recommended to all their members to use their 
best endeavonrs with friends at London, that the ends of the addresses of the 
commission and General Assembly, 1712, and act of the Getieral Assembly 
the 1 4th of May that year, concerning the oath of sfejuration, may be obtained, 
and most bambly desired his majesty's high oomraissioner that he wooid be 
pleased to use his good offices for that end. 

!rhe General Assembly did appoint this memorial to be pnt in ^ hands of 
their commhsion, and did enjoin them to use all proper and due means to 
ol^ih i^ress, and particularly at their first meeting, to send the satae to the 
duke of Montrose, principal secretary of itate, most humbly entreating fail 
grace to take a fit opportonity to acqudnt hb majesty thenBof.*-*-Acts of 
General Assembly, t7i5. 


nrittee for the trial of professor Simson^ on a charge of eriWy 
by the Rev. James Webster of Edinburg^k-^reoanuneDded a 
coUectioa to be made at all the church doors, for the society for 
propagating christian knowledge— ^made ^ An act against popery 
and profanity" — ^ An act discharging prelatioal preachers^ and 
some who profess to be presbyterians, and separate finxn thb 
church, to exercise discipline ;'' and, *' An act for prosecuting 
some, whoy professing to be presby terians, do separate from this 
church,'' &C. In this act, ^* the assembly taking into considera- 
tion the representaticms made to them, concerning the irregu* 
Urities of Mr. John Mackmillan, late minister at Ba]maghie> 
Mr. John Taylor, late minister at Wamphray, both now de-* 
posed, Mr. John M'Niel, and Mr. John Adamson, pretended 
preachers, Mr. John Hepburn, minister at Urr, and Mr. 
James Gdldu-ist, minister at Dunsoore; they do refer it to 
their commission, at their first meeting, to take the irregu- 
larities of the foresaid persons, under their consideration ; and 
if the said commission think fit, the General Assembly does im- 
power them to summon the siud Mr. John Mackmillan, Mr. 
John Taylor, Mr. John M^Niel, and Mr. John Adamson, 
before them, and to proceed to further censure, or upply to the 
civil magistrate against them, as shall be diought most fit ; and 
the assembly instructs their commission, if need be, to apply to 
the civil govemmept| for suppressing the disorders of the sai4 
Mr. John Mackmillan, Mr. John M^Niel, Mr. John Adamson, 
Mr. John Hepburn, and Mr. James Gilchrist,'' &o. &e. We 
have already spoken of the differences between these venerable 
fathers of the dissenting churches of Scotland and the assembly. 
The consequences of this act were, the deposition of Mr. James 
Gilchrist, by the presbytery of Dumfiries, in the same way some 
of the worthy men wiUi whose nanoes his is here associated had 
been before him, and the proclaiming some others of them, 
rebels against his majesty's government, whjch was followed 
with no particular effects, forth^r than confirming them in that 
course of oppoaidon they had adopted, apd probably sti:ei:\gihefti 
ing their party, by additional numbers. The same aet is oofir 
eluded wi^ a clause respecting papists and episeopdians, which,' 
if meant es 9 classification with tlie foregoing, was a disingenuous 


oontrivanoe, worthy of a persecuting church.* The moderator 
of this assembly^ was principal Carstares, and it was the last he 
lived to see. He was struck with an apoplectic fit, in the month 
of August, which greatly impaired his faculties, and carried him 
off on the twenty-eighth day of December, when he had nearly 
completed his sixty-sixth year. 

In Scotland, principal Carstares was certainly the most im- 
portant man of his day, and of all the characters who figured in 
that busy period, there is no one, whom it is so difficult to ap- 
preciate. He has left no written memorials, whereby we might 
estimate the extent of his acquirements, or the particular leaning 
of his opinions ; and from the peculiarity of liis situation, holding 
no office of state, but enjoying the particular fiiendship and con- 
fidence of king William, being always about him, and having 
his ear, either by night or by day,f it is difficult to determine, 

• AcU of Assembly, 1715. 

f Of that free intercourse Mr. Carstares enjoyed with king William, and 
the great confidence his majesty reposed in him, we have a remarkable in- 
stance recorded in his life, written by Dr. M*Cormid[, minister of Prestonpans : 
—After the Scodsh parliament in the year 1 69S had passed an act requiring 
eyery person in public office to take the oath of allegiance, and sign the 
assuranoe, whidi, by the rotten and bloody remnant, instruments of the former 
tyranny, who had unfortunately still a share in the government, was imme- 
diately improved to ruin the presbyterrans, by imposing it on the ministers of 
the church, as a qualification for their sacred office, which no honest presby- 
terian they well knew would do. The privy council had the power of dis- 
pensing with the oath where they saw reason for so doing ; but so far were 
they firom indulging the presbyterian ministers in this way, that they recom- 
mended it to his majesty to impose it upon every member before allowing 
him to take his seat in the assembly, which his majesty, with no little reluc- 
tance, had allowed to be indicted in the following year. Instructions to this 
effect were accordingly transmitted to lord Carmichael, the comnussioner, to 
that assembly. When his lordship communicated these orders to some of the 
deigy, whom he met at Edinburgh, he found them obstinately determined 
to refuse compliance, and they assured him, that if the measure was persisted 
in, it would kindle a flame over the nation, which it would not be in the power 
of those who had given his majesty this pernicious counsel to extinguish. 
Lord Carmichael was a presbyterian, and of course sincerely attached to his 
majesty, and aware that the dissolution of thb assembly would not only bo 
£Eitiil to the church of Scotland, but to the interests of his majesty in that 
kingdom, sent a flying packet to the king representing the difficulty of the 
case, and requesting further instructions. Some of the ministers of the 


bow far he was, or was not, consulted, with r^ard to the affairs 
either of the church or the state— what his advice really was, 
or how much of it was acted upon. From the almost innumer- 
able letters addressed to him, by the chief actors of all partie^ 
it appears to have been their opinion, that his advice was always 
asked, and but rarely dissented from. Presbyterians who admit 
this, will have some difficulty in freeing him from the charge of 
having made defective, if not false representations of Scotish 

church of Scotland, sent up a memorial at the same time to Mr. Carstares, and 
requesting his good offices on the occasion. 

The flying packet arrived at Kenrington on a forenoon when Mr. Carstares 
waa not there, and his majesty, who was as fond of stretdiing prerogative 
where he could do it safely, as any Stuart who had preceded him, with 
the advice of the trimming lord Stair and the infamous lord Tarbat, both 
of whom concurred in representing the obstinacy of the clergy as rebel- 
Uon againat his majesty, renewed his instructions to the commissioner, and ' 
sent off the flying packet without a moment's loss of time. Mr. Carstares 
having arrived at this critical moment, immediately inquired what was the 
oatnre of the despatches his majesty had sent off for Scotland, and, on learning 
their contents, went directly, and in his majesty's name, required the mes- 
senger, v^ho was just setting off, to deliver them up to him. It was now late 
at night, and, as he knew there was no time to be lost, he ran to his majesty's 
apartment, where he found his majesty was gone to bed. Having informed 
the lord in waiUng that his business was of the last importance, and that he 
must aee the king, he was admitted into bis chamber, where he found him 
fittt asleep. Turning aside the curtmn, and filing down upon his knees, he 
gently awoke his majesty, who, astonished to see him at that hour in such a 
place and such a posture, inqtdred eagerly what was the matter? I am corner 
he replied, to ask my life ! And is it possible, said the king, that you have 
been guilty of a crime that deserves death? Mr. Carstares acknowledged he 
had, and, drawing the packet from his pocket, presented the despatches he 
had brought back. And have you indeed, said the king, presumed to counter- 
mand my orders, at the same time gathering up his brows into a severe frown? 
Mr. Carstares only b^ged to be heard for a few moments, when he would be 
ready to submit to any punishment his majesty should think proper to inflict. 
His majesty heard him with great attention, and when he had done gave him 
the despatches to read, and denred him to throw them into the fire. He then 
bade him draw up instructions to the commissioner in what terms be pleased, 
and they should be instantly signed* Mr. Carstares then wrote to the com- 
misdoner, that it was his majesty's pleasure to dispense with putting the oaths 
to the ministers ; his majesty signed it, and the messenger, with all the haste 
he could make, arrived in Edinburgh with the joyful tidings, only on the 
morning of the day in which the assembly was to meet Vide Life of Mr. 
William Carstares, pp. 57—61. 


a0airs ; aod, a$ an adviser, of having been guided more coiq- 
monly by the dictates of a crooked and worldly policy^ than 
by plain christian simplicity. That he was presbyteriau in his 
principles there can be no doubt, but there can be as little, 
that he was one rather of the modern than the ancient school. 
He appears to have been perplexed with an idea, common to 
almost all statesmen, that the free and legitimate exercise of 
ecclesiastic authority, had a natural and necessary tendency^ 
to encroach upon that, which is purely civil, and that there 
was danger in allowing christians the full enjoyment of that 
liberty wherewith Christ hath made them free, and henc^ 
probably, arose his system of management in diurch courts, 
and his tenderness of what, by an abuse of language, is called 
the rights of patrons, which has been unhappily imitated and 
improved upon by every succeeding leader in the Scodsh 
church. He was a sincere friend to learning, and exerted bim« 
self successfully, in procuring from queen Anne and her ministry, 
a very seascMiable gift to the Scotish universities, out of the 
bishops' rents. That portion allotted to the university of 
Edinburgh, was committed to his distribution, and he expended 
it — a rare instance of disinterestedness — ^without retaining one 
farthing for himself^ an example which none of the beads of 
the other universities chose to follow. He had also formed a 
plan for accommodating the youth belonging to the dissenters 
in England, at the college of Edinburgh, which, while it would 
have been a national benefit, would have greatly promoted the 
interests of the college. It was intended to raise the necessary 
means by subscription, and considerable sums were actually 
subscribed, but the death of the principal, put an end to the 

As a preacher, he is represented by his biographer Dr. 
M^Cormick, to have been so popular, that the magistrates 
of Edinburgh, in order to enjoy the benefit of his talents in 
that way, erected a new charge for him, which he accepted, 
after be had been installed into the principalsbip of the uni- 
versity. That his talents were good we see no ground to 
question ; that there was abundance of ro^m for a new charge 
in Edinburgh we do not dispute, and that properly qualified 
persons for the office of the ministry were at that time scarce 


is certain ; but we have tio doubt, thtiXf like alrndtt every re- 
duplication of office among churchmen sinoei the whole was a 
political job, calculated to ensure the grateful oonstancy of 
Mr. Carstares, and to bring hitn more fully into contact with 
his brethren, whose zeal he was expected to regulate according 
to the thermometer of the court, and whose public measures 
he was now to direct in that limited circle which the state 
had marked out 

In private life his character appears to have been in the 
highest degree amiable* He was certainly pious, though — 
from having breathed so long the atmosphere of a court, and 
been so long and so deeply involved in matters merely 
political — in a moderate degree. His humanity was exem- 
plary, at)d his charity often far beyond what his limited means 
conld justify. That he podsessed great firmness of nerve, is 
evident from the appearance be made in the thumbikins 
before the Scotish council, in the case of Jerviswood. His 
temper was at the same time sweet and placid; and, from the 
manner in which he submitted to the perpetually renewed 
importunities of the irritable, envious, inconstant, and venal 
herd of politicians, who at that time were struggling to obtain 
the rule and the emoluments of their unhappy country, his 
patience must have been without bounds.* 

But, to return to our history, though the good disposition 
of the Scotish <diurch was greatly against the progress of the 
Jacobite preparations, they were still carrying them forward 
with considerable vigour, and sometimes almost openly ; and 
there was upon their side such an array of papists and high 
church protestants, that concealment seemed to be no longer 
thought necessary. Throughout the south of Scotland horses, 
saddles, shoes, &c. 8tc. evidently intended for the equipment 
of cavalry, were purchased at high prices, in great number 
and in large quantity, while the chieftains in the Highlands 
were in^porting arms with so little precaution that three boxes 
of them fell into the hands of the magistrates of Glasgow, 
thtoogfi the vigilance of the lord provost A quantity of 

• State Papers^ and Letters addrewed to Wiffiate CantaiU, &c. &c. 


arms also, about the same time, fell into the hands of Sir 
Robert Pollock, governor of Invcrlochy. 

While the Jacobites were thus organizing the enemies 
of the public peace in Scotland, and the rabble of high 
churchmen spreading anarchy and confusion over England, 
their agents were straining every nerve to arouse and to 
invigoralte the enemies of the nation abroad. Their success, 
however, was not by amy means equal to what they had an- 
ticipated. The earl of Stair was now ambassador at the 
court of France, and his great abilities were at this time of 
singular service to his country. Louis XIV. was now in his 
dotage, the heir apparent was a minor, and the duke of 
Orleans the principal object of adulation at the French courL 
With Orleans, Stair lived in close intimacy, and somehow 
contrived to find out every movement that was made on the 
part of James among that people, accounts of which he failed 
not to transmit to his own government, as well as to remon- 
strate with theirs against whatever appeared to threaten an 
infnngement of existing treaties.* Nor did all the rioting 
and plotting at home produce the effects expected from them. 
Both houses of parliament, far from being intimidated by 
these ebulitions of popular frenzy, proceeded with their de- 
liberations in the most determinate manner, censuring or im- 
peaching all who had been active in promoting the measures 
followed in the latter part of the queen's reign. While they 
were deeply engaged in this business, and had just passed 
the act which put an end to the system of outrage which bad 
been the disgrace and the plague of the kingdom for such 
a length of time, on the twentieth of July, his majesty in- 
formed both houses of parliament, that he had certain infor- 
mation, that the chevalier, aided and encouraged by a resdess 
faction in this country, was actively employed in preparations 
for invading it from abroad ;• *^ and in these circumstances 
thinks it proper to ask their assistance, and makes no doubt, 
. but they will so far consult their own security, as not to leave 
the nation under a rebellion actually begun at home» and 

* Smollet's History of England. 


threatened by an invasion from abroad, in a defenceless 

Both houses returned grateful tbsnks for his majesty's gra* 
cious communication, and assured him ** that they would . 
with their lives and fortunes stand by, and assist his majesty 
in defence and support of bis sacred person and undoabted 
ri^ht and title to the crown, in defiance of all his open and 
secret enemies/' At the same time they requested his majesty 
to issue, immediately, orders for fitting out such a number of 
ships as might efiectually guard the coasts, and commissions 
for augmenting the land forces to whatever extent might be 
thought necessary for the general safety; and they assured 
his majesty, that they would without loss of time make ample 
provision for the maintenance of these forces both by land 
and sea. 

A bill was the day following introduced into the lu^nse of 
commons, suspending the habeas corpus act in England, and 
an act of the Scotish parliament, 1701, entitled An act for pr^ 
venting Mrrongous imprisonment, and against undue delays in 
trials, in as far as regarded treason, or suspicion of treason, till 
the twenty-fourth of January next. The same act empowered 
any lieutenant, or deputy lieutenant, or other magistrate, to 
seize upon all horses of five pounds value and upwards, found 
in the possession of persons whom they might judge dan- 
gerous to the peace of the kingdom, and to detain them for 
the space of six weeks. This bill was read twice the day it 
was introduced, a third time on the morrow, sent to the 
lords and passed there, and on the following day became a 
law, by having received the royal assentf 

A bill was at the same time brought into the house for en- 
couraging loyalty in Scotland, but it did not become a law 
till the end of August, when the rebellion in that kingdom had 
been actually organized under the earl of Marr. This bill also 
contained a clause audiorizing the calling in suspected persons, 
to appear at Edinburgh, or wherever it might be thought ex- 
pedient, and compelling them to find security for their good 
behaviour. The following are specimens of the enactments of 

• Rae't History of the Rebellion, p 169. f Ibid. p. 170. 

I. 2 N 

282 histohy of Scotland. 

this bill :— " If any of his majesty's subjepts of Great Britain, 
having lands or tenements in Scotland, in property or supe- 
riority, has been or shall be guilty of high treason, by keeping 
correspondence with the pretender, in person, or by letters, 
messages, or otherwise, or with any person, or persons they 
know to be employed by him; or by adhering to or giving him 
any aid or comfort, in this realm or elsewhere, every such 
offender, who shall be thereof duly convict and attainted, shaU 
be Hable to the pains, penalties, and forfeitures, for high treason. 
And that all and every vassal or vassals in Scotland, who shall 
continue peaceable, and in dutiful allegiance to his majesty, 
his heirs and successors, holding lands or tenements of any 
such offender, who holds such la^ds or tenements immediately 
of the crown, shall be invested and seized, and are thereby 
enacted and ordained to hold the said lands or tenements of his 
majesty, his heirs and successors, in fee and heritage for ever, 
by suck manner of holding as any such offender held such 
kmds or tenements of the erown, at the time of the attainder of 
such offender. And that if any of these lands lye within any 
regality or constabulary in Scotland, they are thereby dissolved 

** And in like manner, all and every tenant, or tenants in 
Scotland, who shall continue peaceable, and in dutiful allegi- 
ance to his majesty, his heirs and successors aforesaid, bruiking 
and occupying any lands, mills, mines, woods, fishings, or 
tenements, as tenant or tenants, tacksman or tacksmen, from 
and under any such offender, shall, and are thereby ordained, 
to bruik and occupy all and every such lands, mines, mills, 
woods, fishings, and tenements, for the space of two years' 
crops, to be accounted from and after such attainder, freely, 
without payment of any rent, duty, or service, for the said two 
years or crops, &c. &c. 

" And whereas there is reason to believe, that several 
persons, intending to commit high treason, or treasons, as 
siforcbaid, have made tailzies, entails, and settlements of their 
estates, in favours of their children, or other heirs of tailzie, on 
conveyances, securities, or alienations, with a fraudulent intent 
to avoid the punishment of the law, due to the offences above 
mentioned : it is, therefore, enacted, that all tailzies, entails, 


settlements, and conveyances, in favour of the granter's children, 
or other heirs of tailzie, or trust, securities, or alienations of 
any estates or inheritances made in Scotland, in the name of 
whatsoever person, or persons, since the first day of August, 
1714, or that shall be made there in any time coming, by any 
person, or persons, who shall be convicted and attainted of any 
such high treason, or treasons aforesaid, shall be, and they 
are hereby declared void and null to all intents and purposes ; 
excepting such deeds, securities, and alienations, as have been 
made since the time aforesaid, or shall be made in time coming, 
for just and onerous causes, the said onerous cause being always 
otherwise instructed than by the writings themselves."* This 
bill was very beneficial, not only for the government, but for 
many individuals, who, being taken up under its authority, 
saved not only their estates, but their lives, as we shall see in 
the sequel. 

On the twenty-second of July, the fleet was ordered to 
rendezvous in the Downs, under Sir George Byng/ General 
Earl, governor of Portsmouth, had a re««nforcement of two 
battalions sent him at the same time, a report having reached 
government of a design to surprise that important station. 
The household troops, three regiments of foot guards, and four 
troops of horse guards, were encamped in Hyde Park, under 
the directions of general Cadogan, the militia of Westminster 
ordered out, and the trainbands mustered, for the purpose of 
sappressing the riots, which had become so general and so 
alarming, and to take an account of all papists, reputed papists, 
and nonjurors, together with such strangers as could not give 
a satisfying account of themselves. 

Fourteen officers of the guards, suspected of being in the 
interest of the pretender, were at this time dismissed, and 
their places filled up by others of more loyal character. 
Commissions were also issued, in compliance with addresses 
from both houses of parliament, for raising eight regiments of 
foot, and thirteen of dragoons, all of which, were levied almost 
upon the instant A sum of money suitable for the main* i 
tenance of the whole, was granted by the parliament for one 

* Rae*8 History of the Rebellion, pp. SOS— sio. 



year, and tor adding two omnpanies to tke Coldstream regi- 
ment of foot guards. AH oflicers of tbe army, governors of 
forts, garrisons, ftc. fcc. were, mder pain of bis majesty's 
highest displeasure, ordered to their respective posts, and all 
officers on half pay were, at the request of tbe bouse of com- 
mbns, placed upon full pay, and at the immediate disposal of 
his toajesty. 

On thd twenty^ninth of July, all papists were ordered to 
remove from the cities of London and Westminster* and from 
every pla<se within ten miles of either, by the eighth day of 
August. Papists and nonjurors were also ordered everywhere 
to be disarmed, and their horses above five pounds value 
taheil haai them and sold. The papists were also lo be com- 
pelled to take tbe declaration against traiisubstantiation, and 
the tKmjurors the oath of abjuration. 

A bill was also passed for the further security of his majesty's 
person and government, find the siicccfssion of the crown in the 
heirs of the late princess Sojriiia, being protestants, and for 
extiuguiAing the hopes of the pretended prince of Wales, and 
his open and secret abettors $ enabling his nugesty to grant a 
commission to administer the oaths of all^iance^ supremacyy 
and abjuration to all offieers, seamen, and soldiers^ and pro* 
viding that the sum of one hundred thousand pounds should 
be ^ven <* to any person or persons, natives or foreigners, who 
should seize or secure, alive or dead, the person of the pre- 
tender, whenever he shall land or attempt to land in Chreat 
Britain or Irelandi or any other his miyesty's dominions."* 

Besides all these precautiiMis and preparations at home^ his 
majesty was careful to secure the friendly co-operation of his 
allies abroad. On the first idarm of invasion, notice was given 
to the states general, and a formal demand made of the six 
thousand troops stipulated in the late treaty for the preservation 
and security of the protestant succession, together with a 
squadron of ships of war, ^bould there be occasion for them, 
all which was cheerfully acceded to on the part of the Dutch 
government Count Coningseck, whom the emperor of Ger- 
BSMiy had sent over to adjust some differences that had arisen 

* Rae's History of the Rebellion, p. 171. 

f^tStbllY OP SCOTLAND. 885 

regni^itig the baitidr treaty, also made offer, in name of his 
majster, of a detachment of imperial troops to aid in the de- 
fence of the kingdom ; bat the danger was not thought so 
pressing as to demand such a measure, and the offer was politely 
declined. Two British regiments, faowet^ery which had been 
left by the duke of Ormond at the conclusion of the peace, and 
"Were now in garrison at Newport, were recaUed^ and* their 
places supplied by an equal number of imperialists.* 

We have already noticed the preparations in Scotland on 
tlie part of the Jacobites, nor Were the friends of liberty and 
l-eligion there deficient, either in zeal or in promptitude of 
action for their own safety, add the preserration of the estab^ 
lished order of things. No sooner did the information of the 
intended invasion reach Edinburgh, than the few regular 
troops there went into camp. The trainbands were ordered to 
arms, and the city guard re-enforced. It was also resolved to 
levy four hundred men, to be maintained by the citizens, and 
commanded by officers appointed t>y the lord provost and 
magistrates, by whose orders their operations were to be directed. 
Two extensive associations were formed at the same time, whose 
patriotic and spirited procedure roused the energies of the well- 
disposed every where, and had the happiest effect in directing 
and sustaining public feeling. The original constitution of both 
these associations was nearly the samey ^nly the members of the 
one, subscribed a sum of money over against his name, which 
the other did not; and both, for the satisfaction of one another, 
signed the following bond, before being admitted to the places 
agreed upon for learning the military evolutions : — ^^ We, the 
subscribers, do hereby mutually promise and engage ourselves 
to stand by and assist one another to the utmost of our power, 
in the support and defence of his majesty king George, our 
only rightful sovereign, and of the protestant succession, now 
happily established, against the pretender, and aU open and 
secret enemies ; for the preservation and security of our holy 
religion, civil liberties, and most excellent constitution, both in - 
church and state." Some time after, when their number was 
considerably increased, they divided themselves into companies, 

* Complete History of the late Rdiekfion, p. 6< 


chose their officers, and were designated the associate volunteers. 
They amounted to upwards of four hundred, and were, in the 
sequel, particularly useful,* though their zeal was a little 
damped by the government declining in part their offers of 
service, alleging unwillingness to put them to expense; but, 
in reality, as was generally thought at the time, from a fear 
of the Scots feeling their own strength, and, on some future 
occasion, exerting it in a way not at that time contemplated.f 
The spirited circular which th^y issued, and which had so much 
effect in arousing Scotishmen every where, was probably the 
cause of this doubt on the part of government, and probably 
brought to their remembrance the days of the covenant, which 
were still at court remembered and secretly contemplated with 

* Their names have been preBenred, and may be seen in the Scots' Mag* 
azine for 1806. 

f Vide a letter from Edinbui^h, August 13th, 1715. 

X The foUowiDg is the circular alluded to :— " Sir, The certainty of a de- 
signed invasion in favour of a popish pretender to the crown being no longer 
doubted of, and the danger thereby threatened, as well to his sacred majesty 
king Geoi^e, hu person and government, as to all his good subjects in their 
dearest and most valuable interests, being equally great, it comes to be the 
immediate duty of all who have any sincere regard to the true protestant 
religion, and the civil rights and liberties of mankind, to show a zealous con- 
cern for the preservation of these invaluable blessings, by exerting themselves 
to the utmost in defence of his migesty's just right and title to the crown, 
and vigorously opposing all attempts that shall be made to disturb his govern- 
ment For these ends, we, his majesty's faithful subjects in and about this 
city, have, under the countenance of those in authority here, cheerfully and 
unanimously engaged ourselves in a bond of association, to assist and support 
one another in manner therdn expressed; and being also sensible how proper 
it is to encourage and stimulate others to so necessary a duty, we have 
thought fit to send a copy of our foresaid association to you, and many other 
parishes in Scotland, who, we hope, from the same motives contained in the 
preamble of our paper, will stir up themselves in their several stations, to act 
with such resolution as becomes those who have their all at stake. The 
prize we contend for is liberty; it is essential to our very happiness: for how 
can we possibly retain our retigious and civil rights, if we umely submit to 
the yoke, and part with our liberty? will not life itself be a burthen, if all 
that is done to us, either as men or christians, shall be thus lost, past all 
hopes of recovery ? This consideration alone should rouse us from a fatal 
security, and our anxiety for liberty should daily increase in proportion to 
our danger, which is visibly hastening upon us, by the secret and open attacks 


The city of Glasgow had displayed a noble spirit <rf patri- 
otism so early as the revolution, by sending five hundred men 
to guard the convention; and, observing the late inglorious 
treaty of peace, the disbanding of the army, the passing the 

of the readen enemies of our peace and happiness; is it not then reasonable 
and honest thoroughly to consider our circumstances, and to let our enemies 
know that we are upon our guard ? We do, therefore, persuade ourselves it 
will btt the business of every honrst man to look up with a spirit, and do his 
utmost to maintain and defend our excellent constitution both in church and 
^te, th« sum of our present happy condition, which, by the blessing of God, 
nothing can make desperate but our own sloth and cowardice. Has not our 
good and gracious God hitherto made signal appearances on our behalf? 
Have not our eyes seen the salvation he 4iath wrought for us, time after time ? 
Can we, without horror, remember the unparalleled cruelties we met with, 
when a popish interest and faction had the ascendant? Can we forget the 
remarkable deliverance God wrought for us in breaking the yoke of their 
arbitrary and tyrannical government by the great king William in the late 
glorious revolution ? Can we have foi^t the goodness of God in defeating 
the last attempt of this nature in such a manner as left no ground to doubt 
but that God did then appear on our side ? Or shall we ever cease to re- 
member the seasonable and surprising interposition of heaven in bringing his 
present majesty king Geoige to the quiet and peaceable possession of the 
throne of these realms, and this at a time when our fears were so great, that 
nothing but a solid persuasion of the Lord God, his concerning himself for 
his own interest, kept up our spirits, and made us hope for relief; why should 
ve then despond ? The same hand is not now shortened that it cannot save ; 
the same God we trust in is both able and willing to rescue us from the 
imminent dangers that now threaten us, by the insurrection of a Jacobite 
taction, and an invasion of a pretender to the crown, who has been educated 
io all the maxims of popish bigotry and French tyranny, and now comes 
against us with an army of Irish cut-throats, assisted (as we have no reason 
to doubt) by the grand enemy to the reformed in Europe, who hath 
emhrued his hands so much in protestant blood. 'Us, therefore, earnestly 
recommended to you, to further so good and necessary a work, as you cannot 
but be convinced the above mentioned association must be at this time. Court 
the present opportunity, get all the honest hands to it you can, and then ap- 
point your place of rendezvous, that you may be in a readiness to come together 
when you hear of a landing. And let us hnvc tlic satisfaction to know what 
happy progress you make from time to time in this aflair, addressing your 
letter to the secretary of our society, who, by our orders, subscribes this to 
you. In the meantime, let us all be much employed in fervent prayer to 
God, that the great Jehovah, Lord of heaven and earth, may pro9per and 
kucceed all our endeavours for the preservation of o;ir peace, and the security 
of our holy religion and civil rights, and that this God may bless and preserve 
bis most sacred majesty king Geoige in his royal person and government, nnd 


toleration, the patronage, and the schism bills, with the yearly 
pensions bestowed upon the Jacobite clans, had entered into 
a correspondence with the well-afFected in all parts of the 
kingdom, in concert with whom, about the end of queen Anne's 
reign, they had made a liberal provision of ammunition and 
arms, in view of the dismal catastrophe which the gloomy as- 
pect of affairs then threatened. The inhabitants, seconding 
the views of the magistracy, were also brought to such pierfec- 
tion in the use of arms, that they were little, if at all inferior 
to the regular troops, and thus were in perfect readiness for 
any emergency. This city was amcMig the first in Scotland to 
proclaim the elector of Brunswick Lunenburg king of these 
realms, and, of course, the citizens were obnoxious to the par- 
tisans of James, to many of whom their growing wealth was 
likely also to be a considerable temptation. They, therefore, 
prudently resolved, on hearing of the pretender's motions, to 
put themselves in arms, that they might be in a condition both 
to defend themselves from the cupidity of the clans, and to 
assist the government. 

This conduct on the part of Glasgow gave the alarm to the 
whode west of Scotland, which instantly began to copy after 
her example. In the strife of loyalty and patriotic feeling, 
which the whole of the west country exhibited, it would be 
unjust not to mention, that Kilmarnock was remarkably dis- 
tinguished. Its inhabitants, like the citizens of Glasgow, had 
early taken the alarm, and, upon the death of the queen, im- 
mediately began to exercise themselves to the use of arms. This 
zeal was greatly excited and advanced by the direction and ex- 
ample of their superior, lord Kilmarnock, who was a firm pro- 
moter of the Union, and a zealous supporter of the protestant 
succession. So actively, indeed, did that whole district exert 
themselves, that, upon a very short warning, on the twenty- 
second of August, the bailiary of Cuninghame alone, mustered 
on Irvine Moor, a forcexamounting to six tliousand men, at the 
head of five hundred of the best appointed and best trained of 

his protestant issue to latest posterity. And to conclude, Utui be of good 
courage and plat/ the men for our peophy and the cities of out Ood, and the 
Lord do thai which Meemelh him good,** Rae's History of the RebeUion, pp. 


which) appeared lord Kilmarnock, and his son, lord Boyd, then 
an object of deep interest, being the heir of the family, and only 
eleven years of age.* Had tliere been present any gifted seer, 
who, through the folds of time, could have descried the red 
field of Culloden, what would have been his emotions I 

The people of Greenock, under the influence of lady Shaw 
Stuart, in the absence of Sir John, who was abroad at the tim^ 
and the assiduity of the Rev. Mr. Turner, the minister of the 
parish, behaved in the most praiseworthy manner, being able, 
by the middle of August, to muster two hundred and sixty men, 
well armed, trained, and divided into six companies. 

In Clydesdale, his grace the duke of Douglas, of his vassals 
and tenants, raised to the number of three hundred men, for 
the service of the government. Nor were the other gentlemen 
in that neighbourhood negligent of their duty. Her grace the 
dutchess of Hamilton, captain Daniel Weir of Stonebyres, the 
laird of G>rehouse, James Carmichael of Bonny ton, the laird of 
Lee, Mr. Alexander Menzies of Culterallers, &c. &&, had all 
their vassals and tenants trained and mustered, in defence of 
his majesty's person and government, by the beginning of 

In Nithsdale and Galloway, though there were many papists 
and Jacobites, the zeal of the great body of the people was 
most conspicuous. In Dumfries, seven companies, of sixty 
effective men each, were raised among the inhabitants, and for 
fear of being surprised by the factious and disloyal, who, they 
knewy were in great numbers on every side of them, a strong 
guard was constantly kept The lord provost was commander 
of the companies of volunteers, and they were trained so as to 
have reached the highest degree of military discipline. Nor was 
the example of the burgh lost upon the surrounding country. 
The inhabitants, every where witnessing the consultations of 
the Jacobites, and being informed of the movements of the 
Highlanders, made the most diligent preparations for counter- 
acting their designs. The exercise of arms was general and 
incessant, and they kept guards at all the most considerable 

• Douglas' Peerage. 
I. 2o 


places on the roads, to take notice of strangers, intercept letters, 
and cut off the communication of the Jacobites with one another. 
A Jacobite gentleman, Bell of Minsca, having taken it upon 
him to insult a party of these guards at Penpont, was shot 
by one of the centinels through the leg, whidi is said by Rae 
to have been the first blood drawn in that rebellion. 

We may notice here that the clergy of the Scotisii church 
were every where active, awakening the ^irit, and directm^ 
the movements of their parishioners; many of them took arms 
themselves, and set bright examples of true patriotism, as well 
as of religion, while the episcopal clergy, for whom such a bustle 
had been kept up for many of the bypast years, and for whom 
the feelings of the presbyterians had been so deeply wounded, 
were, to a man, rebels, and exerted themselves, to spread the 
flame of rebellion, with a zeal worthy of a better cause. The 
presbyterian dissenters, on the contrary, who had been perse- 
cuted and reviled by their brethren, even more than the epis- 
copalians, took arms fbr the defence of their country's liberties. 
Mr. John Hepburn kept the field, with three hundred of his 
people, all the time the rebellion raged in the south, and in ac- 
tivity and watchfulness seems to have been behind none of the 
other leaders of the people at that time. Mr. Stuart of 
Torence he apprehended returning from a visit to a part of 
the rebel army, and sent him in prisoner to Dumfi^ies, whither 
he himself, with his party,'hastened when he had reason to tliink 
it had been invested by the enemy ; but finding the place still 
safe, he encamped without the town, which, in present circum- 
stances, he refused to enter, without explanations, which the 
magistrates and ministers of Dumfries either would not, or could 
not make.* It was evident, however, that he and his people, 
Were determined to have acted vigorously against the pretender 
in case of extremity ; but from the unhappy divisions subsisting 
between them and their brethren, respecting the revolution, 
and the Union settlements, they probably thought that ex- 
tremity alone could justify their interference. 
^ As Kircudbright was one of the stations pointed out by the 

* Rae's History of the Rebellion, pp. 256, 276. 


Jacobites as a fit place for the chevalier to land with his foreiga 
auxiliaries Galloway waa an object of particular attention with 
both parties, and major James Aikman was despatched finom 
Edinburgh, about the «id of July, to oversee the prepanHions 
there going on, $fkd to advise with the inhabitants upon tha 
measures that might be found necessary upon the approach of 
an enemyt M^r Aikman accordingly reviewed the fencibla 
men in Uie upper ward of Nithsdale, on Marjory Muiri in the 
beginning of August, and afterwards held a meetii^ with the 
principal inhabitants <^f the district at Closebum. He was ac^ 
Gompanied by Sir Thomas Kirkpatrick of Closeburnj Gordon 
of Earlstoui Mr. James Nimmo from Edinburgh, Mr. John 
Pollock, minister of Glencaim, &c. &C, when it was anani<* 
mously agreed : — << First, that each parish be modelled into 
companies, and proper officers chosen to that effect. Secondly, 
That each parish exercise twice or thrice in the week. Thirdly^ 
That upon the first advice of the pret^ider's landing, each 
parish should meet by themselves, in some convenient place 
appointed for that effect, there to concert what is proper to ba 
done, either with their horse or foot; and it was earnestly 
desired, that they 'should bring their best arms and ammunition 
along with them to that place. Fourthly, That upon the first 
notice of the pretender's arrival at Lochryan, Kirkcudbright 
upon the borders, or in the Frith of Leith, in case he should 
land there, Sanquhar should be the place of rendezvous for the 
western shires. Fifthly, that upon the enemy's landing in any 
of these places, all the horses and cattle should be driven firom 
the coasts into the country, and that a body of horsemen wait 
on, to hinder their plundering the country and seizing of 
horses, if possible. Sixthly^ That there be a party of light 
horse or foot in each parish, to join with such in neighbouring 
parishes, to hinder the Jacobites in the country from joining 
with the French, to interrupt their communications, and to 
harass their parties ; and in order to this, that all roads leading 
to the enemy should be stopped, and persons travelling towards 
them in arms secured. Seventhly, That all boats upon the 
western coast be secured, to prevent the Jacobites firom going 
to the French fleet upon their first appearance, their carrying 
provisions to them, or assisting diem in their landing. And 


Lastly, That our friends in every pardcular district, fiill npcm 
ways and means to make tbe above said particulars eflectuaL"* 

Kelso, and the neighbouring country, exhibited the same 
spirit of loyalty and affection to the government, and encouraged 
by their minister, Mr. Ramsay, Sir William Bennet of Grubbet, 
and Sir John Pringle of Stitchel, the inhabitants subscribed an 
association, *^ Binding and obliging themselves, by the blessing 
of God, to assist and stand by one another, in defence of 
their lawful sovereign king George, the succession of tbe crown, 
happily established by law, and the protestant religion, in op- 
position to a popish pretender, and all his abettors ;" and were 
formed into r^ular companies, trained and armed for their own 
and tlieir country's defence. The same spirit, indeed, per- 
vaded the whole country except where the clergy were episcopal, 
and the principal heritors Jacobites, and even where this was 
manifestly the case, the people in general seemed to have 
nothing so much at heart as the security of their religion and 
liberties from the dangers with which they were now so evidently 

Many individuals in different places of the nation also, 
whom it would be tedious to particularize, eminently distin- 
guished themselves on this occasion, but none more than the 
eari of Glasgow, who, living in the vicinity of the Highlands, 
and aware of the clans being, for the most part, in the in- 
terest of the chevalier, as well as of the paucity of regular 
troops in the kingdom, made offer to his majesty, to raise, 
and maintain at his own proper charge, one thousand men, 
for which he had the thanks of his majesty, with an assurance, 
that for an offer so generous, and so seasonable, he would not 
fail to be rewarded with marks of especial favour.f 

While these preparations were going thus rapidly forward 
at home, the chevalier and his friends were equally busy 
abroad; and they flattered themselves with being, able to make 
an attempt in a short time that would be irresistible. In 
France, Germany, Switzerland, and among the states of Italy, 
vast sums were collected for his service, under the immediate 

• Rae's History of tbe Rebellion, p. 185. 
t Douglas' Peerage, by Wood, vol. i. p. 629. 


influence of the see of Home, among the devoliees to which^ 
the design must have been regarded as peculiarly holy, being 
calculated at once to reyive, in some degree, the long eclipsed 
splendour of the pontiH^ preserve a royal dynasty from final 
degradation and disgrace, and to be the salvation of three 
kingdoms. • Some estimate may be made of the sums collected, 
by the complaints of the agents of the chevalier at St Ger- 
mainsy upon the failure of the design, " that the partisans of 
the cause in Scotland had spent twelve millions upon the 
business, and had accomplished nothing but the ruin of their 

Of the money thus collected, an hundred thousand pounds 
sterling was said to have been transmitted to the earl of Marr^ 
with letters and instructions, under the chevalier's own hand, 
and a coouniasion appointing him lieutenant-general, and com* 
mander-in-chief of all his forces, as he called them, in Scotland^ 
which induced that nobleman to throw oiF the mask of loyalty 
to king George, which he had, ever since that monarch's acces- 
sion to the throne, worn rather ostentatiously, but which had 
failed to produce those honourable marks of distinction which 
his lordship so ardently desired. His offers of service and 
duty he bad the mortification to find neglected, and the 
address from the Jacobite chiefs, which was intended to set 
him high in his majesty's favour, he dared not to present, be- 
ing told that his majesty had certain information that it was 
prepared at St. Germains.f His majesty, indeed, was too 
well informed, and had too deep a feeling upon the subject 
of the plots carried on in the last years of queen Anne, to look 
with complacency upon the earl of Marr ; and the . course of 
inquiry which the parliament was so eagerly pursuing, was 
calculated to awaken fear in every bosom that was in any 
degree tainted with guilt; besides, the suspension of the 
hdieas corpus^ and the vigorous measures which the govern- 
ment was adopting, probably gave him ground to apprehend 
immediate imprisonment, which would have blasted for ever 
those high hopes which he had all along too fondly cherished^ 

• AddhIs of George I., vol. vi. p. 1 18. 

t DoogW Peerage of Scotland, by Wood, vol. ii. p. 218. 


To avoid a danger so immtneoc, and a catastrophe in his 
estimation so iatai, bis lordship plunged at once into the 
vortex of rebellion, by which he brought a great calamity 
upon his bleeding country, and involved himself and his 
fiunily in ruin. 

After having been at court in the morning, August the 
eighth, he embarked aboard a collier at Oravesend, in company 
with a general Hamilton and a major Hay, and two servants, 
all in disguise, and on the second or third day after, landed at 
Newcastle, where they hired a vessel belonging to one Spence, 
which set them ashore at Ely in Fife. Here they were joined 
by Alexander Areskine, lord lyon king at arms, and other 
of their friends, with whom they proceeded on their way to 
Kinnoul on the seventeenth. On the eighteenth they crossed 
the Tay a little below Perth, with about fifty horse. Next 
day letters were written to all the Jacobites in that country, 
inviting them to meet the earl of Marr without delay at 
Braemar, Aberdeenshire, where he arrived about the twentieth 
of August 

Though the flight of the earl of Marr was thus precipitate, 
there is every reason to suppose it was not unpremeditated. 
His friends in Scotland must have been apprized of it before- 
hand, for early in August captain John Dalzell, a half-pay 
ofl&cer, who, in view of this rebellion, had previously thrown 
up his commission to the earl of Orkney, was sent to give the 
alarm to his brother, the earl of Camwath, then at Elliock. 
From Elliock despatches were sent express to the earl of 
Nithsdale, viscount Kenmure, and others of their friends in 
the south. The earl of Nithsdale came the same day to 
consult with them, and, after some time spent in preparing 
others to embark with them in their unhappy project, they 
repaired secretly to their stations, and it was given out that 
they were gone to a hunting in the nortii.* 

We have already seen that hunting and horse racing were 
frequently used as pretences for assembling the Jacobites in 
great numbers, and the same expedient was again, on this 

* Rae's History of the RebeWon, p. 1S6. Douglas* Peerage of Scotlandj 
by Wood, vol i. p. 318« 

jGiriFf lEifiSKHHiE;, 


^ 7////-///'/// v/y /(y, "^^i^". 


Aa» BL:.k:r FtdLsrtcn Sc C I'lnsarw k 4 tuUartm k C Kdmi>uri/h. 


occasion, resorted to. It was but a few days that the earl of 
Marr had been at Bratmar, when, under the pretext of a 
great hunting match, he was waited upon by a vast number of 
gentlemen of quality and interest,* among whom were the 
marquises of Huntly and Tullibardine; the earia of Nithsdale, 
Marischal, Traquair, Enrol, Sonihesk, Carnwath, Seaforth, 
Linlithgow, and others ; the viscounts of Kilsyth, Kenmure^ 
Kingston, and Stormont; the lords Rollo, Duffus, Drummond^ 
Strathalian, Ogilvy, and Nairne ; a number of gentlemen from 
the Highlands, Glendaruel, Auldbair, Auchterhouse, Glengaryi 
and the two generals, Hamilton and Gordon, whonii having 
thus convened, he addressed, in a speech full of insinuiltions 
against the protestant succession in general, and against king 
George in particular ; declaring, with a great deal of seem-* 
ing sorrow. That though he had been instrumental in for* 
warding the Union in the reign of queen Anne, yet Dow bis 
eyes were opened, and he would spend his best blood to rid 
them, of that treaty, which he dignified witli the epithet 

* Hontiog, it may be obierved^ under the feadd syBtem, had much d a 
military character, and was Teiy often made a pretext for the superior callii^ 
out his vassals wbea he had a rery different object in view. Hence, in the 
act for abolishing ward or military tenures In Scotland, it is enumerated among 
those services that could no longer be legally required. It was mdeed, no 
uncommon thing for the whole mHttary array of the country to be csillcd ODt, 
under the pretence of banting. Thus we are told by Pitocottie, that, io the yeav 
15S8, Jamas V. ^ made prodamatioo to all lords, barons, gentlemen, land* 
wardtneiH and irceboldcrs, that they should compear at Edinburgh, with a 
months victuals, to pass with the king, where he pleased to danton the theives 
of Teviotdale, Annandale, Liddisdale, and other parts of that country; and 
also warned all gentlemen that bad good dogs, to bring them, that ha might 
hnnt in the said country as be pleased : the whilk the cod of Ai;gyle, the earl 
of Huntly, the earl of Athol, and so all the rest of the gentlemen of the Hjgh* 
laod did, aad brought their hounds with them, in like manner, to hunt with 
the king as he pleased. 

** The second day of June, the king passed out of Edinburgh to the hunting, 
with many of the nobles and gentlemen of Scotland with hjm, to the number 
of twelve thousand men, and these past to Me^tland, and hounded and 
hsirii'ed all the country and bounds, that is to say, Crammat» Pappertlaw, St. 
Alaiylaws^ Carlavirick, Chapel, Ewindoores, and Longhope. I heard say, he 
»!ew in these bounds, eighteen score of harts." Pitscottie's History of Scotland. 

p. 143. 


cursed, and to render them again a free people. He then 
enlarged upon the misfortunes that, as a nation, they laboured 
under ; {governed by a foreigner, a stranger to the constitu- 
tion, who gave himself up into the hands of a set of courtiers, 
who had nothing in view but to strengthen and continue our 
slavery under a foreign yoke, without any regard to the in- 
terest of the people, upon whose civil and religious liberties 
they were daily making new encroachments. 

Thousands, he assured them, were now in league with him 
to redress their grievances, and restore their lawful kiog, 
James VIII., to the throne of his ancestors, by whom aloae 
all their grievances could be truly and completely removed, 
and from whom he showed letters, written from Lorrain, 
promising to come over in person and put himself on the 
valour of his Scotish subjects; and, in the meantime, assuring 
them that they should have ships, arms, ammunition, and 
other military stores, with officers and engineers, so soon as 
it was settled where they should be landed. 

The powerful assistance of Louis, the French king, from 
whom my lord Bolingbroke and the duke of Ormond were 
just now demanding the necessary supplies, was another topic 
upon which he largely descanted. England, he affirmed, was 
to be invaded by a powerful army, under the command of 
the duke of Berwick, in consequence of which, and the general 
insurrection that was to be made, it would be impossible for 
the government to send any troops to Scotland, so that what 
they aimed at would be easily attained. Money too, he 
certified them, he was abundantly provided with for dis- 
charging the expense of the expedition ; and such supplies 
as were needful for levying men, paying troops, Sec. he hoped 
regularly to receive, so that no gentleman needed to be under 
any apprehension, with regard to the subsisting of his men, 
for that they and the country should be free from all burdens 
of that kind. 

He lastly showed them what he said was his commission as 
lieutenant-general from king James, who had intrusted him 
with the sole direction of this important affair. In obedience 
to this commission, he informed them, that he was soon to 


unfurl the royal standard, which, he trusted, would be joyfully 
attended by all the fencible men in the kingdom.* 
. When we advert to the high rank, and great antiquity of 
the family of Marr, the talenu which the earl himself pos- 
sessed, and the station which he had occupied ui|jder the late 
administration, together with the intelligence, the habits, 
and the prospects of those who were at this time his auditoi's, 
we cannot wonder that liis speech, though it had been much 
less eloquent than it really was, proved irresistible. Delighted 
to think that the destinies of their king, as they called him, 
and of the kingdom was in their hands, the meanest among 
them fancied he had a fair chance for, and a just tide to at 
least the second place before the thr(Mie, the foundations of 
which were to be settled by his wise determiniEttions, and its 
brightest ornaments wrought out by his individual exertions. 
The project was received by all with characteristic enthu- 
siasm. But the better, however, to ensure success, each re- 
turned for a few days to his estates, to bring over his friends, 
and draw together his dependants. They were again sum- 
moned, on the third of September, to Aboyue, in Aberdeen- 
shire, when, having given directions for the chieftains to draw 
together their forces without loss of time, Marr returned to 
Braemar, and, on the sixth of September, 1715, set up there 
the standard of the chevalier,f declaring him king of Great 
Britain, France, and Ireland, &c. &c. The same proclama- 
tion was made at Kirkmichael on the ninth, and the people 
summoned to attend his standard, for as yet they did not ex* 

* Annals of Geoige I. vol. il. p 96, Rae's History of the Rebellion, pp. 
189, 190. Pbtten's History of the Rebellion, pp. 151, 153. 

f This standard, supposed to be made by the earl's lady, was very elegant. 
The colour was blue, having on one side the Scotlsh arms wrought in gold, 
and on the other side the Scotish thistle, with these words underneath, ** No 
Union," and on the top the ancient motto, '* Nemo me impune lacemt** It 
had pendants of white ribband, one of which had these words written upon 
it, ** For our wronged king and oppressed country ;** the other had, " For 
our lives and liberties." It is reported by Rae that when this standard was 
first erected, the ornamental ball upon the top fell off, which depressed the 
spirits of the superstitious Highlanders, who deemed it ominous of misfortune 
m the cause for which they were now appearing. History of the Rebellion, 
p. 191. 

I. 2 p 


eeed sixty men, ibodgh tb«y hftre by some been said to be 
two thousand. Vrata Kirkmichael Marr proceeded to Moulin, 
a small town in Perthshire. Prom Monlin he went to Lo^e- 
rait, where his followers were swelled into one thousand men, 
and by the time he entered Dankeld to double that number. 
At the two fortner of these places the same ceremonial was 
obserred, and James VIII. proclaimed with ludicroiis ao- 
lenmity ; hfe had been by the marquis of TvIIibardine pro- 
claimed at Dunkeld previous to Marr's arrival. At Pe^ he 
was proclaimed by colonel Balfour and colonel John Hay, 
brother to the earl of Kinnoul, who with two hundred horse 
took possession of the town for the earl of Marr. In this 
enterprise they were powerfully assisted by one hundred and 
fifty men, introduced into the town by the duke of Atbol, 
under the pretence of being auxiliaries to assist the inhabi* 
tants to defend it against the rebels. No sooner, however, 
did the rebels make their appearance than these Atbol men 
joined them, in consequence of which the town was an easy 
conquest, though the earl of Rothes with five hundred men 
was just at hand, intending to take possession of it ibr the 

James wte, in the meantime, proclaimed at Aberdeen, by the 
earl M^uischal, at castle Gordon, by the marquis of Huntly, at 
Brechin, by the earl of Panmure, at Montrose, by the earl of 
Sonthesk, at Dundee, by Graham of Duntroon, who had been 
by the pretender created viscount of Dundee, and, at Inverness, 
by brigadier Mcintosh, at the head of five hundred men, who, 
finding that important pass without a garrison, took possession 
of it in name of the pretender, and leaving it to the care of 
Mackenzie of Coul, repaired to the rebel army. 

While Marr was thus diligent for the pretender in the north, 
he had laid a plot for serving himself more effectually in the 
south, by securing the castle of Edinburgh, which would at 
once have given him the conunand of the Idngdom of Scotland. 
To accomplish this most important purpose, ninety choice men 
iirere selected, all gentlemen, under the lord Drummond« who 

• Rae^g History of the Rcbdlion, p. 191. Patten's History of die RcM- 
lion, p. 5. CampbeU's Life of John, Duke of Argyle, p. 1 47. 

wets Ae prime ngwt la the ^ffirir , i^od i^^a^ if he suooeeded^ tp 

be made go¥emor cf the casde; each of his associates was to 

liave tbe reward of ooe hundfed guiaeas, with a connnisfiion iu 

the amy. Tbqr soan suoooeded in corraplW(g one Aioslqr, a 

BeKjgstmt m the casUe, widi the pvoinise of iiljeiiteDancy, a caiv 

pcmdp with the pronuae of an easigncy, aod two soldiers, ^e 

one with eighty aad A» other with four guJAeafi. Th(»)r thw 

provided a sc^lmg ladder loade of ropes* and w oonstructod as 

that two or three persons could ascesad abueaat* This» -the 

traitors within the eastle, were to fasten at the top» andf hy 

means of puU^s, assist in drawing up ^ conspir^totcs mithfinu 

They saoceeded so far as to have tfee ladder fixed, and sei^ecsl 

of the party ware iq^ it, when an officer, who hed ceoeivad 

iiUeUigeiice of the plat, wsfiang his ]X)iu»ds, observed the Jadderp 

cut the ropes, and let it faH, by wUch icboe^ who were upon it 

were precipitate to the bottom «f ^ rock and severely 

bruised The ceatinel fired fit the same •liaie^ and the party 

instantly dispelled* A party of the town guard which had 

been sent to patrole round the castle, found one captain 

McLean, who had been an officer at Killicranky, severely 

bruised, whom, with Mr. Lesly, Mr. Bamsay^ and Mr. Boswell, 

they secured. The two last weie writers^ and the first had .fpr-- 

meriy been a page ^ the dutcbess of Oordon. They likewise 

found the ladder, and one dozen of firelocks, which, in haste 

to escape, the conspirators had thrown away. Ainsley, the 

sergeant^ who had ei^gf^d to betray the fortress, was hanged, 

and lieutenant colonel David Stuart, the governor^ was dis^ 

posted for negligence.* 

Before leaving Aboyne, where it was determined to rise im- 
mediately in arjns, the earl of Marr issued the following 
declaration, which he enclosed in a letter to his baiUie of 
KildruHunyif-— ** Our rightful and natural king, James the 

• Gmpbell'i Life of John, JDuke of Aigylt, pp. IM, 15<5. Patten^s 
liiitory .of the AdieUtoib pp* t5S, 159. 

t The foUowiog u^bmkUac ia which .this iadaratioa was eoclosed lo hii 
bailUe* mi'tm utaadMitly .ohaaMterietic :— " Jopkc, ye wa» right not to 
come with the lOO men ye sent up to-night, when I expected four times the 
number. It is a pretty thing when all the HigUands of Scotland are now 
rising upon their king and country's account, as I have accounu from them 
lince they were with me, and the gentlemen of mu ae^fabouring Lowlands 


eighth, by the grace of God» who is now coming to relieve us 
from our oppression, having been pleased to intrust us with 
the direction of his affairs, and the command of his forces in 
this his ancient kingdom of Scotland, and some of his fidthfiil 
subjects and servants met at Aboyne, viz. the lord Huntly, 
the lord TuUibardine, the earl Marischal, the earl Southesk, 
Glengary-from the clans, Olendaruel, from the earl of Bread- 
albine and gentlemen of Argyleshire, Mr. Patrick Lyon of 
Auchterhouse, the laird of Auldbair, lieutenant general George 
Hamilton, major general Gordon, and myself, having taken 
into consideration his majesty's last and late order to us, find, 
that as this is now the time that he ordered us to appear openly 
in arms for him, so it seems to us absolutely necessary for his 
majesty's service, and the relieving of our native country from 
all its hardships, that all his faithful and loving subjects, and 
lovers of their country, should, with all possible speed, put 
themselves into arms. These are, therefore, in his majesty's 
name and authority, and by virtue of the power aforesaid, and 

expecting lu down to join tbem, that my men should be only refractory. Is 
not this the thing we ore now about, which they have been wishing these 
twenty-six years? And now, when it is come, and the king and country's 
cause at stake, will they for erer sit still and see all perish ? 

I hare used gentle means too loDg» and so I shall be forced to put other 
orders I have in execution ; I hare sent you enclosed^ an order for the lord- 
ship of Kildrumroy, which you are immediately to intimate to all my vassals ; 
if they give ready obedience, it will make some amends : and if not, ye may 
tell them from me, that it will not be in my power to save them (were I 
willing) from being treated as enemies, by those who are ready soon to join 
me, and they may depend on it, that I will be the first to propose and order 
their being so. Particularly, let my own tenants in Kildrummy know, that 
if they come not forth with their best arms, that I will send a party immed- 
iately to bum what they shall miss taking from them. And they may believe 
this not only a threat, but by all that's sacred I'll put it in execution, let my 
loss be what it will, that it may be example to others. You are to tell the 
gentlemen that Fll expect them in their best accoutrements, on horseback, 
and no excuse to be accepted of. Go about this with all diligence, and come 
yourself, and let me know your having done so. All this is not only as you 
will be answerable to me, but to your king and countiy. 

Your assured friend and servant, 
Sic subscribitur. 
To John Forbes of Increrau, 
Baily of Kildrummy. 


by the king's special order to me thereunto, to require and 
empower yon forthwith to raise your fencible men, widi their 
best arms ; and you are immediately to march them to join me 
and some other of the kingfs forces at the Invor of Braemar, 
on Monday next, in order to proceed in our march to attend 
the king's standard with his other forces. The king, intending 
that his forces shall be paid from the time of their first setting 
out, he expects, as he positively orders, that they behave them- 
selves civilly, and commit no plundering, or other disorders, 
upon the highest penalties and his displeasure, which is ex- 
pected you'll see observed. 

" Now is the time for all good men to show their zeal for his 
majesty's service, whose cause is so deeply concerned, and the 
relief of our country from oppression and a foreign yoke, too 
heavy for us and our posterity to bear ; and to endeavour the 
restoring not only of our rightful and native king, but also our 
country to its ancient, free, and independent constitution, under 
him whose ancestors have reigned over us so many generations. 
^ In so honourable, good, and just a cause, we cannot doubt 
of the assistance, direction, and blessing of Almighty God, who 
has so often rescued the royal family of Stuart, and our country 
from sinking under oppression. 

** Your punctual observance of these orders is expected, for 
the doing of all which, this shall be to you, and all you employ 
in the execution of them sufficient warrant. Given at Brae- 
Marr, the ninth of September, 1715." 

This, with its envelope to John Forbes of Increrau, was pro- 
bably thought sufficient for calling forth the energies of the 
district of Kildrummy ; but for the country at large, something 
more soothing and more specious was deemed necessary, and, 
in a few days, the party issued a most flaming manifesto, imbody- 
ing, in a very narrow compass, the whole slang and sophistry 
belonging to the faction. They had it printed at Edinburgh, 
and, " by Mr. Robert Freebaim, one of the king's printers 
there," the tenor whereof follows: — " His majesty's right of 
blood to the crown of these realms is undoubted, and has never 
heen disputed or arraigned, by the least circumstance ot a 
lawful authority. 
" By the laws of God, by the ancient constitution, and by 


tke pceitiiFe Bnrepealed laws of the land, we are bound to pay 
bis majesty the du^ of loyal subjects ; nothiog can alxolve us 
from this our duty of sutijectioQ mid obedi^ncei the laws of 
God require our allegiance to our rightful king; the laws of 
the land secure our religion and other interests; and Us uu^estj 
guying up himself to his protestant subjects, puis the means of 
securing to us our concerns, religious and civil, in our own 

^ Our foundamental constitution has been entirdy altered, 
and sunk amidst the various shodcs of unstable faction ; whiles 
in the searching out new expedients pretended for our security, 
it has produced nothing but daily ^ysappoiutment, and has 
brought us and our posteri^ under a [HKcarions depeadance 
upon foreign councils and interests, and the power of Scm&ffi 

<< The late unhappy Union, which was brou^ about by the 
mistaken noti<ms of some, and tjbe ruinous and selfish designs 
of others, has proved so for from healing and lessening the 
difiRsrences betwixt his majesty's subjects of Scotland and Eng- 
land, that it has widened and increased them; and it appears^ 
by experience, so inomsistenLt with the rights, privileges, and 
interests of us and our good neighbours and fellow-sabgects of 
England, that the continuance of it must inevitably ruin us, 
and huit them ; nor can any way be found out to relieve vs, 
and restore our antient and independent constitution^ but by 
restoring our rightful and natural kin^ who has the only uo- 
.doubted right to reign over us; neither can we hope^ that the 
party who chiefly contributed to bring us into bondage, will, at 
any time, endeavour to work our relief; since 'tis known how 
strenuously they opposed, in two late instances, the efforts that 
were made by all Scotchmen, by themselves^ and supported by 
the best and wisest of the English, towards so desirable an end, 
as they did not adventure openly to disown the dissolution of 
the Union to be. 

^< Our substance has been wasted in the late ruinous wacs^ 
and we see an unavoidable prospect of having wars continued 
upon us and our posterity so long as the possession of the 
crown is not in the right line. 

^ The hereditary rights of the subject^ though confioned 


by ocmTeations and parliaments^ are now treated as of no value 
or force ; and past services to the crown and rojal fimUy, are 
now looked upon as grotmds of suspicion* 

^ A packed up assembly, who call themsdhres a Bntiah par- 
liament, hare^ as fiir as in them Ues^ inhumanly mmdesed their 
own and our sovereign, by proaiisi^ a sum of mon^ as the 
feward of so execrable a crime. 

^ They have proscribed^ by nnaccoimtable and gronndless 
imp^udhments and attalndeni) the worthy patriots of England^ 
for thdir bonoun^le and suoeessfiil endaivouxs to restore trade^ 
plenty and peace to these nations. 

^ They have broken in upon the sacred laws of both coun- 
tries by which the liberty of oar persons was secured, lliey 
have impowered a foreign prinoe» who, notwithstanding of his 
expectations of the crown for fifteen yean, is still unacquainted 
with our manners, customs^ and language, to make an absolute 
conquest (if not timely prevented) of the three kii^doms, by 
vestii^ himself with an imlimited power, not only of raising 
unnecessaiy forces at home, but also of calling in foreign troops 
ready to promote his uncontrollable designs. Nor can we be 
ever bop^ul of its being otherwise, in the way it is at present, 
for some generations to come. And the sad consequence ot 
these unexampled proceedings, have reaDy been so fatal to 
great numbers of our kinsmen, finends, and fellow-subjects of 
both kingdoms, that they have been constrained to abandon 
their eountry, houses, wives, and children, or give themselves 
up prisoners, or perhaps victims, to be sacrificed at the pleasure 
of foreigners^ and a few hot*headed men of a restless Suction 
whom they employ. 

^ Our troops abroad, notwithstanding of their long and re- 
markably good services^ have been treated, since the peace, 
with neglect and contempt, and particularly in Holland; and 
'tis not now the officer's long service^ merit, and blood they 
have lost, but money and favours, by which they obtain justice 
in their prefierment% so that 'tis evident, the safe^ of his 
mqes^s person, and independency of his kingdoms, call loudly 
br immediate relief and defienoe. 

^ The consideration of these unhappy circumstances, with 
the due regard we have to common justice, the peace and quiet 


of 118 and our posterity, and our duty to bis miyesty and his 
oommands, are the powerful motives which have engaged us in 
our present undertaldng, which we are firmly and heartily re- 
solved to push to the utmost, and stand by one another to the 
last extremity, as the only solid and effectual means, to put an 
end to so dreadful a prospect, as by our present situation, we 
have before our eyes; and with faithful hearts, true to our only 
rightful king, our country, and our neighbours, we earnestly 
beseech and expect, [as his majesty commands,] the assistance 
of all our fellow-subjects, to second this our first attempt; de- 
claring hereby, our sincere intention, that we will promote and 
concur in all lawful means for settling a lasting peace to these 
lands, under the auspicious government of our native bom 
rightful sovereign, the direction of our own domestic councils, 
and the protection of our native forces and troops, 

^< That we will in the same manner concur, and endeavour 
to have our laws, liberties, and properties secured, by the parlia- 
ments of both kingdoms ; that by the wisdom of such parlia- 
ments, we will endeavour to have such laws created, as shall 
give absolute security to us and future ages, for the protestant 
religion, against all effects of arbitrary power, popery, and all 
its other enemies. Nor have we any reason to be distrustful 
of the goodness of God, the truth and purity of our holy re- 
ligion, or the known excellency of his majesty's judgment, as 
not to hope, that in due time, good example, and conversation 
with our learned divines, will remove those prejudices, we 
know his education in a popish country, has not rivetted in his 
royal discerning mind ; and we are sure, as justice is a virtue 
in all religions and professions, so the doing of it to him, will 
not lessen his opinion of ours. 

<< That as the king is willing to give his royal indemnity 
for all that is past, so he will cheerfully concur in passing 
general acts of oblivion, that our fellow-subjects, who have 
been misled, may have a fair opportunity of living with us in 
the same friendly manner, we intend to live with them. 

" That we will use our endeavour for redressing the bad 
usage of our troops abroad, and bringing the troops at home, 
to be on the same foot and establishment of pay, as those of 


*< That we shall sincerely and heartily go into saeb neaSnres^ 
as shall maintain effectually, and establish a right Union 
betwixt his majesty's ancient kingdom of Scotland, and our 
good neighbours and rellow-sobjects of Ekigland* 

<' The peace of these nations, being thus settled, and we 
thus freed from foreign dangers, we will use our endeavours 
to have the army, reduced to the usual number of guards and 
garrisons, and will concur in such laws and methods, as shall 
relieve us of tile heavy taxes and debts now lying upon us| 
and at the same time, will support the public credit in all 

'* And we hereby faithfully promise and engage, that every 
officer who joins with us, in our king and country's cause^ 
shall not only enjoy the same post he now does, but shall be 
advanced and preferred according to his rank, and the number 
of men he brings off with him to us, and each foot soldier so 
joining us, shall have twenty shillings sterlii^, and each 
trooper and dragoon, who brings horse and accoutrements 
along with him, twelve pounds sterling, gratuity, besides their 

** And in general, we shall concur with all our fellow-subjeets 
in such measures, as shall make us flourish at home^ and 
formidable abroad, under our rightful sovereign, and the 
peaceiiil harmony of our ancient fundamental constitution, 
undisturbed by a pretender's interest and council from abroad, 
or a restless faction at home. 

*^ In so honourable, so good, and just a Cduse, we do not 
doubt of the assistance, direction, and blessing of Almighty 
God, who has so often succoured the royal family of Stuart 
and our country, from sinking under oppression."* 

Such was the tissue of falsehoods, and palpable absurdities, 
by which these demagogues of Action attempted to hide 
from themselves the atrocity of their conduct, and persuade 
others to join them in their inglorious career. Never were 
folly and inconsistency blazoned in more legible characters* 
Was the right of James any better, or was the ancient con- 
stitution any more sunk now, than when the earl of Marr 

* Campbell's Life of John, duke of Argyle; pp. 14S— 15S. 
I. . 2q 


was secretary of state? Was the Union any worse now, 
than it was the previous year, when be boasted to king 
George, whose ** subject and servant," he was then happy 
to be, of the important part he had acted in bringing it about? 
Or, of his long enumeration of grievances, is there one that 
did not exist — if the suspension of the habeas-corpus be ex- 
cepted, which the treasonable practices of himself and his 
associates, were the sole causes of— and press on the country 
as heavily as now, when he assured the king, then on his way 
from Hanover, under his own hand^^ *' your majesty shall ever 
find me as faithful a subject and servant, as ever any of my 
family has been to the crown, or as I have been to my late 
mistress," and when he begged his majesty might ** be so 
good not to believe any misrepresentations, of the which 
nothing but party hatred and his zeal for the crown did occa- 
sion?"* These interrogatories being all so very obvious, 
admitting only of one answer, besides that for truculent, time- 
serving selfishness, the character of Marr was so notorious, it 
might have been reasonably supposed he would not have had 
a single follower. Such, however, was still the force of pre- 
judice^ of pride^ and of deeply wounded national feeling, and 
so litde were the benefits accruing from the revolution yet 
understood or appreciated, that these exploded dogmas and 
foolish assertions, made throughout all that part of the country 
a very great impression, and Marr, after resting for a few days 
at Dunkeld, moved to Perth, where he fixed his headquarters, 
and in a short time, found himself at the head of an army of 
twelve thousand men.f 

By the possession of Perth, the rebels became masters of 
all the LfOwlands on the east shore of Scotland, north of the 
Tay, containing the fruitful provinces of Angus, the Carse of 
Gowrie, Meams, Moray, Aberdeen, and BanfiP, as well as of 
the shire of Fife, which, from its maritime situation, afforded 
them peculiar advantages. By this means, they cut off all 
communication between his majesty's friends in the south, and 
those in the north, who could now neither act for his service, 

• ruU Marr's letter to the king. Noie^ p. S35 of this History., 
t Patten's History of the Rebellion, p. 7. 


tior save themselves by flight The whole of the public re- 
venues too, in these places, fell into their hands, for which 
they granted receipts, in the name of James VIIL The gen- 
tlemen of the country, especially such as were favourable to 
king George, they laid under contribution, according to their 
pleasure, and compelled to immediate compliance, under the 
pain of military execution. Arms and ammunition, they laid 
hold of^ wherever they could be found, and in this way, great 
quantities of both were obtained. From the castle of Dun- 
otter, and from the to^n of Dundee, they brought up to 
Perth, fourteen pieces of cannon, and having intelligence of 
a ship loaded with arms, for the use of the earl of Sutherland 
and his iriends in the north, having put into the harbour of 
Bruntisland, they detached four hundred horsemen, with each 
a foot soldier mounted behind him, who arriving at Brnnt^ 
island about midnight, pressed all the boats in the harbour, 
boarded the vessel, and seized the arms, three hundred and 
six stand, with about twenty or thir^ stand from another ship, 
and one hundred stand collected in the town, all of which 
they carried off to Perth, without meeting with the smallest 
interruption. This was considered an enterprise of great 
daring, and its complete success, brought no little credit to 
the commander-in-chief, as well as a considerable accession 
of numbers to his army.* 

An exploit of great boldness, was about the same time at- 
tempted in the north, but was not attended with the same suc- 
cess. A strong party of the clans, principally the McDonalds, 
McLeans, and Camerons, attacked, and thought to surprise 
the garrison of Inverlochy. They succeeded so far, as to take 
a spur, and two redoubts, in one of which, they took a lieu- 
tenant and twenty men, and in the bther, a sergeant and five; 
but the garrison being by this time, prepared to receive them, 
they durst not venture a further attack, but turned south upon 

The earl of Marr was at this time in high spirits, and 
probably thought the issue of his enterprise no longer doubtful; 

» Campbeirt Life of John duke of Argjle» pp. 161, 16S. Patteo'f History 
'of the Rebellion, p. 154. 

f Rae'i Hiftory of the Rebellion, p. 923. 

•08 waWKOW QV fi(XlTl4ANl>. 

fbis in addition to the fine army which he bad. now collected, 
Mr* James Murray, aeepnd $on to the viscount Storinont, 
arrived with despatches from the chevalier de St. George, 
giving the strongest assuraocc^ of his being iounediately in 
Scotland, at the head of a powerful army, furnished him by 
France. Murray had gone over to St« Germains iu the pre- 
ceding April, whence he had just now returaed» having 
veached Edinburgh, by the way of England, in disguise. 
From Edinburgh, he crossed over to Fife, and theace to the 
camp at Perth, where bis presence, and the ha{^y tidings of 
extensive succours, diffused the most lively joy* He brought 
patents from the pretender, one appoiut'uig himself secretary 
of state for the affairs of Scotlaod* and auothejr creating the 
ear) of Marr a duke, by the litJe of duke of Marr, marqiiis of 
Stirling, aiid earl of AUoa^ AU this, however, was but the 
brilliancy of the rainbow, soon U> be extinguished in the dark 
cloud upon which it was formed« A ioqg reign of splendid 
atrocity, had just been closed, by the death of Louis» on the 
first of September, and the court of France had seen a total 
change of politics, homa left his tJU^ooe to his grandson, a 
boy of five years of age^ and the regency of the kingdom to his 
nephew, Philip duke of Orleans, whose views led him to 
cultivate particularly the favour of the British government. 
The interests of the chevalier, were of course, for the time 
neglected, and though his friends had p^vided at the ports 
of Havre and Sk Maloea, a pretty hwdapme equipment of 
ships and military stores for his use, th^ appearance of Sir 
George Byng on the coast, and the representations of the earl 
of Suir, at the French court, caused Irhe greater part to be re- 
landed^ and^ except one or two, who veotured out clandes- 
tinely, not one of the ships ever reached the Scotish shores.* 
This insurrection had now, however, assumed an aspect much 
more fiormidable than the government appears to have contem- 
plated, or if they did contemplate it, they were changeable with 
great neglect ixt preparing no adequate means to meet it. Had 
Bot the aeal of individuals, aided by the general feeling of the 

• Rae's History of the Rebellion, pp. SSI, SS8. DougW Peerng^ voL iL 
p. 5SS. Smollett's History, &c. 


public, gone before the gofernment, serious consequeaoes could 
not fail to have accrued to the nation. No sooner, however^ 
had Marr thus publicly declared himself, than the laws which 
had been prepared for such a crisis, were pnit into operation. 
The act ibr eneour^ng loyalty in Scotland was proclanned> 
and a lon^ list of suspeeted persons were summoned to sur- 
render themselves into the hands of the executive, under the 
pain of being declared rebds. The most of them, however re« 
tired to the mountains, or fled to the earl of Marr. General 
Wigfatman, who was commander-in-chief in Scotland, was or- 
dered to form a camp at Stirling, to secure that important pass, 
and to distribute the half-pay officers in such a manner over the 
country, as that they might be in readiness to encourage, exer- 
cise, and command the miKtia on any emergence; but his army 
was trifling, not at all adequate to the task assigned it. Had 
Marr possessed one half of the military talent, which he did of 
political cunning, he would most certainly have secured Stirling^ 
and been across the Forth before there had been the shadow of 
an army collected to oppose him ; but accustomed to gain hi& 
ends by the slow processes of insinuation and circumvention, 
he knew nothing of that decision of character and promptitude 
of action, which, for the successfiil prosecution of the art military, 
are indispensable requisites. Hence he spent a number of weeks 
at Perth, issuing edicts which he had not the power fully to 
enforce, practising feints against an enemy not equal to his own 
by nine-tenths, in order to cover a paltry village warfare, and 
fortifying a camp, which, the moment his antagonist was in 
sufficient force to attack, he behoved of necessity to abandon. 

This want of energy on the part of the earl of Marr was of 
^eat benefit to the government, whose agents did not fail to 
profit by it in a very material degree. Aware of the error 
they had committed in declining the ofiers of men and money 
from so many quarters, they set themselves to rectify the 
evil, by appointing to the chief command in Scotland the duke 
of Argyle, upon whose popular character they depended for 
procuring those supplies of men which they now found to 
he indispensable. His grace received, in an audience which 
he had of the kmg, on the eighth of September, his final 
orders, and on the ninth he set out for Scotland, followed by 


the marquises oC Annnndale and Tweedale, the earls of Sel- 
Hirk, Loudon, Rothes, Haddington, Ila and Forfar, the lords 
Torpbichen and Belhaven, Sir David Dakymple^ his migesty's 
advocate. Sir William Johnston of Wcsterhall, and others of 
the nobility and gentry who had been attending their duty in 
parliament, and, in this melancholy aspect of Scotish affiurs, laid 
hold of the opportunity to manifest their loyalty to the kin^ 
and their zeal for the prosperity and peace of their native 

Argyle did not arrive in Edinburgh till the fourteenth, in 
the evening. Next day he inspected the garrison, the fortifi- 
cations, and magazines; brigadier general Grant he appointed 
captain of the castle, till brigadier general Preston, who had 
been appointed to succeed colonel Stuart, should arrive ; and 
he ordered thirty cart load of ammunition and arms to be sent 
immediately to Stirling and Glasgow for the use of the inha- 
bitants. Next day he proceeded to the camp at Stirling, ac- 
companied by his grace the duke of Roxburgh, the earl of 
Haddington, colonel Middleton, and several other officers and 
gentlemen of distinction, when he reviewed the army, which 
yet did not amount to two thousand men. Aware of this great 
deficiency of force, his grace, before leaving fklinburgh, wrote 
to the lord provost of Glasgow as follows :-^*< Having been 
informed, since my arrival in this place, that the town of 
Glasgow had a considerable number of well armed men, ready 
to serve his majesty, to whom they have showed themselves so 
well affected, that the good town did once project the sending 
some hundreds of men to Stirling, for the defence of that 
place, I must lose no time in praying you would forthwith send 
five or six hundred men to Stirling, with such officers as you 
shall think fit to intrust the command of them to. This will 
be of infinite service to his majesty and your country, and will 
not fail of being acknowledged as such. I must further inform 
you, that by all the accounts I receive from difierent parts of 
the kingdom, the Highlanders are actually gathering together, 
so that it will be very highly for his majesty's service that all 
the well affected men that are armed about your country should 
hold themselves in a readiness to march, and even b^in to 
assemble. I think your town would be the properest place for 


them to join, bat tbat I most submit to- the gentlemen of the 
country who are better judges. As I receive further informs-, 
tion of the motions of the enemy, you shall not fail to hear 
from me. I. am," &c. Ilc 

In consequence of this letter, the city of Glasgow sent three 
battalions of their best men, well armed, to Stirling, the whole 
making ten companies, consisting of between six and seven 
hundred men, though, in the common computation, they were 
only said to be five hundred, and they were commanded by 
the lord provost, the honourable John Aird, in conjunction with 
the honoural)le colonel John Blackader, governor of Stirling* 
castle. The first battalion had scarcely arrived at Stirling, when 
Argyle wrote to the magistrates a letter of thanks, and assured 
them, that he would not fail to report their zeal and diligence to 
his majesty. At the same time, he requested them ** to inform 
all his majesty's friends in the west country, how necessary it 
was for his majesty's service that all the fencible men should 
draw together at Glasgow, and be ready to march as his 
nmjes^'s service. might require."* 

On receipt of these letters, the magistrates of Glasgow sent 
expresses to all the well affected in the neighbourhood, and to 
the gentlemen of the west, stating his grace the duke of Ar- 
gyle's opinion of the necessity of all the fencible men at least, 
in tbat quarter, assembling at Glasgow in arms. These ex- 
presses were answered by the almost immediate appearance of 
considerable bodies of men in arms, yet their numbers were 
far short of what, from the previous preparations, might have 
been expected. On Monday, the nineteenth of September, 
there arrived from ELilmamock, two hundred and twenty men, 
wbo» except a few from Paisley, were the first that entered 
the city. These were followed next day by one hundred and 
thirty more^ headed by lotd Kilmarnock in person. The 
town of Hamilton sent in seventy volunteers, under the com- 
mand of Mr. John Muirhead, one of the magistrates; and 
Strathaven sixty, commanded by Mr. William Hamilton of 
Overtown, and Mr. William Craig of NethcrfieUI-dyke. The 
Kilmarnock people entered upon duty the day after their ar- 

• Rae'» History of the Rclicllion, pp. fi84, 925. 


rival, keeping watch and ward io the city till the first of Oc- 
tober, when the duke of Argyle wrote to lord Kilmarnock, 
desiring that the west country troops should march into th^ 
Highlands, and take up garrison in the houses of Dnimykill, 
Gartartan, and Cardross, in order to curb the insolence of 
Rob Roy and his gang of thieves, the McGregors, jrho, some 
days before, had fallen in upon and robbed all the neighbour- 
ing country. Gartartan, the most remote of the three, was 
assigned to the people from Kilmarnock; Drumykill, to those 
from Ayr; and Cardross, to those from Kilwinning and Steven- 
ston; but, for their mutual security, they marched from Glasgow 
all in one body. The first night after leaving Gla^ow, 
they halted at Drymen, where they found very poor enter* 
tainment, " it being," says Rae, *^ a very disaffected and malig- 
nant place." Being now in the immediate neighbourhood of 
the McGregors and their associates, who were assembled to 
the number of five or six hundred men, they placed strong 
guards and lay upon their arms all night Next day, they 
reached their destinations, the earl of Kilmarnock with twelve 
horsemen, accompanying the party to Gartartan, which, as it 
lay farther into the Highlands than either of the other two^ 
was also the most dangerous, from the slendemess of the house;, 
its vicinity to the McGregors, and because it was the only pass 
by which the rebels could penetrate into the west and south 
country, all the other passes and fordable places of the Forth, 
between that and Stirling, being guarded by the troops under 
the direction of the duke of Argyle. Here they remained at 
enormous expense, the country people charging them double 
price for every article of provision, till the thirteenth of 
October, when they were relieved by a party of the Stirlii^ 
shire militia, and returned to Glasgow, where, on the twenty- 
first of November, they were honourably dismissed.* 

The same day that his grace the duke of Argyle sent his ex- 
press to Glasgow, he wrote also to the town of Greenock, finom 
which place and Cartsdyke he was re-enforced with somewhat 
more than one hundred men, accompanied by their minister, 
the Rev. Mr. Turner. These Remained under the orders of 

• Rae'ft History of the RebellioD, pp. S26, 8S7. 


his grace for eighty days, doing duty all that that the i 
the regular troops. Besides the above that were dras emr 
ployed abroad, there were fiffy men belonging to Greenock^ 
and twenty-five to Cartsdyke, who kept watch every night, 
bringing all the boats over to the south ride of Clyde, to pre* 
vent the rebels, especially Rob Roy and his thieves, from train 
sporting themselves across, and plundmng the adjacent country. 
His grace wrote also from fidinburgh to the magiitrales 
of Dumfries, and to Mr. Ferguson of Craigdarroeh, whose 
zeal for the protestant interest was universally known, re* 
questing them to forward to the camp at Stirling as many 
men as possibly they could muster. Craigdarroeh lost no 
time in drawing together, in the parishes of Olencairn and 
Tynron, sixty men well accoutred, all willing to go to Stirling^ 
Mr. John Gibson of Auchinchain he prevailed npon to be their 
captain, assigned them their other officers, and provided them 
with a drum and colours. Sr Thomas Kirkpatrlck also pf«>* 
mised to such of them as were his own tenants, to defray their 
charges going and coming, and to allow each individual eight- 
pence per day so long as he attended the camp. This liberal 
encouragement would have induced many more to join Crai^ 
darroch, but from the state of the harvest, which was that year 
remarkably late, they were necessarily prevented. On the 
twenty-third they set forward to Stirling, with Mr. Ferguson 
on their head, accompanied by Thomas Hunter of Batefordf 
Robert Macgachan of Dalquhat, Mr. Simon Riddle, minister 
of Tynron, Mr. John Pollock, minister of Glencaim, Mr.- 
James Hunter, minister of Domock, and several others. 
Craigdarroeh shortly after was sent back by the duke (^ 
Argyle to manage matters in his own neighbourhood, where 
the disa£Pected were in considerable numbers, and peculiarly 
active, but the men remained at Stirling for eight weeks doing 
the duty of soldiers the same as the regular troops.* 

The magistrates of Dumfries showed their affection to 
the cause by ordering, at the same time, one hundred men 
to be raised and equipped for the caiilp at Stirling; but they 
were not ready to march with Craigdarroeh, and, by the 

» Rae's Histoiy of the Rebellion, pp. M5— 931. 
I. 2 R 


time they were reiidy, the motioDs of the rebels in their own 
neighbourhood were become so alarming, that they had worlc 
enough without going to Stirling, as we shall see by and by. 

His grace the duke of Douglas had also by this time his 
Jiree hundred men completely equipped, officered, and trained, 
and the first hundred of them marched from Douglas for 
Stirling on the twenty-seventh of September, and reached 
Carluke the same day ; but provisions beginning to be diffi- 
cult to be procured at Stirling, the duke of Argyle sent an 
order for them to quarter somewhere on the north side of 
Clyde, where they might be in readiness when wanted. Their 
march was accordingly stopped, and they were ordered to 
stay at Douglas, and to be acquiring more perfection of dis- 
cipline, till they should be called to the camp. However, his 
grace the duke of Douglas, Douglas of Cavers, Sir James 
Carmichael, Sir James Lockhart of Fallside, the laird of 
Lammington, and several other gentlemen in the upper ward 
of Clydesdale, set out for the camp at Stirling on the twenty- 
ninth of September.* 

This array on the side of the government was of the hap- 
piest consequence, not only as ^t strengthened ahe camp at 
Stirling by additional numbers, but, as it drew a great con- 
course of armed men into Glasgow, or concentrated them 
in its neighbourhood, it prevented the disaffiscted in that 
quarter — and there can be no doubt but even there they were 
in considerable numbers — from moving, for fear of certain 
destruction, before they could assemble as many of their 
friends as might affi)rd them protection.f Nor were the 
friends of the government less vigilant in other quarters* 
Fife had for the most part fallen into the hands of the earl 
of Marr; yet, on the twenty-sixth of September, a party 
going to proclaim the pretender at Kinross were met by the 
earl of Rothes, and a detachment of dragoons, who put them 
to flight, made Sir Thomas Bruce of Kinross, who was upon 
their head, prisoner, and oh the twenty-eighth carried him to 
Stirling castle4 The same day there was seized on board a 

« Rae*t Hbtory of the Rebellion, p. 8S8. 
t Lockhart Papers, vol. i. pp. 491—494. 
i Complete History of the Late Rebellion, p. 38. 


^bip in the Thames bound for Scotland, fbar hondred barrels 
of gunpowder, and forty chests of arms, all intended for the 
use of the Scotisb rebels. The lord Polwartb, who had 
raised in Berwickshire four hundred militia, came at this same 
time with one third of them to be assisting to Argyle, by 
whose desire they were quartered at Linlithgow till there 
should be occasion for them.* 

The earl of Ila, a firm fnend to the protestant succesnon, 
had been all this while exerting his influence at Edinburgh, 
dispersing or apprehending all he could meet with that were 
known to be disaffected to his majesty's person and govern* 
ment, and a little before this had had the good fortune to baffle 
an attempt made by about one hundred armed Jacobites to 
overpower the town guard, and throw the city into confusion, 
by seizing Burnet of Carlops, and some other of the ring- 
leaders at their place of rendezvous, only a few hours before 
their plot was to have been put in execution ; but be. was now 
sent to Argyleshire to assemble the vassals of his brother the 
duke of Argyle, and the other well affected gentlemen in tboee 
parts, for the service of his majesty, and to prevent the rising 
of the rebels in the west Highlands, as well as to secure the 
town of Inveraray. And to encourage the zeal of the nobility 
and gentry, as well as to legalise their measures, the following 
order was issued :— ** John, duke of Argyle, general and 
commander-in*chief of his majesty's forces in North Britain, 
to the lords lieutenants, deputy lieutenants, and, in their 
absence, to the well affected heritors of the western and 
southern shires in Scotland, and in particular to the justices 
of peace, magistrates of burghs, and other officers, civil and 
military : — Whereas, great numbers of well affected noblemen, 
gentlemen, and others, in the southern and western shires of 
Scotland, being in readiness to march to such places as they 
shall be appointed, may be desirous to have a particular order 
to that effect — These are, therefore, in his majesty's name, 
and by his authority, requiring, ordering, and authorizing, 
the lords lieutenants, lieutenants deputies, or, in their absence, 
all well affected heritors, and each of them in the western 

• Rae*! History of the R^ieUioD, p. SSS. 


«nd gotttheni Mve» afiMresaid« to inarch fortbwidi their fea* 
eible men, with their best arms, and what ammunition thej 
have, and with forty days' provision, towards Glai{gow, and 
to quarter there, or in the adjacent towns or villages on the 
north side of the river Clyde, ia order to be ready to asaisi 
in the opposing and eztingoishing the rebellion now raised 
against our laws, our liberties, and the protestant religion; 
given at our camp at Stirling, the second of October, 1715, 

In the meantime, the duke was exerting himself to the at* 
most to augment his army by filling up the companies to fifty 
men each, and adding two new companies to each regiment ; 
but being in want of officers as well as men, few could be 
spared for this service, and the levies went on very slowly^ 
which induced his grace to issue a second order to the noble- 
men and gentlemen, requesting them to be assisting to those 
employed in the levies, and promising that their services in 
that matter should be faithfully reported to his majes^; 
oflering at the same time forty shillings sterling to every 
private entering his majesty's service, with a promise of being 
discharged upon two months' notice to his officer, and to have 
a pass to return to his place of abode within six months after 
Ae suppression of the rebellion, without being obliged to 
serve abroad, or against any foreign power. Liberal, how- 
ever, as this o£Per, on the part of his grace, certainly wa% it 
does not appear to have attracted much notice, or to have 
added in any material degree to the augmentation of his 
army.f He however, reported fiiithfully to his majesty the 
state of the country, and solicited supplies suitable to the oc- 
casion ; but die ministry were inflexible in their determination 
not to spare a man out of England. All he could obtain for 
die present, was an order for a regiment of dragoons, and two 
regiments of foot from Ireland, each of which lu^qpily arrived 
in time to join him before the battle of Dumblain.^ 

The earl of Marr, as we have already seen, was now master 
of all the eastern coast of Scotland, firom Bruntisland to the 

* Rae*ft History of the Rebellion, p. 9SS. 

f Patten's History of the Rebellion, p. 174. 

i Campbeirs Life of John Doke of Argyie, p. ISO. 


Moray Friib» an nCent of btttcr than one huodred and sixty 
miles. On the west he possessed the Isle of Skye; the Lewis^ 
and all Ae Hebrides were his own; being, generally speaking, 
the estates of the earl of Seafortb, Sir Donald McDonald, and 
otbers of the clans who were in his interest, so that from the 
mouth of the Lochy to Farohead, all the coast of Locbaber 
and Ross, even to the nortfa*wc8t point of Britain was in his 
possession. In short, he was now possessed of all that part 
of Scotland which lies on the north of the Forth, excepting 
the remote counties of Caithness, Stratbnaver, and Suther- 
land beyond Inverness, and that part of Argyleshire which 
runs north-west into Lorn, and up to Lochaber, where Fort 
AVilliam was still in possession of his majesty's troops.* Re- 
solving to profit of this large extent of territory for raising 
money to subsist his army, he, on the fourth of October^ 
issued an order, ** comnuinding and requiring every heritor, 
feuer, or wadsetter, now attending the king's standard, or 
that may be excused, or their factors or doers, in their 
absence, and likewise all liferenters, immediately to prcpor* 
tion and raise among their tenants and possessors of their 
respective estates and liferent lands, the sum of twenty 
shillings sterling on each hundred pound Scots of valued 
rent. And such heritors as do not immediately, nor shall 
betwixt and the twelfth of October instant, attend the king's 
standard, if not excused by him the said earl, [of Marr] iai- 
mediately to proportion and raise out of their respective 
estates, the sum of forty shillings sterling for every hundred 
pound Scots of valued rent Which several proportions, 
according to their respective cases aforesaid, he ordained to 
be paid in to his collectors by the persons above mention^ by 
the twelfth of the month.**! '^'^ was certainly very bold, and 
showed an astonishing want of good faith, as it was only in the . 
preceding month he had assured his friends and the public, 
in one of his treasonable harangues, that he had been fur- 
nished with money to bear all the charges of the enterprise, 

* Annab of Kiqg Georgt, vol. ii. p. 59. 

t Pttten*f Hiitory of tbe RcbeUioii, pp. ITO, 171. 


for which neither iDdividnals nor the pubUc should be put to 
one farthing of expense. 

When Marr and his faction were thus exercising all the 
prerogatives of power, and treating their own countrymen 
with such rigour as is but seldom exerted towards a con- 
quered people, it was not to be expected but that presby* 
terians would be subjected to particular hardships. Their 
clergy especially, who had, generally speaking, displayed the 
most exemplary spirit of loyalty and affection to the govern- 
ment, were every where the objects of malice, and subjected 
to lawless abuse. Their houses were plundered, they were 
taken into custody as traitors, and one and all forbidden 
either to preach or pray against the pretended king James. 
Many were under the necessity of deserting their charges 
and seeking safety in flight, while such of their goods as 
they could not carry along with them fell a prey to their 
merciless enemies. The ministers, indeed, were so &r from 
being intimidated, or awed into submission, that they 
warned their people, both publicly and privately, against 
the sin and danger of giving to the insurgents any coun- 
tenance. The synod of Glasgow and Ayr, being met in the 
beginning of October, emitted a most earnest and season- 
able admonition to persons of all ranks in the several congre- 
gations under their inspection, to beware of the madness of 
rebellion, and to quit themselves like men, for their king, for 
their people, and for the house of their God. The synods of 
Perth and Stirling, Merse and Teviotdale, Lothian and 
Tweedale, followed their example; and the synod of Dumfries^ 
prevented by the rising of the rebels from preparing one of 
their own, contented themselves with reprinting that given 
forth by the synod of Glasgow and Ayr.* 

It would not be easy to conceive of a situation more miser- 
able than that of the counties which had fallen under the 
military misrule of the earl of Marr. No sooner had he 
imposed his cess, to be levied under the pain of military ex- 
ecution, than the duke of Argyle published an edict declaring, 

* Rao's History oftheRebeUioD,p|K 896, S37. 


^* That the paying of money to the rebels, or complying with 
any of their orders or demands, will infer high treason against 
such as do the same, as being aiders, comforters, and abettors 
of the rebels ; and discharging all his majesty's good subjects 
within Scotland to give, or furnish the rebels with money, 
provisions, or any other aid or assistance whatsoever, directly 
or indirectly, under the highest pains and punishments of the 
law/'* This order or edict he appointed to be intimated at 
every parish church door after divine service, and before the 
dissolution of the congregation, the first sabbath after it came 
to hand. This was immediately followed by a counter edict 
by the earl of Marr, *' prohibiting any person from enlisting 
in the duke's service, under the pain of high treason, &c., or 
any magistrate, justice of the peace, minister of the gospel, or 
any other person, from publishing or executing any orders 
issued by his grace, under the same pains*! 

• Patten'e History of the RebeUion, p. 171. 
f Life of John, duke of Argyll p. 173. 



Book IV. 

Paris of RAdt ensa the Fortk^Take ptmeatUm of LeUh^'^AtUmpt Edinbimyk & 

vain-^IUtrtat from Leith-^Mareh for England^^ReheUion in £nplami^^Vistomii 
Kenmure eommisiioned by the JSarl of Marr to head the Scatish instartction in the 
South^AttemptM on JDumfHu^'^Lord lAinMt apprdtendid ai X h m f He o The Cheo* 
dUer prodaimed at Lochmaben, ^c. ^c-->Kenmure join* For$ter and tho JBngUak at 
RotKbury-^Mardi back to Scotkmd— Sermon at KeUo-^-Prociamation of the dkevaUer 
at Keho^CouneH of Wat'^Array of the Rthd army^-JIfarth apparently with- 
out knowing to what end-^Are pursned by General Carpenter'^DnmfrieM again 
akamud~~RAeh march for Snyland^-Are deserted by fve hundred Highlanden'— 
Reach Longtown — Brampton — Penrith^The Posse Commitatus — AppUhy-^Kendal 
— Kirby ZonsdaU-^Zancaster^ Colonel Charteri^^JhtmfTie9-^Prtsion~~Se9ieged 
by General WiUs-^Porster surrenders— Preparations that had been made for assist' 
ing the Rdtels in England^Reflections-^JDuke ofArgyle—Earl of Marr^-^DifficsdUes 
attending both^-^Marr breaks up from Perth'— Rattle of Sherrijfinmr^- Operations in 
the Narth^Invemess taken from the Rebels— Arrival of the ChetaUer— Publishes his 
IJedaration-^Receives addresses from the dergy and magistrates of Aberdeen^^Creates 
KnightSf Lords, and Bishops — Makes his entry into Perth'— His bigotry^-^PusiU 
lanimity—Meilaneholy state of his affairs— 'Issues an order for burning ^ country to 
prevent the advance of the hinges troops- General Cadogan is sent to the assistanee 
of the Duke of Argyle—Argyle proceeds towards Perth— The Chevalier retreats^ 
Takes ship at Montrose for France, wi^'his principal officers — The royal army 
proceeds to Inverness— Argyle returns to Rdinburgh— Cadogan proceeds to disarm 
the Highlanders— Ihe rebellion is extinguished 

In the midst of this war of manifestoes, which could be little 
profitable to either party, the army of Marr, by the zeal of 
the clans, was increasing to a number truly formidable. On 
the fifth of October, he was joined by the M'Intoshes, under 
the command of brigadier Mcintosh, the laird of Borlam, to 
the number of five hundred, the very best appointed of any 
in the rebel army. Borlam too, who commanded them, had 
served in the army abroad, and had the reputation of a 
bold and experienced officer. On the sixth, he was joined 
by the marquis of Huntly, with five hundred horse, and 
two thousand foot, and on the seventh, by the earl Marischal, 

HinoRT OP 8GaniJiHi& 89] 

wiih three himdred horse, and five hundred foot General 
Gordon, rqmted to be an excellent officer, was also at no 
great distance, beating up for followers in the county of 
Argyle^ with one hundred horse, and four thousand foot, 
whence he threatened to pour down upon Dumbarton and 
GUagow, which obliged the duke of Argyle to cause the 
three regiments he received from Ireland, to halt at the latter 
city, till it was seen which way Gordon should direct his 
march, which he did very soon into Marr*s camp at PtrHu 
Seaforth was yet a little behind, being incommoded in his 
manceavres, by the earl of Sutherland; but he was on his way 
with eig^t hundred horse, and three thousand foot. With 
this aecnmulation of force, had there been among the lebeb^ 
sny thing like military skQl or experience, there could have 
been no diffienlty in forcing the passage of the Forth; bat 
Marr had no experience in war, and Argyk, though his 
taluts in that way, did not rise above mediocrity, had acquired 
so much reputation under the duke of Marlborough, as in the 
present instance, evidently supplied the place of half an army. 
Harr was well aware, that he had numerous coadjutors in the 
south, with whom, it was one of his great objects to get into 
contact ; but the friends of the government had exerted them-« 
selves with so much diligence, that he was in compkle 
ignorance of the movements of these his friends, and in place 
of pushing boldly forward to join them with his whole force, 
iell upon the feeble expedient of bringing them forward, by 
sending to their aid, a detachment from his army, across the 
Forth below Edinburgh.* 

For this expedidcm six rqpments were selected, M^Intoab's^ 
Marr's, Strathmore's, Nairn's, Drummond's, and lord Cibarles 
Munra/s, amounting in all, to two thousand five hundred of the 
best troops in the army. The command was intrusted to Bor- 
lam, and they were covered on their march to the sea coast by 
some troops of horsey commanded fay 8bt John Enjune of Alva, 
the master of Sinclair, aad Sir JaaMs Sharp, a grandson ef the 
famous l^arp, archbishop of St. Andrews, who was put to death 

* Patten't History'of the RebelliOD, pp. 8, 9, &c Campbell's Life of John 
Duke of Argyle^ p. IS5. 

I. 2 8 


by a party of covenanters, at Magus Moor, in the year 1679* 
On their arrival on the coast, every boat along the shore was 
put in requisition, but the ships of war in the Frith, having been 
apprized of the design by the duke of Argyle, who had in vain 
given orders for all the boats on the coast of Fife to be brought 
away or destroyed, weighed their anchors and prepared to in- 
tercept them. A great deal of marching and countermarching 
was practised through the day on the part of the rebels, and a 
party sent by Marr for the purpose, openly embarking at Brunt- 
island with the avowed purpose of crossing over to the soathem 
shore, drew the whole naval force to that point, when the High- 
landers immediately relanded, apparently in great trepidation, 
and threw up, in a hurried manner, some batteries, whence 
they commenced firing upon the ships. The ships were not 
slack in returning the fire, though the efi*ects were of little oon- 
sequence. The manceuvre on the part of the rebels^ however, 
was completely successful ; while the ships were thus engaged, 
Borlam came down to the shore, and during the night embark- 
ed at Ely, Pittenweem, CraiU &c. and before the ships perceived 
their mistake, the main body had reached the middle of the 
channel. From the state of the tide^ and the dead calm that 
prevailed, it was impossible for the ships to give chase. They 
manned all their boats, however, and rowing after them, cap- 
tured one boat with forty men, whom they carried prisoners to 
Leith. Some they forced back to the coast of Fife — among 
whom was lord Strathmbre, and his lieutenant colonel, 
Walkinshaw of Barrowfield — others they forced to take shelter 
in the Isle of May, who^ after waiting till next tide^ were glad 
to get back to the Fife side of the water. Of the whole de- 
tachment, which consisted of two thousand five hundred men, 
about one thousand six hundred landed between Tantallon, 
, North Berwick, and Aberlady, and the first night were quartered 
at Haddington.* 

The main purpose to be served by this daring attempt, was 
to aid the rebels of Northumberland, and to animate such as 
bad promised to join them out of the southern counties of 
Scotland; but next morning, October the thirteenth, they pro- 

• Patten's Histoid of the RebeUion, p. II. 


ceeded directly towards Edinburgb, which was, by this move- 
ment, thrown into the utmost consternation. Numbers in tl)e 
place, it was well known, waited only for an opportunity to 
declare openly for the rebels; and^ if the earl of Marr made a 
motion to iaoe the duke <^ Argyle, it did not appear possible 
to save the dty by any force the constituted authorities could at 
present command. That the brigadier was secretly invited to 
visit the city is extremely probable, and he, no doubt, expected 
with the aid of the mob, to make himself master of it The 
good conduct of the magistrates, and the unanimity of the 
better class of citizens, however, disappointed his hopes, and 
prevented any fatal consequences, though the papic was very 
g^ieral and very great. An express was sent off instaQtIy to 
Stirling, to request regular troops for the defence of the city, 
and two hundred foot, mounted upon country horses, and three 
hundred cavalry, arrived at the West Port, by ten o'clock the 
same evening. Borlam and his little army, when they arrived, 
at Jock's Lodge, finding none of the citizens of Edinbuxgh c<MBe 
out to meet them as they had expected, learning also^ that all 
the authorities were active in their stations, and every disposition 
made for defence^ resolved to march upon Leith, whicli they 
entered without opposition. Had their temerity carried them 
to Edinburgh, it is not at all unlikely they had met with the 
same success. Their conscious inability to seize upon the 
castle, and the dread of Argyle, who, they knew was alipiost 
hourly expected, probably prevented them from attempting 
this nobler achievement, which would have reflected fiur h^her 
honour upon their reckless daring, and rewarded it with a 
richer spoiL / 

On entering Leith, their first business was to liberate thdr 
forty companions who had been captured in crossing the Firth. 
They next seized upon the custom-house, where they found 
(a most acceptable booty) a considerable quantity of brandy, 
meal, beef, and other provisions They then took possession 
of the citadel, an old fortress raised for the protection of the 
port in the time of Oliver Cromwell, and going on board the 
ships in the harbour, they seized upon several pieces of cannon, 
widi a quantity of powder and baU. The cannon they placed 
upon the ramparts, and all the more accessible places, they 


buTicadoed with such tnateriak «s came to hand* in the best 
m&nner they could.* 

On Saturday the fifteendi, the duke of Argylc, accompanied 
by generals Evans and Wightman, marched against them with 
his Aree hundred cavabry, two hundred infantry^ and about ax 
hundred militia, and summoned than to sanender upon pain 
^ high treaaon, dackring, that if they compelled him to force 
them, they should have ao ^juarter. He was answered by the 
laird of KinaiAdn, with chanaeteriBtic pride and baibarity* 
^ That as to surrendering, they did not understand the word; 
quarter they woidd neither take nor give; and he might force 
them if he could." Sensible that diey could not be attacked 
with any prospect of success without artillery, the duke with- 
drew to prepare the means of more e£Eiciait warfare; and 
Mcintosh seeing no probability of being $bie to possess himself 
of Edinburgh, only six or seven of the inhabitants having 
jamed him, notwithstanding the prosperous aUte of his affiurs, 
and these seven having made him acquai nt ed with the real 
atate of the city as being perfectly quiet, and every thii^ dia- 
posed for a regular defence; and also, that the duke of Aigyk 
was preparing to fall upon him that very nighi^ or, at &rthest^ 
next morning, he resdved to profit by the darkness of the 
commg night and be gone. As a pwparatory measure, he 
despatched a boat for the coast of Fife, with special infonna> 
tion for the earl of Marr, detailiqg his progress and requesting 
fiirther orders* This boat was no sooner despatched than they 
began to fice after her, which decdved the enemy's ships of 
war, and she was allowed quietly to proceed with her pc^ra, 
to which, she brought back an answer to Seaton bouse on the 
IViesday foUowhig.t 

Eivery ditng having been prepared with the greatest caution 
(and secrecy, taking advantage of the ebb tide, about nine o'clock 
«t night, tiiey commenced their retreat l^ the sands, round 
the head of the pier for Seaton house, b^onging to the earl 
of Wintob, about nine miles to the east of Edinbuigh. They 
left behind them about forty men, who had made too free with 

• Rae^i Histoiy of the RebellioDy p. tsi . 

t Ptttsn't HiMcvy ef the Rebelliqa, pp. 14, 16. 


the custom-house brandyr & fi^w stragglers who had lagged on 
die march, some baggage and ammunition, which fell into the 
hands ofa d^achment under the command of colonel Deboorgay. 
Nothing particular occurred in their progress till they reached 
Mnaaelbiirghy where some people from that town fired upon 
their front, but without doing them any damage, farther than 
throwing them into great confusion, in eonsequenoe of which, 
they resolved to take every man th^ should afterwards meet on 
horseback as an en^ny ; which resolution proved fatal to one 
of Aeir best fiiends, Alexander Maloch of Mutree* Shields, who 
being on his way to meet them, was accosted by a Highlander 
in natire Gaelic^ of which he knew not a syllable, and, of course, 
returning no answer, he was shot dead upon the spot« The 
noble old brigadier, however, took what money he had about 
him, sixty guineas, and left him, for he had not time to bury 
him* Scarcely had they got a mile beyond Musselburghi when 
they were again alarmed with the noise of musquetiy upon 
dieir front, and, again taking a party of their own men for 
enemies, the foremost of the body fired upon them, and killed 
a sergeant and a private belonging to Marr's own r^im^it 
These false alarms and mistake^ oo fiital to their fiiends, were 
occ&ftoned by the darkness of the night, which efleetually pre- 
vented them from being either seen or pursued, and diey 
reached Seaton house, vrithout any more material cireomstanoes 
intervening, about two o'clock in dte morning.*- Here they 
were joined by several of their companions, who, crossing the 
Frith fitrdier to the east, had been unable to come up with 
them on the march to Leitli, and by them, were informed of 
Strathmore and other gentlemen being forced ashore on the 
Island of May, and compelled to return to the earl of Marr. 

Aigyle, being early next morning apprised of the retreat of 
the rebels from Leith, and their having occupied Seaton house, 
sent an express to Stirling for four gunners, two bombardiers, 
tmd some cannon and mortars to dislodge them ; but the earl 
of Marr, aware of their critical situation, in order to make a 
diversion in thdr &vour, gave out that he would immediately 
cross the Forth at Stirling; and, apparently for that purpose, 

* Patten's History of the RebelHoo, p. 16. 


had actually b^uu his march in three divisions, which com- 
pelled his grace to return to Stirling with all possible despatch, 
.which Marr was no sooner apprized of, though he had come 
as far as Dunblane, than he marched quietly back to Perth, 
having completely gained his purpose, which was to enable his 
friends to get away from Seaton house without molestation.* 

Upon the return of the duke of Argyle to Stirling, major- 
general Wig^tman, and colonel Kerr, with one hundred cavalry, 
one hundred and fifty infantiy, and the militia and volunteen 
were left to take care of the city of Edinburgh, and to carry on 
the siege of Seaton house. When these gentlemen, however, 
reconnoitred the place, they found all the avenues intrenched, 
and the gates so strongly fortified, that it was impossible to 
make any impression upon them without artillery, which they 
could not at the present command, and so retired without ex- 
posing themselves to the danger and the disgrace of making a 
fruitless attempt to dislodge them. Here, indeed, the High- 
landers finding themselves secure from any sudden surprise 
lived for some days most riotously, pursuing their favourite 
amusement, lifting cattle, and sheep, meal, &c. which they found 
in greater plenty, and attended with less toil than at the feet 
of their native mountains. Highly pleased with the situation, 
they proposed to establish there a general magazine, and to 
raise an army from among their friends in Edinburgh and the 
adjacent country. Receiving orders, however, on the eighteenth 
from the earl of Marr, by the return of the boat which they 
despatched from the citadel of Leith, and, at the same time, 
an express from Forster, who headed an insurrection on behalf 
of the pretender, in Northumberland, with an account of the 
rising in the south of Scotland, under the lord viscount Ken* 
mure, and particularly requesting their co-operation on the 
border, they set out for Kelso the following day, Wednesday 
the nineteenth, and reached Longformacus that night, a distance 
of seventeen Scotish miles.t On this day's march they passed 
Hermiston house, the residence of doctor Sinclair, who bad 
been concerned in an affiray witli Mr. Hepburn of Keith, in 

* Rae's History of the Rebellion, p. 265. 
t Paten's History of the RebellioD, p. 80. 


which a son of Keith's was kiUed, the first who was killed in 
this rebellion, in revenge for which, the brigadier gave orders 
to bum and plunder it The major of his own regiment, 
however^ Miller of Mngdrum, and Mr. Menzies of Woodend, 
dissuaded him from raising fire so soon, and die burning was 
prevented, but every thing valuable belonging to the house was 
carried off.* 

General Wightman having notice of the retreat from Seaton 
house, set out with eigh^ dragoons, fifty militia, and some 
volunteers to harass their rear, but returned in the evening, 
having only taken up a few stragglers and deserters. The fifty 
foot men who accompanied him, he stationed on his return in 
Seaton house, and recovered a great deal of the spoil, which 
the Highlanders, unable to carry off, had left there behind them. 
Beside the stragglers that fell into the bands of general Wight- 
man, a number of the Highlanders deserted on this da/s 
march, and wandering over the country, were secured by the 
inhabitants, and sent in to Edinburgh and Glasgow, where they 
remained prisoners till the rebellion was over. 

Sir William Bennet of Grubbet, Mr. Cranston, brother to lord 
Cranston, Mr. Kerr of Cavers, and several other loyal gentle- 
men, who had returned firom Stirling to take charge of their 
respective districts on die rising of the rebels in the south, and 
had posted themselves at Kelso, hearing of the approach of the 
Highlanders, and conscious that they were not competent to the 
defence of the place against so great a force, abandoned it on 
Thursday, the twentieth, the greater part of them going to 
Edinburgh, and carrying their arms along with them. The 
brigadier entered Dunse the same day, where he proclaimed 
the pretender James VIII. ; and, after having collected all the 
public revenue, set out for Kelso on the Saturday, where he 
arrived the same night. The rebels of Northumberland and 
Nithsdale, having entered that place in the forenoon, the Niths« 
dale horse, as a compliment to the brigadier and his troops, 
met them at the bridge of Ednam, and conducted them tri- 
umphantly into the town.f 

* Rae^s History of the Rebellion, p. 266. 
t Pktten's History of the Rebellion, p. si. 


Having ibus bio«gbt together the friends of the dievalfter» 
from the north and from the south, it may be proper to glance at 
the previous proceedings of the hitter, while their united wisdom 
is at work conoocting the scheme of their fiitore operations. 

Notwithstanding that Scotland was the scene of the Hioat ac- 
tive exertion on behalf of the pretender, and the place where 
the rebellion was finally put down, we have already seen that 
it was not by any means the alone scene oi discontent and dis- 
affection. Though it was in the wilds of Braemar, and among 
the mountains of Northumberland, that the standard of the 
chevalier was first flung upon the winds, it was in London that 
the plot was laid — ^in London that its principal and most dan- 
gerous abettors were to be found — in London where ita most 
powerfiil support was looked for — and it was in London where 
it was hoped it w^ould successfully terminate. All those dis- 
graceful and mischievous mobs which we have already taken 
notice of^ with others that are yet to be narrated, had their 
origin in London, There all those calmnnies and misrepre- 
sentations were forged, and by proper agents carried over the 
country with multiplied aggravations, that kept the fears and 
the enmities of the ignorant rabble in perpetual activity* There, 
when it was concluded that nothing less could accomplish their 
purpose, the plans of rebellion were prepared; and thence they 
were dispersed over the nation by Irish papists, who, under the 
pretence of viewii^ the oonntry, travelled about with their ser^ 
vauts in the character of independent gentlemen. * 

The principal of these incendiaries wtxe ool<»el Oxburgh, 
Nicholas Wogan, Charles Wogan, and a Mr. James Talbot, all 
Irish, and papists, with whom were joined Mr. Clifton, brother to 
Sir Gervase Clifton, and Mr. Beaumont, both gentlemen be* 
longing to Nottinghamshire, and Mr. Buxton* a clergyman of 
Derbyshire. All these» habited and attended like gentlemen, 
were in perpetual motions firom the beginning of Augnst, till 
near the end of September, when warrants were issued for 
apprehending the lord Derwentwater, the lord Widdringtoo, 
the lord Dunbar, Sir Marmaduke Constable^ Sir Williaia 
Blackett, Mr. Forster, and others, who were the leading men 

* Patten's History of the RebeUloo, p|>. 93, 86. 


in the north of England, and deeply dipped in treason. Coo* 
seionB of their guilti and afraid that it would be impofigible to 
elude the Tigiiaiiee of the messengers sent in quest <^ then^ 
these gentlemen determined Aat now was the time to show 
thdr loyal^ to him whom they called their lawful king, Jamei^ 
and that it was mudi better to take arms and run all hazards, 
father than Aat ck being seised, carried off to London, sub- 
jected to a hmg imprisonment, a rigorous examination, and 
perhaps, brought inadvertently u> betray one another. 

In consequence of this determinatioi^ notice was sent to aU 
their friends that were within reach, to meet in arms, October 
the sixth, at a place called Greenrig, in Northumberland, which 
was done aooordingly, Mr. Thomas Forster, younger of Ether- 
ston, member of parliamoit for the county, being first upon 
the ground with about twenty followers. They made no stay 
at Cbeeniig, thinking it inconvenient, but proceeded imme- 
diately to the top of a hill, called the Waterfalls, whence 
they could descry at a considerable distance, any that might 
appear, either to join or to appoee them. They had scarcely 
ascended the hill, when they perceived the earl of Derwent^ 
water, who had come that morning from his own house at 
Dikton, ** with some friends, and aU his servants well mounted, 
aoBue upon coadi, and others upon good country horses." He 
had odled, as he came olonj^ at the seat of Mr. Errington, 
v^ere several gentlemen had appointed to meet him, which 
they did accordingly, and all went on together. They were 
now six^ in number, mostly gentlemei^ and it was agreed that 
they should march to the river Coquett, to a place called Plain- 
field. Here they received a considerable accession of numbers, 
after which they proceeded to Rothbury, a small market town, 
where they took up their quarters for the night Next morning, 
October the seventh, their number still increasing, they went 
on to Warkworth, a market town upon the sea coast, where, 
next day, Saturday the eighth, they were jomed by lord Wid- 
drington, with about thirty horse. 

On Sabbath, Mr. Forster, who had now taken the title of 
general, sent Mr. Buxton, the Derbyshire clergyman, who 
had been one of the emissaries of the faction for bringing 
the rebels together and now acted as their chaplain, to the 

I. 2t 

330 H iSTony of Scotland. 

clergyman of the place» Mr. Ion, with orders to omit in hit 
prayers the usual names of ** king George, the prince, and 
princess,*' and to substitute ** the chevalier, James VIII., 
Mary, the queen mother, and all the dutiful branches of the 
royal family." Mr. Ion declining the honour intended for 
him, Mr. Buxton took possession of his pulpit, read the 
prayers according to his own mind, and preached to the no 
small encouragement of his hearers; ** his sermon," says 
Patten, who was doubtless one of his auditors, " being full 
of exhortations, flourishing arguments, and cunning insinua- 
tions to be hearty and zealous in the cause; for he was a man 
of a comely personage, and could humour his discourse to 
induce his hearers to believe what he preached, having very 
good natural parts, and being pretty well read."* Mr. loo^ 
the regular clergyman of the place, in the meantime fled to 
Newcastle, where he gave information to the government of 
all that had taken place. 

Monday, the tenth, they marched to Morpeth, and were 
joined, as they passed Felton bridge, by upwards of seventy 
Scotish horse; they had also before, been considerably in- 
creased at diilerent places, so that when they entered Morpeth 
they were ** three hundred strong, all cavalry, for they would 
receive ho foot, else their numbers would have been very 
great."f Before leaving Warkworth, Forster, in disguise^ 
proclaimed the pretender king of these realms, by the name 
of James III., with all the formalities that place and circum- 
stance would admit. The same thing was done at Morpeth, 
on the fifteenth, by Mr. Buxton, who acted as herald on the 
occasion, with the additional circumstance of inviting all 
sorts of persons, presbyterians excepted, to enter into his 
service with the promise of twelvepence per day.J 

Forster, upon taking up arms, had engaged Lancelot 
Errington, the master of a vessel at Newcastle, to surprise 
the small garrison upon the Holy Isle, which he designed to 
hold as a place for making signals to the friends of the cause 
from abroad, who were expected to be upon the coast im- 

• Patten's History of the Rebellion, p. 1?. f Ibid. p. 50. 

t Bennet's Memorial, p. 408. 


-mediately, briDgbgalong^with them arms, officers, aad.aiiH 
munition. Here he learned that Errington bad actually 
succeeded in Us enterprise; but. it was to no purpose, for 
the governor of Berwick having an immediate account of the 
ciFCumstaace^ despatched a part of his garrison, who, crossing 
the sands at low water, retook the castle, taking prisoner 
Errington himself and several others, whom diey carried to 
-Berwick; whence, not long after, they made their escape.^ 
Forster and his friends, unacquainted with Errington's re- 
verse, were in high spirits, and promised themselves . great 
things at Newcastle, whieh they now expected would open her 
gates to receive them. Meeting with no invitation, however, 
from their party there, the whole body turned a little to the 
westward and majrched to Hexham, where they hoped to. have 
a. demonstration made in their favour by their friends in New* 
castle* . Here they were joined by some. more, troopers from 
Scotland^ and marched to a muir adjoining to Dilston, th« 
aeat of lord Derwentwater, where they again halted, having 
still an eye upon Newcastle. 

. The magistrates of that town having intelligence of their 
6eaigt^ took such measures as effectually prevented them* 
They began by imprisoning all papists and suspected persons, 
and arming and encouraging the loyal inhabitants, for their 
own defimce; they also built up all the gates with stone 
and lime, exceptmg the bridge, and Brampton gate, in each 
of which they planted two pieces, of cannon. . Other pieces, 
they placed in .convenient places, and the militia having 
mustered, not far from the town, they got them in for theit 
better defence* At the. same time lord Scarborough,, lord 
lieutenant i of Northumberland, came in to aid and oversee 
their preparations, and the loyal gentlemen of these. parts, 
emulating his example, mounted their tenants and neighbours 
on horseback, and repaired to his assistance, so that, in a 
short time, the town was full of horse and foot Hotbam's 
regiment of foot coming up on the ninth, and lord Cobbam's 
dragoons on the twelfth, Forster abandoned his design, re- 
turmd to Hexham, where he seized all the horses, arms^ and 

* Bennet's Memorial, p. 409. 

ass HI8n>liY OF SCXyXLAHD. 

ammwittion he coaU find» and tbeDoe be despaccbed a i 
senger to the evl of Marr for assistance.* 

Bot this insarrectiiNi had yet another fwntsin head, to 
which, it wili be necesssrj also to attend. The visoonnt of 
Kennure, having received a coonuBsion from the eail of Manr 
to manhal the friends of the pretender in the sonthera 
counties of Scotland, several of the disaflRsctod nobiii^ and 
gentry wers drawn together upon the borders, and be^n to 
assemble in large parties at the houses of their friends^ about 
the same tine that the rising look place in Northamberland. 
These parties, in prosecution of their designs, kept moving 
about firom place to place with great secrecy and ctrcnmepec- 
tiob. Their motioos, howsver^ excited sa9pidm^ and cm 
Sttturday, October the eighth, when the people of Damfijes 
were assembled in the church, it being the preparatbn before 
the sacrsmeat, Mr. Gilchrist, one of the magistrates, received 
a letter advising him of m plot hiid by die Jacobites to surprise 
and take possession of the town next day in time of the saca»- 
menL The magistrates, however, made no further use of this 
fciformatton than to doable their guards, and all things re« 
mained peaceable. On Monday, the tenth, the iahabitaiits of 
the parishes of Tortfaerwald anid Tinwald, having farAer in- 
tettigence of the enemy's design, pat themselves in arms, and 
marched to Locherbridge Hill, whence they sent an express 
to Dumfries to acquaint the magistrates and Mr. Robison, 
th^ miniver of TiarwaU, who was there at the time, with an 
nSer of tbeir services to the town that night. This oftr was 
declined, but they were requested to fadd iherasdm» in readi- 
aess whenever they should be called. Next day, a letter ar- 
rived from the lord justice clerk, which left no loi^^ any 
room for doubt upon the subject, it wm dated at Edinburgh, 
October the eighth, 1715, wad of the following tenor: — ** Sir, 
having good information that there is a design fraraied of rising 
in rebellion in the southern parts against his majesty and tbe 
govermnent, I send this express to advise you thereof that 
you may be on your guard, for by what I can rely upon, their 
irtft attempt is to be suddenly upon your town. I heaitily 

« Rae'« History of the ReMHen, p. 94S. 

HfflMIlT Ot SCatl^AHll. AM 

wish joa may escape tbeir iBtended ymU and 01% &c. &c^ 
Adam Cockbarn.*'* 

A consaltatien wtm ioinediately beM bjr the magistrates 
and principal inhabitants on what was firapear to be done; 
and die most prompt and vigorous measures were adopted for 
the safety of a place of so raoch importance to the govern* 
ment, as well as to the sarroonding country. There beii^ 
tlrat day, a rendesyous at T^eathsmnir of the fimcible men of 
Kirkcudbright, ft was resoived that a deputation should be 
sent to then requesting them to come into the town without 
loss of time. This deputation came too late to obtain the 
olgect in view, many of the men having gone off the ground 
before their arrival ; but expresses were sent after them to all 
quarters, jand the synod of Dumfries being met that day, the 
mimsters behnigiiig to the neighbourhood went out after ser- 
men, and returned that same n^ht wkh xuunbers of their 
perishioners in arms. Expresses were also sent to the loyal 
gentlemen in the neighbourhood, and the town was next day 
provided with a considerable body of armed men, all volunteer^ 
from the sevecal parishes of Nithsdale and Galloway, and 
aaany omre were willii^ to oome^ had they only been provided 
with arms. The best spirit was indeed, every where apparent; 
tiie provost of Kirkcudbright set out from that place, with a 
compaay of foot, on the twelfth, in the morning, and arrived 
sit Dumfries the same night, and even those who lived in the 
snost remote parts of the country, and were latest in hearing 
the slarm, were ia Dumfries within two days. 

Thb rapid assembling of troops for the defence of DumfrieS| 
was the 'more remarkable, that the Jacobites had sent their 
secret emissaries through the country iu all directions, statin^^ 
in name of the public authorities, that there was to be no 
lendezvoos of the men in arms, till the thirteenth. Oo the 
twelfth, the rebels intended to have been masters of the town, 
and so to have rendered the rendezvous of the loyal ioha» 
Intents en the following day unavailing.f In pursuance of 
this plan^ the lords Kenmnre and Carnwatb, on the night of 
Tuesday the eleventh, being informed of some arms that were 

• Rae*! History of the BebeUioB» p. S47. f Ibid.p.949. 


lodged in Brade chapel, for the use of the servants ^f Sir 
William Johnston of WesterhalJ, broke into the chapel next 
day, seized the arms, which' they distributed among tJheir fol- 
lowers, and marched off to Moflfkt, in order to join the earl 
of W